Buddhism in Kosambi and the Concept of Agati in Buddhist Perspective


Background and Significance of the Problems

‘History cannot give us a program for the future, but it can give us a fuller understanding of ourselves, and of our common humanity, so that we can better face the future.

According to the saying of Robert Penn Warren, it cannot be deniable that studying history of country or religion can make people understand the good and bad beneficiaries of history concerned and they are managed to construct their lives better for their future.

The topic I have chosen for my M.Phil degree is focus on the historical research concerning with Kosambi city in India, one of the most famous historical evidences on Theravada Buddhism.

It is also defined by scholars that history is one kind of written texts in order that people can always understand outstanding cases among the daily lives or literatures written in verses and paraphrases regarding stupas, bridges, persons and peculiar stuffs, etc. It is natural that human beings are interested in past, present and future events.

They are willing to explorer everything as well. In this way, they want to leave the serious records of their experiences to next generations for lessons. These records are called history. Not with standing that the records are found in different way depending on record writers, the purpose is correspondingly to know and practice. My research is actually a collection of religious conditions in Kosambi. It is really interesting to say that Kosambi is one of the famous and flourished cities for Buddha Sasana during the time of the Buddha.

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And there occurred outstanding events regarding religious affairs.

Most of scholars think that studying history of social, political and religion is important because it allows people to understand the past, which in turn allows to understand the present. If people want to know how and why their world is the way it is today, they have to look to history for answers. People often say that “history repeats itself,” but if they study this successes and failures of the past, they may, ideally, be able to learn from their mistakes and avoid repeating them in the future. Again, studying history can provide people with insight into their cultures of origin as well as cultures with which they might be less familiar, thereby increasing cross-cultural awareness and understanding. In spite of the fact that there are some historical books which describe the information about India, it is rarely seen a particular approach the conditions of the respective places of Buddha’s time.

Objectives of the Research

It is undeniable that to study history is nothing but to study the fundamental religious condition in Theravada Buddhism. This trend could be seen in Theravada countries on account of the influence that Theravada Buddhism exercised on the life of the Buddhist people in the past or in the present. The objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To know the role of the Kosambi in the history of Buddhism.
  2. To emphasize the role of Buddha’s teachings in the history of Buddhism and their contribution to education and moral values of society.
  3. To analyze the social context in which Theravada Buddhism begins popular and influenced in Kosambi.
  4. To highpoint how Theravada Buddhism influenced the life of Buddhist people in their daily life in social, education, administration, economics, culture, architecture, literature, and politic.

Statement of the Problems Desired to Know

All of us are surrounded by history, whether we study it or not. History lives in our social traditions, our holidays and ceremonies, our education, our religious beliefs and practices, our political and legal systems, even in our popular culture. One does not need to be a qualified or practising historian to think, talk or write about the past. Anyone can have an interest in history; anyone can read, study or discuss it. The Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, once wrote of history: “no other discipline has its portals so wide open to the general public”. This is certainly true. Discussing the past and theorizing about its meaning have never been confined or restricted to classrooms, lecture theatres or archive rooms. History is open to all who take an interest in it, regardless of their experience or credentials.

The social problems such as conflict, revenge, terrorism, and their basis related to mental, physical and environmental aspects should be investigated in order to emphasize the need of a universal ethical system. This thesis is an attempt to collect and appraise the relevant material found in the Pāli canon, generally regarded as the Buddha’s sacred word. There are some who believe that Buddhism is so lofty and sublime a system that it cannot be practiced by ordinary men and women in this our commonplace world. They also maintain that one has to retire from a day-to-day work and adopt the life of a monk in a monastery or to some quiet place to live the life of an ascetic, if one desires to be a true Buddhist.

The basis methodology of the research is to find relevant data from the Buddhist scriptures and study them comparatively in order to achieve the main objective of this study. My research project would present how a small city in India became very well known in history of Buddhism.

Review of Related Literature and Research Works

Kosambi was evidently a city of great importance at time of the Budddha for we find the statement of veneral Ananda , mentioning it as one of the places suitable for the Buddha Parinbba.[footnoteRef:2] It was also the most important halt for traffic coming to Kosala and Magadha from the south and the west.the city was thirty leagues by river from Benares (modern day Veranasi). We are told that the fish which swallowed Bakkula travelled thirty leagues through the Yamuna, form Kosambi to Banares.()the ususal route from Rajagaha to Kosambi was up the river( this was the route taken by Ananda when he went with five hundred others to inflict the higher punishment on Channa,[footnoteRef:3] (vin.ii 290), though there seems to have been a land route passing through Anupiya and Kosambi to Rajagaha(13) . In the Sutta Nipata[footnoteRef:4](vv.1010-13) the whole route is given from Mahissati to Rajagaha, passing through kosambi, the halting-places mentioned being: Ujjeni,Gonaddha, Vedisa, Vanasavhya, kosambi, Saketa, Sravasthi/savatthi, Setavya, Kapilavasthu/kapilavatthu, Kusinara,Pava, Bhoganagara and Vesali. [2: A. L. Basham (2002). The Wonder That Was India.

 Research Methodology

The basic methodology of the research is to find relevant data from the Buddhist scriptures and study them comparatively in order to achieve the main objective of this study which is mentioned above. This methodology include the following aspects:

  1. Collection of data from the primary sources.
  2. Classification of data according to the research scheme.
  3. Comparative analysis of data in the light of the secondary sources.
  4. Comparing the analysis of data with the information related to practical aspects.

The data to be collected will mainly be the factual information recorded in the Buddhist scriptures in Pali, Atthakatha , Tika and Sanskrit. Photographs of some important Buddhist temples in Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand and India to the expression of Agati will be collected. The factual data will be mainly collected from the following Buddhst scriptures.


It is clear to say that this research includes deta collection, compare, and critical analysis regarding Kosambi and its religious and social conditions when the Buddha arrived there. How Kombi citizens and pious persons there welcome to the Buddha and his disciples will be found as one of the roles of discussion in this research.

Scope of the Research

Even though there are a lot of evidences and references for the fact concerning with Theravada Buddhism in India, it is here limited the field of Buddhism in Kosambi because of the time limit. As time frame is limited, the primary data cannot be going to the field. The analyses are made according to the data collected from secondary data in this study. The key findings and suggestions are forecast viewing these data expressed from ancient to modern days.

Research Hypotheses

The history of Kosambi contributed significantly for unification of Buddhist people and advancement of its civilization. This study suggests that the domination of the Kosmabi period appreciably facilitated by Buddhism, which cemented the relationship between the rulers and ruled at one level and among people at another level. The Kosambi era attempted to create Buddhist society based upon the strict principles of the Theravada Buddhism. This study is also proposing that Buddhism acquired high popularity during the Kosambi period and it extended active patronage to Buddhism and monastic system.

Definition of the Terms Used in the Research

The terms key words and key phrases refer to concepts at the core of one’s study and concepts that must be unambiguous in conducting research with proper care and if the procedures and outcomes are to be properly understood by your reading audience. To illustrate key words of this research are as follows:

Theravada Buddhism- it is believed to be the genuine doctrine of the Lord Buddha who has established the foundation of Theravada in Aparihaniyadesana.

Kosambi – it means the one of the famous cities in India

Agati theory – the term is concerned with the concept of four wrong action of people in their daily life in social, education, administration, economics, culture, architecture, literature, politic

Advantages Expected to Obtain from the Research

It is generally believed that Buddhism influences in the daily lives of Buddhists. This research is written to determine whether this view is correct using Primary and secondary sources in writing this dissertation. By studying this dissertation, it can be obtained the following advantages as follows;

  1. One can realize Buddhism in Kosambi and the concept of Agati .
  2. One can understand four kinds of Agati and concept of them.
  3. One can realize that they take the best instruction in the fields of social, economic, education and cultural etc., giving life and world peace as well as giving the way to live and die as well.
  4. One can receive the knowledge on how Theravada Buddhism influenced the life of Buddhist people in their daily life in social, education, administration, economics, culture, architecture, literature, and politic.

Cite this page

Buddhism in Kosambi and the Concept of Agati in Buddhist Perspective. (2022, May 11). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/buddhism-in-kosambi-and-the-concept-of-agati-in-buddhist-perspective/

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