In 1790, Edward Jenner was the original developer of vaccines. Jenner inoculated an eight-year-old boy, James Phipps, with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from a cowpox lesion. Jenner exposed Phipps with smallpox DNA six weeks later and Phipps did not acquire the disease. In a non-immune, naïve individual, the exposure would cause the smallpox disease. This demonstrated the vaccine concept of providing an individual with exposure to an infectious agent. In 1885, Louis Pasteur developed the rabies vaccine. Pasteur is known for referring to vaccines as suspension of live or inactivated antigens to induce immunity.
This allows lymphocytes to have the memory capacity to target a specific antigen and provide an adequate response. Lymphocytes are capable of distinguishing millions of antigen fragments. They can differentiate between self and foreign antigens.