Rome, the eternal city, Home to great leaders and philosophers. Rome is the cultural center for the west and the religious center for the largest religion.
Rome began 14,000 years ago. It was a mix of different cultures and religions. It was first settled by Etrucanes, then the Latins, Sabines, and finally the greek. Rome wasn’t a city but a collection of villages. Rome was truly created when Romulus ( a man who was raised by wolves, and the first king) had an idea to unite the villages together to form the first city in Italy.
The source explains the story of Romulus and Remus and how they founded Rome. After the formation of Rome, it became the capital of a new monarchy. The reign of this monarchy lasted two and a half centuries initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings. The tradition handed down seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus.
After the fall of the monarchy, Rome became a republic in 509 B.C. In 509 BC, King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was overthrown by the noble men of Rome. The king of Clusium sieged Rome. The city signed a treaty of support with Carthage, the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was consecrated and a new office, called consul, was created. This lack of control over the city led neighboring tribes to siege the city and reduce its power. This is why Rome had to ratify its identity on numerous occasions during the first seventy years of the Republic.
After the formation of the republic, the city of Rome became the capital of the senate and the republic. Unlike the monarchy, the republic had a separation of power, and the “people” had the choice to elect officials to represent them, like the united states. During the republic Rome saw exponential growth in land, wealth, and people; this, in turn, put a strain on the republic and the distribution of wealth. Causing riots among the republic. As Rome grew and grew the republic couldn’t take on such a role, governors were unchecked and power was unbalanced. Rome could not sustain a republic, and one man with a legion of 50000 changed the course of Roman history.
Imperium Romanum, SPQR, The Roman Empire. One of the largest Empire known to man. The dominant force of Europe. The cause of many things we take for granted. The transition between the republic and the empire wasn’t smooth. After the death of Julius Caesar Rome was embroiled in a civil war between governors and military leaders vying for control
After many battles and the capture of Egypt Octavian’s power was then uncontested and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively making him the first emperor.
The first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan (98–117 AD). A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial countries in the East and West. Christians rose to power in the 4th century after the emperor allowed it. After the split, the west began to decline while the east prospered
The most straightforward cause for Western Rome’s collapse is because of the string of military losses sustained against outside barbarians. Rome had tangled with Germanic tribes for centuries, but by the 300s barbarian groups like the Goths had encroached beyond the Empire’s borders, running from the Huns Even as Rome was under attack from outside forces, it was also crumbling from within thanks to a severe financial crisis.