Acid violence is an extreme form of violence and aggression towards people, and in several countries where this happens, it is mainly towards women. The meaning of acid violence is when a person throws a form of acid the most common is sulfuric acid at another person’s body. The attacker usually tries to get the acid in the victim’s face because the acid causes skin to melt, and in sever cases will melt bone. Most attackers are men, and this form of violence is mainly toward women in the attempt to disfigure their body image, it not only affects their body image but also affects their mental state.
A woman who has acid thrown at them makes life extremely more difficult for them, despite the obvious trauma, it makes finding a job and finding a husband difficult if not impossible. These acid attacks are most common in Bangladesh, India, and can be correlated when men feel like they have been humiliated or feel less masculine.
From what Afroza Anwary found in her study is that most of these attacks are to humiliate and to keep women in their “place.” Men that have done such a horrendous act are not always charged, between 998 to 2000 Naripokkho investigated 217 cases and only 18 of them have been under investigation. Naipokko is a nationally, volunteer organization that is working on stopping, trying to halt acid violence against women. A large amount of the volunteers has secondary education and have the means and knowledge to communicate with their own government and international governments.
With having this knowledge, the Naipokko organization helps the victims who participate in their programs and activities to link them with all the injustice that women face worldwide. This organization also helps with the rehabilitation of victims and their families and show that they are not the only people that have this done to them. There are also several international organizations that are in Bangladesh, that help advocate and respond to violence against women. By having international organizations, it helps broadcast to the rest of the world what is behind done to women in India. With the wide spread news, one of the international organizations, the British Council helped advocate that the Bangladesh government has to provide the necessary medical treatment for acid victims and the transportation to the hospital.
There are many different meanings to “hooking up”, the traditional is having casual sexual encounters often caused at social events and that they are often under the influence of alcohol and have been a primary form of intimate heterosexual interaction (Laura Hamilton and Elizabeth A. Armstrong 538). The one that most students agree on is that hooking up can range from kissing to having sex, and this takes place outside of a relationship, it all depends on who is answering the question. When talking about hook ups women are often are less enjoyable and can sometimes led to getting labeled by society and or groups of friends. Bogle describes that women want hook ups to eventually evolve into a relationship, while men prefer to have a hook up that has no strings attached.
This shows that women are often put into a confusing, hurtful, and overall a negative experience. That brings up the sexual double standard: which shows that men are expected to desire and pursue sexual opportunities does not matter the context, women on the other hand are expected to avoid causal sex and are to only have sex when they are in a relationship (Laura Hamilton and Elizabeth A. Armstrong 540). If there is any chance of gender equality, then both men and women should be held to the similar standards. But that’s no the case in today’s society it’s a double standard. The double standard being that men can have sex with many women and it suppose to show that they are more of a man, but if women are to have sex with any guy, she wants she is labeled a ho or a slut. This shows that women are given a labeled while to some men are given a higher social status.
More privileged women had a held themselves to a different standard when it comes to sexuality than those of their peers. They put more effort to improve self-development rather than putting effort in trying to maintain a relationship. Then there are the “invisible rules” about sex and relationships, being that students are expected to postpone marriage and parenthood until after finishing college and getting a stable job.
2.Comparable worth is the idea that men and women should be getting the same pay if they are both preforming the job or task. Human capital theory is the focus on the inequality in the wage gap. This means that Occupational status or reward individuals receive in labor market is the return for what individuals have invested to acquire certain human capital( Afroza Anwary lecture 7).Human capital is the qualities that an induvial has achieved in their life, and this can depend on the demand of the labor market and the supply of a certain kind of workers need in the market at a given time. Then there is the theory of tokenism which is applicable in racial inequality in the wage gap. Tokens are a select handful of women who are given prominent positions in a job and they are often seen and treated as symbols to the social group they belong to. They also have to work in very different conditions compared to other workers in the same job, tokens do not have to do much to be noticed but if they want their achievements to be seen by others, then they have to put in an incurable amount of effort.
What these three theories have in common is that all show that women do not have the same recognition and the same income for preforming a similar job to their male counterpart. In order to be seem by others they must put in more work than others in the same job. There are also differences in the theories as well. Sorensen’s comparable worth theory is about how men and women should be getting equal pay if they have the same job title. While the Human capital theory talks about how people are rewarded based on their personal achievements and that too many women participating in the same occupation can suppress wage because the supply of workers is higher than the demand. Then there is the Tokenism theory, which talks about how in some cases women are often treated as symbols of their social group and are constantly reminder about their outsider status.
One of the primary reasons that there exists a pay gap is there is a difference in the proportion of jobs held by women and men. The difference in pay could be due to the fact that too many women in some occupations suppress wage because of the supply of workers is higher than the demands of the market. I agree to a certain extent with Kanter. The part I agree with is that men should act more polite, and gentle towards women, and doing such acts as opening the door for them. I believe in this, because it has been something that my parents have instilled in me from a young age, and that I should treat people how I would want to be treated. On the other hand, I don’t agree that such behavior subordinates and can limit a woman’s employment opportunities because it supposedly reinforces the notion that women need special protection.
According to Joan Acker an inequality regime is defined as loosely interrelated practices, processes, actions, and meanings that result in and the maintain class, gender and racial inequalities within organizations (393). What the author in article 32 means by Gendered Organizations in New Economy is that women are entering occupations that in previous years have been closed of to them. According to Chrisine Willaims, Chandra Muller, and Krisitine Kilanski, they found that women may be put at a disadvantage when put on male-dominate teams, because women have a hard time when trying to promote their accomplishments and the gaining of credibility amongst their team members and their supervisors. But when they are put on gender balanced teams, they felt that they received greater recognition and respect for their contributions that they had made for their team.
3. The article “Change Among The Gatekeepers” by R.W.Connell talks about the emergence of a worldwide topic of men and gender-equality reform and the processes involving men. Gender inequalities is not just seen in day to day life but is linked in a “multidimensional” structure of relationships between men and women that is operating at all levels of human interactions. Levels being from an economic and job stand point, to relationships and on an emotional level. Only in the last decade and a half, in first world countries has the gender issues of men and boys has emerged. Not saying that it has not been an issue before, a big step forward was after the book called a Book about men was published. This book talked about the “simple” solutions to the problems that were becoming increasingly troubling for our culture. After this there became a movement in the United States the was addressing problems for middle class men, which were; problems in relationships, sexuality, and identity. With this movement starting up it attracted the attention of other first world countries to start addressing issues men and boys are facing. Some of the problems that have been addressed by these other countries are the age of the “new fatherhood”, how boys’ failure in schools, men’s violence against women, and men’s health. From these debates there is a strong correlation between the topics and the increasing growth about men’s gender identities, and how they are constructed by cultural and media images of men. With all of this in order to move towards a society with gender equality, involves an immense change in everyday life, wide spread social support, and the support of men and boys.
With the studies, be done to raise more awareness for men and boys, can ultimately hurt their standpoint at the same time in a sense. Connell says that this approach can acknowledge a wider scope of gender issues, but it runs the risk of weakening the equality rational of the polices. When it talks about how men have a lot to lose from pursing gender equality, it may be true to some degree but that does not mean that it should be stopped. One of the biggest reasons why they say that men have so much to lose is that in the gender labor division receive the bulk of income and occupy the majority of high-level economic jobs. With that men are also the ones who occupy a large majority dangerous jobs, suffer the most industrial injuries, pay most of the taxation and are under heavier social pressure to remain employed (Connell 640). When it comes to power men become the targets of military violence, criminal assaults, and there are many more men that are imprisoned or executed (Connell 640).
This does not mean all men are like this, if anything it’s the complete opposite, and Connell explains this very well. Connell says, “On a global scale, the men who benefit from corporate wealth, physical security, and expensive health care are a very different group from the men who provide, the workforce of developing countries.” Connell means from “grounds of optimism”, is that it is possible for men and boys to change their gender roles. He goes about saying “Changes have occurred in men’s practices, within certain families, where there has been a conscious shift toward more equal sharing of household work and child car.” (642). While, grounds for pessimism is about how some men want things to stay as they are, this can be seen when Connell says “On a world scale, explicit backlash movements are limited importance, but very large numbers of men are nevertheless engaged in preserving gender inequality (645).
Life before the Industrial revolution is very different from life is like in todays society, and it is something we can look back on and somewhat admire to see how far we have come. What I mean by admire is that, the way of life has improved, and there are become more opportunities for people to better themselves, but with this comes negative effects as well, and some of them in turn may cause conflict. Before the revolution women’s labor was in the agricultural field along with men and children. With this way of life people or families in this case did not have to worry about having a distinction between work and family life. Then as the revolution started to go underway waged work started to move out of the house and into factories and other means of an income. The down side to work being moved out of the house is that household labor virtually became invisible. The biggest negative to this is that gender roles became a bigger conflict between men and women because men would usually be the ones that would be getting paid for their work unlike the women at the time.
Connell states that there are several interacting dimensions of gender order. One being a gender division of labor in a global setting, in which poor women and children are providing cheap labor for corporations with major economic powers. An example of this would be the child labor happening in third world countries for big textile companies. The second being the marginalization of women in international politics being that there are more men with high political power than women, and the third is the dominance of Western gender symbolism in the media, being how western societies portray how men and women are supposed to look and behave.
No matter if people want to change in the gender status quo or not it is going to affect people in different way. It is like tell a joke to someone, one person might think it is funny, while another person might take offense even if the point of the joke wasn’t to make someone feel that way. Connell says” that there are two main reasons for change the first being, we cannot live in a society without affecting others and in turn being affected by them, the second is we can not escape broad social changes in gender relations” (Connell 587). The reason why people should start to depart from the standard package is so that it brings awareness of who we are and what are responsibilities are to one another.