Autism is a developmental upset which is characterized by impaired societal interaction, troubles in communicating, insistent behavior and a opposition to alter in modus operandis. Autism is known as a wide-spectrum upset. This means that the symptoms and behavior of no two persons with autism are the same and therefore each person has to be treated unambiguously.
Autism can by and large be predicted around the age of 1 – 2 old ages when the kid does non demo the normal patterned advance in societal and communicating accomplishments. Diagnosis of autism is based on the behavior of the person as the cause is non yet known. Lack of fond regard to the primary health professional, societal deadness, obsessional run alonging up of playthings, trouble in address development and deadness to name are some symptoms that hint physicians to the diagnosing of the upset in a kid.
Many persons with autism show the undermentioned symptoms:
- Insistent behavior, rigorous attachment to agendas. The persons display marks of hurt and anxiousness when modus operandis are interrupted.
- They frequently display physical ticks and echolalia ( reiterating words or phrases they hear ) .
- An antipathy to physical contact and oculus contact.
- Sensitivity to loud noises, odors or sights.
- Autistic persons besides tend to develop compulsions and sometimes and intense fond regard to certain objects.
- They have problem showing themselves and frequently use gestures alternatively of words. They have peculiar address forms and do non mention to their ain ego decently.
A few autistic persons besides have symptoms that co-exist with autism like fragile-X syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Tuberous induration, Attention Deficit Disorder, epileptic ictuss, etc.
Besides, it has been observed that some autistic persons show extremely specific accomplishments in a peculiar country that is above their normal operation in other countries, like memorisation of trifle, increased perceptual experience to forms, high memory retrieval, extraordinary attending to detail. These accomplishments are known as sliver accomplishments.
Some surveies suggest a relation between households with strong abilities in ‘folk natural philosophies ‘ and autism. The figure of autistic persons was found to be greater in households with greater ‘folk natural philosophies ‘ abilities ( understanding inanimate objects ) than in households with stronger ‘folk psychological science ‘ abilities ( societal apprehension ) .
The exact cause of autism is non known boulder clay day of the month and it is considered that both genetic sciences and environment play a function in it. Abnormalities in some parts of the encephalon unnatural degrees of neurotransmitters are noticed. It is noted that opportunities of an indistinguishable twin developing the upset is really high of the other twin is affected. Besides, the hazard of autism is greater in a household holding an autistic member than the general population. Scientists are still seeking to happen the cistrons that are linked to this upset, and many deductions have been made of chromosomal abnormalcies like omission, duplicate and inversion being linked to this upset.
Educational and Social Interventions
Over the old ages, many educational and societal intercession plans have been developed to help in enabling autistic kids to map in society and assist better communicating. They besides target the person ‘s emotional well-being and societal interaction. Three of the chief intercessions are reviewed here.
Social Communication, Emotional Regulation and Transactional Support ( SCERTS )
SCERTS is a multi-disciplinary educational and intervention theoretical account for kids with autism. It promotes societal communicating and emotional competency in of course happening contexts. The SCERTS theoretical account thrives on teamwork, shared control, and strengths of the kid with autism. The SCERTS Model is designed to hold wide applications and can be applied in educational, clinical scenes and in mundane activities at place and in the community.
The SC constituent of SCERTS theoretical account believes that kids must a get capacities in two major countries of societal communicating:
- Joint attending abilities
- Symbolic behavior
The ER constituent of the SCERTS Model focuses on back uping a kid ‘s ability to modulate emotions. The ultimate end of ER constituent of SCERTS theoretical account is to back up a kid accommodating to and get bying with the inevitable and single day-to-day challenges.
The TS, the 3rd and concluding nucleus constituent of the SCERTS Model includes the followers:
- Interpersonal Supports
- Learning and Educational Supports
- Support To Families
- Support among professionals and other service suppliers
The SCERTS theoretical account plants by prioritising societal communicating, emotional ordinance and transactional support to hold a positive impact on kid ‘s development and quality of life.
The FloorTime/DIR theoretical account is a technique based on Development, Individual-differences, Relationship-based. It concentrates on constructing a healthy foundation for the societal, emotional and rational capacities instead than merely a individual behavior or accomplishment development. This theoretical account caters to the individualistic demands of the kid as the therapies are given based on the strengths and alone troubles faced by each kid and therefore is a really utile tool for pedagogues, clinicians, parents or health professionals. [ 1 ]
FloorTime is based upon Greenspan ‘s theories [ 2 ] of six functional mileposts necessary for a kid to win in farther acquisition and development. Harmonizing to Greenspan, these are:
- The double ability to take an involvement in the sights, sounds and esthesiss of the universe and to quiet oneself down.
- The ability to prosecute in relationships with other people.
- The ability to prosecute in bipartisan communicating with gestures.
- The ability to make complex gestures, to threading together a series of actions into an luxuriant and calculated problem-solving experience.
- The ability to make thoughts.
- The ability to construct Bridgess between thoughts to do them reality-based and logical ( Greenspan, 1998 )
FloorTime/DIR includes synergistic experiences, which are child directed, in a low stimulation environment, runing from two to five hours a twenty-four hours. During a preschool plan, FloorTime/DIR includes integrating with typically developing equals. Greenspan insists that synergistic drama, in which the grownup follows the kid ‘s lead, will promote the kid to desire to associate to the outside universe. Furthermore, Greenspan stipulates, in this theoretical account, the curative plan must get down every bit shortly as possible so that the kids and their parents use their emerging capacities for communicating ( frequently ab initio with gestures instead than words ) . The longer such kids remain incommunicative and the more parents lose their sense of their kid ‘s relatedness, the more profoundly the kids tend to retreat and go preservative and self- stimulatory. ( Greenspan, 1998 ) .
Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-Handicapped Children ( TEACCH )
TEACCH is a plan developed by psychologist Eric Schopler. It uses Structured Teaching which can be applied in different scenes like school and home-based instruction. In TEACCH the autistic person is recognized for their alone characteristic or “ the civilization of autism ” . The plan can be applied to grownups and is non confined to kids.
This plan develops an individualised program wherein the attack to instruction by the healers is altered to integrate single differences. This includes family-based interactions and instruction, every bit good as societal interactions with other kids. Though the chief method of instruction is through ocular AIDSs, linguistic communication is besides developed. The autistic traits are accommodated instead than being overcome. This is hence opposite in rule to inclusion, which emphasizes on educating autistic kids with non-disabled kids. However, as autism is a wide-spectrum upset, it is really hard to mensurate the success of any certain plan or theoretical account over another.
Indian Scenario of Autism
The TULIPS School was founded in 2002 by the Saraswati Mandir Trust. Its premier aim is to educate kids with autism and other mental development issues.
Harmonizing to the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995, if a individual suffers from non less than 40 % of the undermentioned disablements as certified by a medical practician, he/she is considered as handicapped:
- Low vision
- Leprosy cured
- Hearing damage
- Loco motor damage
- Mental deceleration
- Mental unwellness
If any kid does non suit into the above standards, the kid should non be confined to a particular school and can be educated with other kids. TULIPS maintains a regular plan which is modified as per the single demands of the kid, and the instructor – kid ratio is 1:4. The plan focuses on all facets of development including physical, emotional, societal and academic and besides aims to include 25 % of its pupils into the mainstream instruction system every twelvemonth.
Apoorva Centre for Autism
Apoorva Centre for Autism ( ACA ) is an educational and developing Centre started in 1996 by SAI with the support of the Lions Club of Sarakki. The Apoorva Centre is headed by Mrs. Nithya S. , a qualified Particular Educator with 6+ old ages of experience in the field. Soon the Centre has 55 pupils trained by 10 qualified particular instruction and rehabilitation professionals and 6 teacher-aides, 2 voluntary professionals, 2 teacher-aides, 3 health professionals, 6 educational voluntaries, and 2 attenders. The Centre besides provides practical preparation to Teacher-trainees of the Particular Education plan on Autism, conducted by KPAMRC, Bangalore [ 12 ] . The assorted activities carried out by Apoorva Centre for Autism are as follows:
It caters to the educational wing utilizing rules of ABA and TEACCH. The age group benefited is 3 old ages to 18yrs.
Children with ASD of 15 old ages and above are imparted pre-vocational preparation and steps are taken to place the suited careers for them.
Post the vocational preparation the pupils are suggested available sheltered workshops that enrol them. Others who prefer organic agriculture preparation are sent to the yoga instructor ‘s farm for 2 twelvemonth preparation. Post the 2years, based on their public presentation they would either be suggested extra preparation or apprenticeship and lasting employment thenceforth with the neurotypical grownup husbandmans in an inclusive work atmosphere.
The tools used for communications are PECS ( Picture Exchange Communication System ) .
Drama and Yoga therapy are a portion of the course of study excessively.
Some of the parents have besides opted for the bio-medical intercession and some have discontinued it due to assorted grounds.
The Centre besides caters to pupils who are badly affected by autism with other co-morbidities including intellectual paralysis, profound mental deceleration and ictus upsets. These kids are given developing in ego attention and assist them, maintain their day-to-day life accomplishments.
A twosome of kids who have been asked to travel out from the regular schools due to terrible behavioral issues are being trained towards the National Open School system ( NIOS ) with regular school course of study and text books.
All these plans happen across the 3 premises which are located in JP Nagar, Jayanagar and near Bannerghatta National Park. Each premiss caters to specific demands but they all meet one time in 6 months. All the installations are twenty-four hours attention Centres. The Pull offing Trust is taking towards a reprieve attention and a residential place or a community populating maintaining in head the state of affairs that would originate when the parents and health professionals are no longer present. The function of Mrs. Nithya S. is to assist program activities and educational/vocational plans for the kids and develop the pedagogues and health professionals.
The LOTUS Foundation
Activities that are used in the rehabilitation of autistic kids include supplication, external respiration and speculation, motion therapy, music therapy, kitchen nine, occupational therapy, art and picture therapy, H2O therapy, drama therapy, societal therapy, communicating therapy and nature nine. Each therapy has its topographic point, clip and agenda in the twenty-four hours. Each is designed for every particular kid to mend specific challenges faced. As in any other thing, attending has to be paid to the measure and the quality of the therapy delivered. If under done or over done the same therapy could be counterproductive.
The societal challenges faced by autistic kids are:
The kid goes through immense accommodation challenges in his/her organic structure, thought procedures and emotions. It is hard for the kid, every bit good as his/her health professionals to suit into the model that society provides. The community and committed professionals need to widen themselves to back up the kid and his immediate household. Simultaneously work has to be done to change the current model to ease integrating of these persons into society.
These kids have trouble with communicating and are easy led to defeats and aggressions that form a barrier to them being included. Opening out the communicating lines, ask foring more and more people to understand them and learning them self-regulation in pull offing their emotions and open behavior will travel a long manner to assist incorporate these kids. Educating the people in his environment suitably along with developing the kid to pass on efficaciously will organize the anchor of get the better ofing this trouble.
The physical-sensorial demands of our kids do them to expose upseting obvious behaviors such as rocking, walking, whirling and shouting that can frighten away others and drive the kids with autism to remain off from the mainstream. Giving appropriate sensory inputs and at the same time turn toing diet, rhythm and sleep will greatly cut down the emphasis and ease the kid in go oning to take part in society.
Queerly, the equals and friends are really tolerant and understanding, but the grownups – instructors and parents have trouble in admiting and accepting the autistic in mainstream environment.
The media ‘s duty is in taking the facts and showing it to the common adult male in a manner that he will understand. Our petition is non to dramatise and do these as tragic narratives. The other side of the coin is that we do hold tolerant and sensitive people who welcome such kids. Whatever said and done, it is difficult to stay impersonal when faced with such a deep inquiry posed by our kids through their sheer presence.
We observed that diagnosing of people in the Autism Spectrum Disorder has increased. 1 in 88 kids born today are diagnosed to be on the spectrum – from really mild to extremely complicated.
In the kingdom of “ inclusion ” , we provide services to efficaciously include the persons with particular demands in the chief watercourse regular school environment. We train and organise workshops for regular school instructors and helpers who are involved in twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours classroom direction of persons with particular demands in inclusive scenes.
V-Excel Educational Trust
Help the kids become more comfy with their organic structures, overcome sensory issues to an extent that they are able to concentrate in category, travel out with teachers/parents, be happy and content at place. With this slowly emerging, the kids learn to show, talk and their will, to larn lessons and work at activities. This is done by:
Medical Work: A Following the biomedical diet ( gluten free, casein free ) and a rigorous beat ( guaranting repasts are eaten at the right clip and kids get adequate slumber )
Course of study: A Following the Rudolf Steiner ‘s doctrine, on taking attention of kids with particular demands. Knowing what lessons, motions, vocals, colorss, or work is to be introduced to kids ( woodworking, cookery, building, agriculture, basket devising, gold braid, and sewing ) at a peculiar age. In supplying the right input at the right age, the interior force of the kid is strengthened. The gait depends upon the group of kids, and the instructor goes as fast or every bit slow as the kids require. Lots of infinite is given for the kids to reflect, express, experience each portion of their twenty-four hours. A batch of freedom is given to the kids, but boundaries are really clear and house, so the kids feel safe.
Bing Supported: A As it requires a batch from instructors and kids to work with kids with particular demands, aid is ever needed. Teachers and parents work together in seeking to understand and back up the kid. Teachers and parents are supported by the Healing Departments – External Therapy and Counselling, so that they are looked after, and strengthened plenty to honor their committedness.
The Doctrine: A The school tallies, such that the kid is at the Centre and everyone works together, understands each other, and learns to back up each other so that the kid may mend. Besides, in each human being there lies something that needs healing/understanding/attention. In turn toing this, the whole community coming together around the kid gets healed. With every inquiry that the kid airss, we look deep in ourselves for the reply. Not so much to state, “ How can I repair this job? ” but more on the lines of “ Why is this job coming up? “ , “ Why is it coming to me? “ , “ Where is it coming from? “ , “ How am I making this job? “ , “ Is at that place something in me that must alter? ” In making this you become more witting, as a human being, and more interested in other human existences. Relationship and people become an of import portion of your work.A
Age Appropriateness: A We have learnt that largely in footings of their intelligence, the kids are age appropriate. However, when it comes to reading, composing, working – making something with their custodies, they lag behind a few old ages. So kids in Grade Five still write at Kindergarten Level, but the course of study finds a manner to equilibrate that. They are treated their age, but the outlooks from them change harmonizing to how much their organic structure can follow. This is non a physical disablement – but more a affair of involvement and will to pattern. Their weak countries are worked on slowly and given clip – a batch of accent on motion and working with the custodies, pess and organic structure.
The procedure is non a speedy hole or an immediate solution. It takes clip, forbearance and requires finding and difficult work to maintain working even if you keep neglecting.
Social Challenges: The biggest societal challenge is acceptance. The kids are non understood, so the kids are non accepted. And non-acceptance causes a batch of hurting for the kids and people assisting the kids. The other societal challenges are covering with the computing machine age – computing machines, music systems, etc. do a break in the comfort degree of all human existences, but particularly kids with autism as they are really sensitive. Electromagnetic moving ridges from electronic media do non assist in mending the kids.
Statisticss: The school serves 75 kids out of which 40 – 45 are kids with autism. At Kindergarten and Grade Four the kids are kept longer than a twelvemonth as they are important phases of alteration and growing for the kid which require more sensitiveness, more work, and more clip. Now, there are kids from Kindergarten to Grade Five, and besides a Pre Vocational Section ( 75 kids ) .
They have an early intercession plan. The donees of this undertaking are kids who have already developed, or at hazard of developing, either a handicapping status or some other particular demand that may impact their overall development. This includes kids with Autism, Mental Retardation, Attention Deficit Disorders, Delayed Milestones, and Learning Disabilities like Dyslexia etc.
They basically work on clip edge plans geared towards early societal inclusion of kids. This is attempted through one-on-one remedial intercession, centripetal integrating therapy, and a well-planned sensory diet. They have had sensible success with instances of:
- Behavioral Regulatory Problems – Arousal, attending, affect, fond regard, temper, ordinance of slumber and feeding.
- Musculo Skeletal Impairments – Deformities, strength, endurance
- Neuro-Muscular Impairments – Tone, coordination, gross and all right control, motor planning, balance
- Centripetal Processing Difficulties – Tactile, vestibular, ocular, audile, olfactive
- Functional Impairments – Eating, mobility, self attention, occupational
- Cognitive Impairments – Attachment, interaction, communicating, ocular perceptual experience, memory, sequencing, safety consciousness, executive map
- Self-help accomplishments – Eating, dressing, preparing, composing, societal accomplishments and countries of day-to-day life
Shristi Special Academy
Shristi Special Academy is a registered charitable organisation dedicated to the authorization of intellectually and physically deprived persons. It was founded in 1995 by Suchita Somashekaraiah, Sharon Watts and Meena Jain. A multidisciplinary squad of specializers are employed to carry on intercession programmes and to advance independency and autonomy amongst those with a scope of disablements. The autism unit focuses on the appraisal and intercessions of local kids diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and presently reach over 30 childs. The course of study includes academic instructions, societal accomplishments work and vocational preparation. The Academy has a dedicated squad who work with people from all ages, from babies to grownups.
Action for Autism
Action For Autism was started in 1991 to supply support services to autistic persons and their households in India, so that people with autism are able to turn to their full potency. They provide support and services to individuals with autism and work through direct services, protagonism and research in order to better lives of autistic kids and their households. Action For Autism besides assists other states in South Asia to accomplish legal acknowledgment of autism and develop services for kids and households. They offer clinical services and intercession plans, and besides have assorted active divisions for preparations, publications, research and protagonism.
Action For Autism is involved in assorted intercession plans such as:
- Parent kid early intercession plans
- The unfastened door twenty-four hours school
- Adhaar vocational Centre
- On-the-job preparation programme for work behaviors
- Educational intercession programme
- The bubble category: Social accomplishments developing plan
- Handwriting programme
- Inclusive avocation categories
- Occupational and Sensory intercession
- They besides have different appraisal programmes such as:
- Diagnostic Appraisals
- Functional Assess
- Occupational and Sensory Appraisals
AFA offers an eclectic mix of behavior based methods and structured instruction. Elementss of TEACCH, Applied behavior Analysis ( ABA ) , Verbal Behaviour Analysis ( VBA ) , assorted signifiers of Assisted and Augmentative Communication ( AAC ) including Picture Exchange Communication Systems ( PECS ) are a portion of the methods used [ 14 ] .
The current survey of rehabilitative techniques has shown that the rate at which the thoughts such as SCERTS, DIR and TEACCH are deriving popularity is really high. Many foundations in India are efficaciously utilizing these techniques, possibly with some alterations of their ain ; to successfully rehabilitate their wards and to assist them go active in their societal and emotional care.
The addition in figure of foundations besides show the increased consciousness about upsets such as autism, which were one time extremely stigmatised. These foundations besides play a critical function in assisting these kids get accepted into the mainstream.
This is conclusive that India is fast nearing the phase where autistic kids can be successfully rehabilitated and included into mainstream society.