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Lab Report Assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.
Exercise 1: Muscle Twitch Study the data for the three muscles in Tables IA, B, and ICC. 1.
Make a scatter plot graph in Microsoft [email protected] using Data Tables IA, B, and ICC that show the twitch tension timeliness of the eye, erects femoral, and lanterns muscle fibers. For each muscle, connect the dots together in sequence. Refer to the section in the Introduction of this lab manual titled: “Computer Graphing Using Microsoft [email protected]” for help with this process.
2. Graph all three sets of data on one graph. Label the three muscles on the graph. Then, graph each muscle set on three separate graphs. Label the latent period, contraction phase and relaxation phase on the three separate graphs.
What is a muscle twitch? A muscle twitch is a small local involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin or detected in deeper areas. B. According to the graphs, which muscle has the fastest twitch? Why? C.
What is the latent period and why does it occur? Latent period is the time lapse that occurs between application of stimulus and its targeted effect. E. G when a nerve impulse arrives on a muscle fiber (stimulus), it takes a few milliseconds before the muscle begins to contract. It occurs because the metabolic machinery is at work. Various preparatory processes are occurring.
Exercise 2: Trapper: The Staircase Effect 1. Data Table 2 shows muscle tension with increasing time. Observe the values in Data Table 2. Data Table 2: Triple I 6101 15181 18101 21 24101 271121 30101 331151 36101 391151 42101 451151 2. Create a scatter plot graph of the data from Data Table 2. Ensure that you connect the scatter plot dots to create a line graph for better visualization. Plot the time vs… Tension in a Microsoft [email protected] 3. Use arrows to indicate where each subsequent stimulus occurred on the graph. A. Why is trapper an important phenomenon for athletes to understand?
The concept or phenomenon of “Trapper” occurs when a muscle contracts more forcefully after it has contracted a few times than when it first contracts. This is due to the fact that active muscles require decreasing degrees of succeeding stimuli to elicit maximal contractions. Returning to our example of the second set of squats feeling easier than the first, during the first set there was insufficient warm-up, and the second set felt easier because the first set actually served as a warm-up. The phenomenon in which the contraction strength of a muscle increases, due to increased Ca+ availability and enzyme efficiency during the warm-up.
B. Physiologically, what causes trapper to occur? Trapper is an improvement in the force generated by a muscle fiber as it warms up. The phenomenon occurs due to the increase in temperature because of an increase in cell activity. The improvement comes because the enzymes and routines in the system become more efficient at a slightly higher temperature. This is somewhat analogous to how an increase in temperature increases the rate of chemical reaction. Exercise 3: Wave Summation (Temporal Summation) 1. Look over the data in Data Table 3. Data Table 3: Wave summation I I 5131 7181 13191 171151 191251 21 101 2.
Graph a scatter plot for wave summation of time vs… Tension graph using Microsoft [email protected] 3. Use arrows to indicate where the subsequent stimuli occurred on the graph. A. Explain why wave summation occurs. A sustained contraction of muscles, caused by the rapid firing of nerve impulses. B. Can summation go on infinitely? Why or why not? No they will not because the combination of responses from a motor unit that has had two or more stimuli applied to it in quick succession. A motor unit of a muscle responds to a single stimulus with a simple twitch response.
When a second stimulus is applied to the motor unit before the response to the first is completely lost, the two responses combine to produce a greater muscle tension than that produced by a single response. If stimulation continues, the combination of the individual responses may result in tetanus. Exercise 4: Tetanus 1. Look over the data in Data Tables AAA and B. Data Table AAA: Incomplete tetanus I I 13171 17191 191151 21 1131 241151 271131 Data Table B: Complete tetanus (milliseconds) Tension 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 20 19 24 27 10 30 4. Graph the information for complete tetanus on a separate time vs… Tension scatter plot graph.
Connect the lines of each data point to get a better understanding of the data. 5. Use arrows to indicate the subsequent stimuli on the graph. A. What is the difference between complete and incomplete tetanus? With incomplete tetanus muscles contract but there is a period of relaxation between contractions. As shown on a graph, it looks like a wave. With complete tetanus, here is no relaxation between contractions and on a graph, this is represented by a straight line. Tetanus effects only striated skeletal muscles, not cardiac (heart) muscles. B. Will muscle fatigue occur quicker in complete or incomplete tetanus?
Explain your reasoning. It will occur in complete tetanus because of lose of chemical transmitter more rapidly in complete tetanus Exercise 5: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue Data Table 5: Muscle fatigue II Trial [Start Time (seconds) I Aching/Burning Feeling Begins Arm Begins to Drop (seconds) I Duration (seconds) I 11121201401551 21301251501651 31351301601701 A. Explain why muscles get fatigued. Muscles fatigue because is the decline in ability of a muscle to generate force. It can be a result of vigorous exercise but abnormal fatigue may be caused by barriers to or interference with the different stages of muscle contraction.
There are two main causes of muscle fatigue – limitations of nerve’s ability to generate a sustained signal and the reduced ability of calcium (Ca+) to stimulate contraction. B. Which muscle or muscle groups became fatigued with this exercise? Skeletal muscle group become fatigued with exercise because the Voluntary muscle contraction is controlled by the central nervous system. The brain sends signals, in the form of action potentials, through the nervous system to the motor neuron that innervates several muscle fibers.
In the case of some reflexes, the signal to contract can originate in the spinal cord through a feedback loop with the grey matter. Involuntary muscles such as the heart or smooth muscles in the gut and vascular system contract as a result of non-conscious brain activity or stimuli proceeding in the body to the muscle itself. C. What causes the burning sensation in a muscle, and how does that sensation affect muscle contraction? Your body requires energy to fuel the muscle interactions that produce movement. This energy is produced by your body in a number of ways.
One such mechanism is called the “anaerobic process,” meaning it does not utilize oxygen. However, this anaerobic source of energy can only be maintained for short periods of time and the byproducts produce the burning sensation you feel in your muscles during and immediately after high-intensity anaerobic exercise. In addition to limiting the duration of your anaerobic endurance, private is also involved in the process that produces the burning sensation you feel during and immediately after strenuous exercise. In the absence of oxygen, this glycoside byproduct is converted into lactate.
During intense anaerobic exercise, the levels of lactate in your bloodstream can build-up rapidly. It is this accumulation of lactate that triggers the nerve endings in your muscles, producing a burning sensation. D. What might have happened in this exercise if more rest was built into the procedure? Rest days are critical to sports performance for a variety of reasons. Some are physiological and some are psychological. Rest is physically necessary so that the muscles can repair, rebuild and strengthen. For recreational athletes, eluding in rest days can help maintain a better balance between home, work and fitness goals.