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midterm study Paper

Words: 1221, Pages: 5

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Mental Retardation

Parent topic:

Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten ________.
quickly at first, then tapers off gradually

The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the ________ model of memory.
information processing

The portion of memory that is more or less permanent is called ________.
long-term memory

According to Robert Sternberg, ________ refers to the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. This is the type of intelligence that is measured by intelligence tests and academic achievement tests.
analytical intelligence

Any behavior that is voluntary is referred to as a(n) ________.
operant

What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
confirmation bias

Repeating items over and over in order to aid memory is known as ________ rehearsal.
maintenance

Shaquin finished his term paper and handed it in. As he walked out of the classroom, he realized that there were a few more things he should have included in the paper. Shaquin’s problem is the ________ component of memory.
retrieval

A group of businessmen and women get together to try to solve the problem of decreased sales of their company’s products. One of them suggests that they generate as many ideas as they can in a short period of time without being critical of any of them. This technique of stimulating divergent thinking is called ________.
brainstorming

________ is retention of memory for some period of time.
Storage

Information gets from sensory memory to short-term memory through the process of ________.
selective attention

Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning?
Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.

Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that ________.
follows the normal curve

Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term memory through the process of ________.
chunking

When asked to recall the date of John Kennedy’s assassination, Peter draws a blank; however, when asked whether it was October 24, 1962, November 22, 1963, or February 1, 1965, he correctly answers with the second of the choices. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of ________.
retrieval cues

Chunking is a means of ________.
combining information into meaningful units

Which memory system is the one that is a working, active system that processes the information within it?
short-term memory

Pragmatics are defined as ________.
the practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social “niceties”of language

Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov’s analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as ________.
an unconditioned response

The first true longitudinal study of the effects of giftedness on social success was conducted by ________.
Terman

When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ________.
primacy effect

Which of the following is an example of a test using recall?
All of these are examples that use recall.

Concepts are ideas that represent ________.
a class or category of objects, events, or activities

Memories that concern events that are highly significant and are vividly remembered are called ________.
flashbulb memories

In an experiment, two groups of dogs are given shocks to their feet. One group is able to escape the shocks by jumping over a barrier. The second group is harnessed and cannot escape. After several trials, both groups are put in situations where they CAN escape. The first group escapes the shocks but the second group just sits and whines, refusing to attempt to escape. The response of the second group is due to ________.
learned helplessness

People with dementia typically have a memory problem known as ________.
anterograde amnesia

What problem-solving strategies don’t guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?
heuristics

________ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to ________ rehearsal.
Elaborative; maintenance

The tendency to perceive and approach problems in the same ways that have worked in the past is called ________.
mental set

Dallas is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 10 years. His IQ would be ________.
100

A group of psychologists reviews the literature on the heritability of intelligence. They conclude that most of the estimates indicate that ________ percent of intelligence is due to genetics.
50

In the process of shaping, behaviors are ordered in terms of increasing similarity to the desired response. These behaviors are called ________.
successive approximations

A ________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.
primary

The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called ________.
operant conditioning

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
IQ below 70

Which of the following statements is true regarding punishment?
All of these statements are true.

After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not ________ had occurred.
stimulus generalization

Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
Learning is another word for “maturation.”

Which of the following questions would be more likely to produce divergent thinking?
“How many uses can you think of for a stapler?”

According to famed linguist Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through a device he called
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ________ and, thus, ________ the probability of a response.
removed; increases

Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades?
long-term memory

A seemingly arbitrary flash “out of the blue,”through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you “figured it out,” is called ________.
insight

Culture-fair tests attempt to measure ________.
the intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised

“If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.”This is a statement of ________.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect

________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.
Memory

In this view, memories are literally “built”from the pieces stored away at encoding. This view is called ________.
constructive processing

What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?
punishment

When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response, it is known as ________.
punishment by removal

The research of Eich and Metcalf would suggest that if you were really happy when you were learning math, you should be ________ when taking the math exam to do well.
happy

About the author

This sample paper is crafted by Elizabeth. She studies Communications at Northwestern University. All the content of this paper is just her opinion on midterm study and can be used only as a possible source of ideas and arguments.

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