Which of the following are classifications on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? Chapter 4 Personality and Emotions MULTIPLE CHOICE Personality 1. Personality is: a. always stable. b. a part of a person. c. an aggregate whole. d. comprised of traits that cannot be measured. (c; Easy; p. 93) 2. An individual’s personality is determined by: a. heredity. b. environment. c. situational factors. d. all of the above (d; Easy; p. 94) 3. Which of the following is a personality determinant? a. heredity b. environment c. both a and b d.
neither a nor b (c; Easy; pp. 94-95) 4.Which of the following personality shaping forces is not environmental? a. parents’ height b. experience c. Protestant ethic d. culture (a; Moderate; p. 95) 5. Factors that are considered environmental influences on our personality include all the following except: a. birth order. b. heredity. c. culture. d. family norms. (b; Moderate; p. 95) 6. If personality characteristics were completely dictated by ______, they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them.
a. job satisfaction b. heredity c. environment d. situation (b; Moderate; p. 95) 7. “Bob is easy-going at home, but at work he becomes very tense and anxious. This statement attributes Bob’s personality more to which of the following? a. heredity b. environment c. situation d. locus of control (c; Moderate; p. 95) 8. All of the following are listed as part of the “Sixteen Primary Traits” except: a. communicative. b. practical. c. trusting. d. submissive. (a; Challenging; Exh. 4-2; p. 97) 9. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, ____ are conceptualizers. a. INTJs b.
ESTJs c. ENTPs d. MBTIs (c; Moderate; p. 96) 10. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator examines all of the following except: a. extroverted/introverted. b. sensing/intuitive. c. perceiving/judging. . intelligent/challenged. (d; Easy; p. 96) 11. Choose the word that best describes an ESTJ. a. quiet b. domineering c. reserved d. organizer (d; Challenging; p. 96) 12. A personality attribute that has potential for predicting behavior in organizations is: a. Machiavellianism. b. type A personality. c. locus of control. d. all of the above (d; Easy; p. 97) 13. Which of the following is not included in the Big Five model? a. agreeableness b. conscientiousness c. gregariousness d. emotional stability (c; Easy; p. 97) 14. Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others? . extraversion b. agreeableness c. emotional stability d. openness to experience (b; Moderate; p. 97) 15. Which dimension of the Big Five model is a measure of reliability? a. extraversion b. agreeableness c. emotional stability d. openness to experience (c; Moderate; p. 97) 16. People who consistently believe they control their own destinies have a: a. high extroversion. b. high internal locus of control. c. Type A personality. d. high propensity for risk-taking. (b; Easy; p. 97) 17. Individuals who rate high in externality (external locus of control): a. are less satisfied with their jobs. . have lower absenteeism rates. c. are less alienated from the work setting. d. are more involved on their jobs. (a; Challenging; p. 97) 18. All of the following are characteristic traits of people with a high external locus of control with the exception of which of the following? a. They are less satisfied with their jobs. b. They have higher absenteeism rates. c. They are less alienated from the work setting. d. They are less involved on their jobs. (c; Moderate; p. 98) 19. People with an internal locus of control tend to: a. quit their jobs more often than those with an external locus of control. b. uit their jobs less often than those with an external locus of control. c. perform better on their jobs. d. start their own businesses. (c; Moderate; p. 98) 20. A person who believes that ends can justify means can be said to have the characteristic of: a. authoritarianism. b. Machiavellianism. c. external locus of control. d. risk-taking. (b; Easy; p. 99) 21. An individual high in Machiavellianism is best described as: a. maintaining emotional distance, being highly authoritative, believing in swift discipline. b. being impulsive, emotionally involved, and having strong ethical beliefs. c. eing pragmatic, maintaining emotional distance, and believing ends can justify means. d. tending to make a poor manager. (c; Moderate; p. 99) 22. High Machs: a. manipulate more. b. are persuaded less. c. win more. d. all of the above (d; Moderate; p. 99) 23. _____ is the degree to which people like or dislike themselves. a. Self-esteem b. Authoritarianism c. Locus of control d. Machiavellianism (a; Moderate; p. 100) 24. People high in the trait self-esteem: a. are less likely to take unpopular stands than low SEs. b. tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than low SEs. c. tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than low SEs. . tend to be more concerned with pleasing others than low SEs. (b; Challenging; p. 100) 25. High SEs: a. believe they possess more of the ability they need in order to succeed in work. b. will take more risks in job selection. c. are less susceptible to external influences than low SEs. d. all of the above (d; Challenging; p. 100) 26. How would you describe an individual who is capable of presenting striking contradictions between who they are in public and who they are privately? a. low self-esteem b. high self-esteem c. low self-monitoring d. high self-monitoring (d; Moderate; p. 100) 27. Low self-monitors: a. ave a low behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do. b. can disguise themselves well. c. tend to pay less attention to the behavior of others than high self-monitors. d. tend to be more mobile in their careers. (c; Challenging; p. 100) 28. Which of the following has the highest risk-taking propensity? a. an accountant performing auditing activities b. a stock trader in a brokerage firm c. a computer technologist d. a marketing representative (b; Moderate; pp. 100-101) 29. An individual who is aggressively involved in a chronic incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time is a(n): a.Type A. b. Type B. c. Type AB. d. extrovert. (a; Easy; p. 101) 30. Which of the following is true of the Type A personality? a. The Type A is more successful than the Type B. b. Type A’s can play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit superiority. c. Type A’s are obsessed with numbers and measure their success in terms of how much of everything they acquire. d. Type A’s feel no need to discuss their achievements. (c; Moderate; p. 101) 31. All of the following are characteristics of Type A personality except which of the following? a. They operate under moderate to high levels of stress. b. They are faster workers. . They feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. d. They feel no need to display or discuss either their achievement or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. (d; Moderate; p. 101) 32. A Type A personality would be most likely to: a. be easy going. b. enjoy leisure and quiet time. c. eat his meals quickly. d. concentrate on only one task at a time. (c; Easy; p. 101) 33. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the Type B personality? a. never suffers from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience b. plays for fun and relaxation c. trives to think or do two or more things at once d. can relax without guilt (c; Moderate; p. 101 ) 34. Which of the following is a true statement? a. We would expect to find more Type A’s in a capitalistic country. b. It is estimated that about 25% of the North American population is Type A. c. There are common personality types for a given country. d. We should expect that most North Americans would have an external locus of control. (a; Challenging; pp. 101-102) 35. ____ demonstrate their competitiveness by working long hours and not infrequently, making poor decisions because they make them too fast. . High SEs b. Type As c. Type Bs d. Self-monitors (b; Easy; pp. 101-102) 36. What percentage of North Americans are Type A personality? a. 10% b. 30% c. 50% d. 75% (c; Challenging; p. 102) 37. Holland’s theory of personality-job fit argues that job satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest where: a. personality and occupation are in agreement. b. an individual is highly motivated. c. salary is high. d. employees have an education. (a; Easy; p. 103) 38. People in ____believe that life is essentially preordained. a. America b. Canada c. Middle Eastern countries d. Brazil c; Moderate; p. 102) 39. Which one of the following statements is true about the six personality types developed in Holland’s personality-job fit theory? a. People basically have similar personalities. b. Diagonally opposite types are most alike. c. Satisfaction is high when one’s personality type is congruent with his or her work environment. d. Organizations can teach a person to have the proper personality type. (c; Moderate; pp. 103-104) 40. The “realistic” personality from Holland’s typology of personality and congruent occupations would be well suited for which of the following jobs? . painter b. accountant c. mechanic d. lawyer (c; Challenging; Exh. 4-3; p. 104) 41. The “enterprising” personality from Holland’s typology of personality and congruent occupations would exhibit which of the following personality characteristics? a. imaginative, disorderly, idealistic b. shy, genuine, persistent c. sociable, friendly, cooperative d. self-confident, ambitious, energetic (d; Moderate; Exh. 4-3; p. 104) 42. _______ developed a Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire that contains 160 occupational titles. a. Maslow b. Holland c. Hofstede d. Herzberg (b; Easy; p. 103) 43.Since the rise of scientific management, organizations have been specifically designed with the objective of trying to control emotions. This is known as: a. the affective component of emotions. b. the myth of rationality. c. cognitive dissonance. d. emotional negation. (b; Moderate; p. 105) 44. _____ is (are) less intense feelings which lack a contextual stimulus. a. Internal stimuli b. Affect c. Emotions d. Moods (d; Moderate; p. 106) 45. ______ theory suggested people in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and are less likely to voluntarily resign than should people in incongruent jobs. . Holland’s person-job fit b. Nunnally’s Big Five c. Hofstede’s d. The GLOBE team’s (a; Easy; p. 1-4) 46. _____ is (are) reactions to an object, not a trait. They are object-specific. a. Internal stimuli b. Affect c. Emotions d. Moods (c; Moderate; p. 106) 47. Which of the following is not true concerning emotions? a. Some emotions can reduce employee performance. b. Employees bring an emotional component with them to work every day. c. The role of emotions does not have to be studied in organizational behavior. d. In the past, emotions were rarely viewed as being constructive. c; Moderate; pp. 105-106) 48. If an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions, _____ is being expended. a. emotional labor b. negative synergy c. dissonance d. emotional intelligence (a; Easy; p. 106) 49. _____ is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience. a. Affect b. Emotions c. Moods d. Emotional labor (a; Easy; p. 106) 50. Which of the following is not true with respect to the role that emotions play in the workplace? a. Ability to effectively manage emotions may be critical to success in leadership positions. . Emotions can hinder performance. c. Emotions can enhance performance. d. Emotional labor recognizes that feelings should be stifled because they are not part of a job’s required behavior. (d; Challenging; p. 106) 51. Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job are termed: a. felt emotions. b. displayed emotions. c. conditional emotions. d. exposed emotions. (b; Moderate; p. 106) 52. _____ are an individual’s actual emotions. a. Felt emotions b. Displayed emotions c. Conditional emotions d. Exposed emotions (a; Moderate; p. 106) 53. ____ are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. a. Felt emotions b. Displayed emotions c. Conditional emotions d. Exposed emotions (b; Moderate; p. 106) 54. _____ is when an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. a. Felt emotions b. Displayed emotions c. Conditional emotions d. Exposed emotions (d; Moderate; pp. 106-107) 55. Which of the following is not one of the six universal emotions? a. anger b. fear c. hate d. sadness (c; Moderate; p. 107) 56. People who have a lack of emotion suffer from: a. self-awareness. b. alexithymia. . felt emotions. d. displayed emotions. (b; Moderate; p. 109) 57. Which of the following statements is not true about the difference between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions and ability to read others? a. Women show greater emotional expression. b. Men express emotions more intensely. c. Men express anger more frequently. d. Women are better at reading nonverbal cues. (b; Moderate; pp. 109-110) 58. Which of the following is not true concerning cultural influences impacting emotions? a. Cultural factors influence what is or isn’t considered as emotionally appropriate. b.What’s acceptable in one culture may seem unusual or even dysfunctional in another. c. All cultures agree on the interpretation they give to emotions. d. There tends to be high agreement on what emotions mean within cultures. (c; Moderate; pp. 110-111) 59. Which of the following is not a dimension of emotional intelligence? a. self-awareness b. self-management c. self-motivation d. self-evaluation (d; Moderate; p. 111) 60. _____ refers to an assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. a.Emotional intelligence b. IQ c. Learned intelligence d. Aptitude (a; Easy; p. 111) 61. Leaving early, sabotage, gossiping, and verbal abuse are examples of: a. involuntary actions that violate norms. b. employee deviance. c. emotional labor. d. emotional quotient factors. (b; Moderate; p. 113) TRUE/FALSE Personality 62. All our behavior is somewhat shaped by our personalities. (True; Easy; p. 94) 63. Personality is the sum total of the way in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. (True; Easy; p. 94) 64. Personality looks at the parts of the person rather than the aggregate whole. False; Easy; p. 94) 65. An adult’s personality is now generally considered to be made up of both hereditary and environmental factors, moderated by situational conditions. (True; Moderate; pp. 94-95) 66. Researchers have found that genetics accounts for about 50 percent of the personality differences and more than 30 percent of the variation in occupational and leisure interests in studies of identical twins. (True; Challenging; p. 94) 67. If personality characteristics were completely dictated by heredity, they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them. (True; Moderate; p. 95) 68.A trait can be described as a characteristic or behavior that is consistently exhibited in a large number of situations. (True; Moderate; p. 96) 69. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a 100-question personality test that types four characteristics into sixteen personality types. (True; Easy; p. 96) 70. Certain situations are more relevant than others in influencing personality. True; Moderate; p. 95) 71. A recent study of contemporary businesspeople who created supersuccessful firms found that all of these individuals were NTs. (True; Challenging; pp. 96-97) 72. INTJs are visionaries. (True; Moderate; p. 96) 73.ESTJs are organizers. (True; Moderate; p. 96) 74. The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. (True; Moderate; p. 96) 75. If you were looking for an employee who was an organizer, you would probably choose one whose type is INTJ. (False; Challenging; p. 96) 76. A substantial body of research supports the MBTI as a valid measure of personality. (False; Easy; p. 97) 77. An impressive body of research supports that five basic personality dimensions underlie all others. (True; Moderate; p. 97) 78. The Big Five Model factor termed “extroversion” is probably a good predictor of job performance in most professions. (False; Challenging; p. 7) 79. Conscientiousness refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. (False; Moderate; p. 97) 80. Individuals with an internal locus of control believe that they are masters of their own fate. (True; Easy; p. 98) 81. Individuals who rate high in external locus of control are more satisfied with their jobs and have lower absenteeism rates. (False; Moderate; pp. 98-99) 82. Individuals who have an internal locus of control tend to have lower absence rates. (True; Challenging; p. 99) 83. Overall evidence is that employees with an internal locus of control tend to perform better on their jobs. True; Challenging; p. 99) 84. Externals should do well in jobs that are well structured and routine and in which success depends heavily on complying with the direction of others. (True; Challenging; p. 99) 85. An individual low in Machiavellianism is pragmatic and believes that ends can justify means. (False; Moderate; p. 99) 86. Janet keeps emotional distance from her coworkers and believes that the ends can justify the means. Janet would rate high in Machiavellianism. (True; Moderate; pp. 99-100) 87. Self-esteem is directly related to expectations for success. (True; Moderate; p. 100) 88.Individuals with high SE are more likely to choose unconventional jobs. (True; Challenging; p. 100) 89. In managerial positions, low SEs will tend to be concerned with pleasing others. (True; Moderate; p. 100) 90. Low SEs tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than high SEs. (False; Moderate; p. 100) 91. Self-monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. (True; Easy; p. 100) 92. Self-monitoring is the trait that considers the degree to which a person likes or dislikes himself. (False; Easy; p. 100) 93. Low self-monitors show high behavioral consistency. True; Moderate; p. 100) 94. Low risk-takers make more rapid decisions. (False; Moderate; pp. 100-101) 95. The evidence demonstrates that decision accuracy is the same for high and low risk-taking managers. (True; Moderate; p. 101) 96. Individuals with Type A personalities exhibit those characteristics highly prized by the North American culture. (True; Moderate; p. 101) 97. Zack is always moving and is impatient. He prefers work to leisure and seems obsessed with numbers. Zack is probably a Type B. (False; Easy; p. 101) 98. Type A personalities are never concerned with time. (False; Easy; p. 101) 9. Type B personalities feel no need to display or discuss their achievements unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. (True; Moderate; p. 101) 100. Type B’s tend to operate under more stress than Type A’s. (False; Easy; p. 101) 101Type As tend to be creative. (False; Challenging; p. 102) 102. The five personality factors identified in the Big Five Model appear in almost all cross-cultural studies. (True; Challenging; p. 102) 103. Each country has a common personality type. (False; Moderate; p. 102) 104. It is estimated that about 50 percent of the North American population is Type A. True, Moderate, p. 102) 105. Individuals with Holland’s “investigative” personality are well suited for careers as small business managers. (False; Challenging; Exh. 4-3; p. 104) 106. Holland’s “conventional” personality, placed in the position of a cost accountant, is likely to be dissatisfied and quit. (False; Moderate; Exh. 4-3; p. 104) 107. Moods are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. (False; Moderate; p. 106) 108. The concept of emotional labor originally developed in relation to service jobs. (True; Challenging; p. 106) 109. Displayed emotions are innate. (False; Moderate; p. 06) 110. Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. (True; Easy; p. 106) 111. Research has identified six universal emotions: anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise. (True; Challenging; pp. 107-108) 112. People who suffer from alexithymia are well suited for managerial positions. (False; Moderate; p. 109) 113. Evidence confirms there is no real difference between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions and ability to read others. (False; Easy; pp. 109-110) 114. There tends to be high agreement on what emotions mean within cultures, but not between. (True; Moderate; p. 11) 115. People who are good at reading others’ emotions may be more effective in their jobs. (True; Easy; p. 111) 116. Actions called “employee deviance” are voluntary actions. (True; Challenging; p. 113) SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS Application of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator You are assembling a team to work on a long-term project which requires creativity, stamina, and farsightedness. The only piece of information available to you is the Myers-Briggs Type of each of the applicants. Use your knowledge of the four basic characteristics of each person to choose people for the following situations. 17. You need to choose a lead person for the team. This person must have great vision and must have an original mind with great drive. You will probably pick: a. ENTP. b. INTJ. c. ENFP. d. ISFP. (b; Challenging; pp. 96-97) 118. You are looking for an organizer, a person on whom you can depend to be practical and realistic. You will probably pick: a. ESTJ. b. ENTP. c. ISFP. d. INTJ. (a; Challenging; pp. 96-97) 119. You need a person who is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. You will probably choose: a. INTJ. b. ISFP. c.ENTP. d. ESFJ. (c; Challenging; pp. 96-97) Application of the Big Five Model You are the manager of a small boutique. You have decided to apply the Big Five Model in order to understand your employees and their work habits because it is generally supported by an impressive body of research. You want to use the five dimensions of personality to match individuals with jobs to which they are well-suited. 120. Michelle Jackson, one of your newest employees, is an extrovert. Which of the following statements is not true? a. You should expect Michelle to perform well as a salesperson. . Michelle will probably have a large number of relationships. c. Michelle will be friendly and outgoing. d. Michelle will be quite comfortable with solitude. (d; Moderate; p. 97) 121. You know that your customers are demanding and sometimes difficult. Which personality dimension taps a person’s ability to withstand stress? a. extroversion b. agreeableness c. conscientiousness d. emotional stability (d; Moderate; p. 97) 122. Jane Simpson rates low on conscientiousness. You should expect that she: a. will be easily distracted. b. will find comfort in the familiar. . will be nervous, depressed, and insecure. d. will be comfortable with solitude. (a; Challenging; p. 97) 123. Which of the five factors of personality will probably be most important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)? a. extroversion b. agreeableness c. conscientiousness d. emotional stability (c; Challenging; p. 98) Application of Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Mary Wood is a new manager. She recognizes that personality attributes can help to explain and predict employee behavior. 124. Mary’s employee, Bob, has a low absenteeism rate.He takes responsibility for his health and has good health habits. He is likely to have: a. an internal locus of control. b. an external locus of control. c. a high Mach score. d. a high emotional stability level. (b; Moderate; pp. 98-101) 125. Mary has an opening for a position requiring a lot of face to face interaction with others. She should identify the employee with ______ for a good fit. a. a high Mach score b. a low Mach score c. an internal locus of control d. an external locus of control (a; Challenging; pp. 98-101) 126. Another position requires an employee who can take unpopular stands.She should identify the employee with ___ for a good fit. a. a high SE b. a low SE c. an internal locus of control d. an external locus of control (a, Challenging; pp. 98-101) Application of Person-Job Fit Theory You have decided to use Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations to help your friends who are college seniors understand for which jobs they would be well-suited. Monica is shy, stable and persistent. Neil is ambitious and energetic and likes to dominate conversations. Jessica is idealistic and impractical but very imaginative.Walter is efficient and practical, but he lacks imagination and tends to be inflexible. 127. Monica is majoring in interior design. Her personality type is “realistic” according to Holland’s Typology. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Monica’s personality type is well-suited to her major. b. Monica is better suited to be a bank teller. c. Someone with an “artistic” personality type would be better suited to a major in interior design. d. Interior design is a congruent occupation with a “social” personality type. (c; Challenging; Exh. 4-3; pp. 103-104) 128.Which of your friends is best suited to being an accountant? a. Walter b. Neil c. Jessica d. Monica (a; Moderate; Exh. 4-3; pp. 103-104) 129. Which of your friends is most likely to find a successful career as a writer? a. Walter b. Neil c. Jessica d. Monica (c; Moderate; Exh. 4-3; pp. 103-104) 130. Who might be well-suited to being a lawyer? a. Walter b. Neil c. Jessica d. Monica (b; Moderate; Exh. 4-3; pp. 103-104) SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 131. List and describe the three determinants of personality. (Pages 94-95) Personality is determined by heredity, environment, and the situation.Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. Among the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised; our early conditioning; the norms among our family, friends, and social groups; and other influences that we experience. These environmental factors play a substantial role in shaping our personalities. The situation influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality.An individual’s personality, although generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations. The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one’s personality. 132. Identify the five key traits in the Big Five personality model. (Page 97) The five key traits in the Big Five personality model are extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. Extroversion captures one’s comfort level with relationships. Agreeableness refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Conscientiousness is a measure of reliability.Emotional stability taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. Openness to experience addresses one’s range of interests and fascination with novelty. 133. What is locus of control? What is the difference between an internal and external locus of control? (Pages 97-98) A person’s perception of the source of his or her fate is termed locus of control. Those who believe that they control their destinies have been labeled internals. Those who see their lives as being controlled by outside forces have been called externals. 134. Describe the Type A personality and its relationship to success. Pages 101-102) The Type A personality is always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; feels impatient with the rate at which most events take place; strives to think or do two or more things at once; cannot cope with leisure time; and is obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Despite the Type A’s hard work, the Type B’s are the ones who appear to make it to the top. 135. What is the “myth of rationality? ” (Page 105) The myth of rationality is one possible explanation for little attention paid to emotions in the field of OB.Emotions such as frustration, fear, anger, love, hate, and joy were the antithesis of rationality. Researchers and managers tried to create organizations that were emotion-free. We learned, however, that this was not possible since emotions are an inseparable part of everyday life. 136. What is the difference between felt emotions and displayed emotions? (Pages 106-107) You can better understand emotions if you separate them into felt versus displayed. Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. In contrast, displayed emotions are those that are organizationally-required and considered appropriate in a given job.The key point here is that felt and displayed emotions are often different. MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 137. Discuss the “Big Five” model of personality. (Page 97) The five-factor model of personality is typically called the “Big Five. ” In addition to providing a unifying personality framework, research on the Big Five also has found important relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance. The five key traits in the Big Five personality model are extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. Extroversion captures one’s comfort level with relationships.Agreeableness refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Conscientiousness is a measure of reliability. Emotional stability taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. Openness to experience addresses one’s range of interests and fascination with novelty. 138. Explain the differences among the following terms: affect, emotions, and moods. (Page 106) Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience. It’s an umbrella concept that encompasses both emotions and moods. Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.Finally, moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and which lack a contextual stimulus. 139. Can people be emotionless? (Page 109) Some people have severe difficulty in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others. Psychologists call this alexithymia (which is Greek for lack of emotion). People who suffer from alexithymia rarely cry and are often seen by others as bland and cold. Their own feelings make them uncomfortable, and they’re not able to discriminate among their different emotions. Additionally, they’re often at a complete loss to understand what others around them feel. 40. What is emotional intelligence? What are the five dimensions of emotional intelligence? (Page 109) Emotional intelligence refers to an assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressure. It’s composed of five dimensions. Self-awareness is being aware of what you’re feeling. Self-management is the ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses. Self-motivation is the ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures. Empathy is the ability to sense how others are feeling.Social skills is the ability to handle the emotions of others. COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS 141. What is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and how might it be used by managers? (Pages 96-97) One of the most widely used personality frameworks is called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). It is essentially a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. On the basis of the answers individuals give to the test, they are classified as extroverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and perceiving or judging (P or J).These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. 142. Discuss Holland’s personality-job fit theory and its importance. (Pages 103-105) John Holland’s personality-job fit theory is based on the notion of fit between an individual’s personality characteristics and his or her occupational environment. Holland presents six personality types and proposes that satisfaction and the propensity to leave a job depend on the degree to which individuals successfully match their personalities to an occupational environment. Each one of the six personality types has a congruent occupational environment.The theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. 143. Discuss whether there are gender differences regarding emotions. (Pages 109-110) The evidence confirms differences between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions and ability to read others. In contrasting the genders, women show greater emotional expression than men; they experience emotions more intensely; and they display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions, except anger.In contrast to men, women also report more comfort in expressing emotions. Finally, women are better at reading nonverbal and paralinguistic cues than are men. These differences may be explained by the way men and women have been socialized, that women may have more innate ability to read others and present their emotions than do men, and women may have a greater need for social approval, and thus a higher propensity to show positive emotions.