Cafs Notes Groups

Community and Family Studies| Groups in Context | HSC Core Topic| tien [Pick the date] | Identifying groups with specific needs * Identify special characteristics of each group in order to justify why each should be considered a unique entity * Describe people who belong to different groups within society by: * Identifying the needs of the people in these groups * Evaluating the access of these groups in resources GAY AND LESBIANE -Sexual orientation towards same sex -Need more acceptance and support because they feel isolated -Health needs of HIV/AIDS Discriminated against -Socially isolated -Low self esteem -Poor identity and self image NEEDS Access to Services -Health support that promotes sexual protection, physical and mental health: AIDS Council of NSW (ACON) -media that informs about gay-friendly events and services: Sydney Star Observer Gay and Lesbiane Rights Lobby Group is a support group that helps them access resources equitably, fights for their rights and anti-discrimination Twenty10: social organisation for them to raise self-esteem and network with others, and cope with societys stereotypical attitudes.

Targets the youth. -Need education about sexuality & safe sex. Hard to access this. -Have to educate public about them to reduce homophobia. -Employment: need protection from discrimination, the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 Financial Support: don’t become parents so generally have better socio-economic status. Law still recognises them as a couple so they stil get the same certain legal rights financially. Health: -need education about sexual health to avoid getting HIV/AIDS.

Fear of underaged gay sex (under 18) limits their access to medical attention, -Problems of substance and alcohol abuse, higher suicide rates, depression due to rejection and discrimination -Need to find safe housing in area without discrimination & harassment.

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-Need safety and security without gay hate, emotional or physical violence. People’s homophobic attitudes damages self-esteem and sense of self worth. E. g. religions that promote gay hate. Gays feel rejected from church communities. Need to adjust to their sexual sense of identity. -Can feel isolate because it’s different. -Cultural and bias perception of gay culture can make them self-reject or homophobic. Confused, in denial and despair. Understanding from people is important. FACTORS Age: young people might not know resources available. So they get confused, lonely, frustrated. Very scared of rejection, so they keep it a secret and completely limits their access to resources. Young people facing discrimination and bullying at school can complain to the Anti-Discrimination Board, or is facing discrimination from the school they can report to Department of Education and Training -Most disability services only deal with disability, except for the Rainbow Support Group thats gives support to developmental disabled who are gay. Education about their sexuality, support groups, safe sex practuces enhance the access to services and wellbeing.

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) gives help and info to keep family and friends close to their homosexual people. Ethnic and cultural beliefs limits their access to services if their religion doesn’t accept homosexuality, they feel ashamed. Have to hide it. Beit el Hob is a Middle Eastern gay support group. Gender: gay males have more obvious stereotypical characteristics and suffer more discrimination. Limits access to services and makes them need it more, especially medicaly if they get gay-hatred fueled violence.

Females are getting more socially accepted, aren’t as obvious so get more access to services. Location: services mostly in city, rural gays find it harder. Still able to access over phone/internet. -More scared of inexperienced or homophobic health care professionals, limits access to health services. Also not comfortable comming out to them. Socio-economic status: more financial support so more access to resources and services. AGED -ABS says 65+ -National Senoirs association says 50+ -increased population and expectancy life expectancy: 76 for men and 82 for women -give wisdom and experience to society with employment and raising kids -retire=more leisure time -less income, rely on gov benefits, super and savings -more vulnerable to illness nd disability -most live at home, some need support eg HAAC -get lonely as people die -less mobile and more frail NEEDS: Access to services: -need more family and government support due to decrease health and mobility -need health services that still keep their independence -eg GPs, hospitals, breast scans, public transport Assistance services: Home Care, Catholic Care of the Aged, Home and Community Care, Meals on Wheels, family, community nurses -reluctance to rely on services because they don’t want to admit their age/health, lack knowledge, physical problems, high price, think its family’s responsiblity. Education: -important to keep up with technology sklls because they weren’t raised up with it for communication, information and access to services and goods -e. g. computers and internet -might want to learn new leisure activity -ask a friend/family for assistance meets intellectual needs, increase social and self-esteem wellbeing -may need training at work for technology and skills to maintain their employability Employment: -most are retired or part time working only due to health/choice -so they lose job satisfaction, money, social contacts, routin and responsibility -changes self esteem and sense of identity because they have smaller role in society -new technology makes it harder for them to get a job -a lot do volunteer work or child minding Health: -more risk of bad health and medical issues -need affordable and accessible health care and medication spend more on medical, so higher socio-economic status = better health -decrease bone density and muslce mass, prone to falls, heart disease and cancer, chronic illness can lead to impairment eg asthma/athriritis, diabetes, vision and hearing impairment , depression, dementia -hard to complete daily tasks -often need nursing home care Housing: -most (90%) stay at home -may need rearrangements at home & $$ for this -assistance such as HAAC is a home service that does things like add handrails in toilets, add building ramps federal funding, respite care, delivered meals, home nursing, home maintenance, Meals on Wheels -might need a carer if they can’t afford full time help they can live with relatives, grannly flat, smaller house, retirement village, nursing home -informal support is decline because more women go to work instead of staying at home, increased divorced rate, children move far from home -retirement homes provide socialisation through leisure eg swimming pool and stimulation -nursing homes provide meals, ersonal and miedcal if there really disabled/frail -respite care for family members Security & Safety: -emotional needs, need to keep in touch with friends & family -physical: adequate housing and good health can due vulnerable because their frail and lonely, esp. in public. Often targets of thefts, assaults, scams -get isolated as their friends die and family move away Self-esteem -need to be healthy, working, independent to maintain high self-esteem. have to feel useful through involvement in voluntary work,hobby, part time work, socialising -Dependent, retired, health problems = low self-esteem Sense of identity -dead spouse, living alone, not close to family, friends = no sense of belonging Financial Support superannuation is compulsory since july 1992 -wage if still working -centrelink benefits: Age Pension/Newstart Allowance for mature people (50+), Pharmaceutical Allowanc, -Pensioner Concession Card, Health Care Card, commonweath senoirs health card (cheaper doctors, speialists, chemists), Rent Assistance FACTORS Age: -determines their superannuation, pensions and drivers license test -changes peoples attitudes, eg harder for older people to find employment if employee thinks they won’t stay for long

Disability: -increases with age, eg arthritis -some can get the Disability Support Pension/Mobility Parking Scheme -can get community transport Education: -if they learn how to use technology it increases their access to more goods, sserivces and information -eg Federal Government’s senoirs website gives supportive resources -to get info on new driving regulations eg roundabout rules to pass driving test and keep their license -about health issues Gender: women better at maintaing friendships -men get lonelier when their partner dies -women have longer life expectancy, more aged women Location: -have more access to health, education, government departments in urban area then rural -rural aged have closer family ties Socio-economic status -big impact on wellbeing -high status=private health insurance, money for entertainment and travel -low status=can’t afford car, public hospital waiting list for non-elective surgery Homeless People “without a conventional home & who lack most of the economic & social supports that a home normally affords” * Legal definition: inadequate access to safe and secure housing * Stopped getting support from family/friends, so don’t feel belonging with people or community * Might have financial debt, not enough money for housing, drug or alcohol problems, no jobs or place in society, socially isolated, domestic violence is the biggest cause of their homelessness esp. or women, family breakdown for young people * Physical, mental and health and wellbeing problems Needs ACCESS TO SERVICES: * Can’t access the services available if they can’t read (eg centrelink); they need help finding and accessing services * it’s already too full or the service doesn’t have enough resources to meet demands, eg Wedley Mission * Biggest need is crisis accommodation * Government gives: Supported Accommodation Assistance program: gov gives money to agencies for refuges and shelters * National Homelessness Strategy: prevents and supports homeless people * St Vincent de Paul: biggest charity organisation, runs Matthew Talbot Hostel for homeless men EDUCATION * They need it to know about services they can access, and to confidently access them * Need education that fosters independence and self-esteem * Usually low self-esteem, lack of resources, no sense of belonging, poor utrition= bad concentration, lack of economic resources; makes it hard to get education * Need to learn how manage resources, decision-making and problem solving * Student welfare services: targets youth at school in need to prevent homelessness * Homeless might be educated but are homeless because of things they can’t control, eg family/money * Job Placement, Employment & Training programs helps youth with education and work EMPLOYMENT * Unemployment causes homelessness * Most use Supported Accommodation Assistance program * Why they can’t find employment: Low self esteem * Poor health * Lack of social support * Poor education * Lack of suitable skills and knowledge * Might have very low paying jobs * They need equitable access to training for skills * Community organisations need more money to train them * Young homeless people need education, employment training and transport close t to their homes * Government should offer subsidies to employers so they hire homeless people * They need a case manager if they are employed to make sure they stay employed FINANCIAL SUPPORT * Needed for basic needs; food, clothing, shelter Centrelink Community Officers go around to help homeless apply for Centrelink benefits eg Youth Allowance, aged, Disability, Unemployment Benefits * Can’t get centrelink if they don’t have a fixed address * Welfare organisations funded by Emergency Relief Programs: * – Smith Family * St Vincent de Paul * Salvos * Lifeline * Drug & alcohol addicts spent their money of their addictions; refuse help because their running away from their bad past and don’t want to be found HEALTH * High health needs because they have more problems Mental disorders; malnutrition; drug/alcohol abuse; sexual health problems- both consequence and result * Gets heaps of health problems: frostbite, leg ulcers, depression, self-hatred, self-harm * Women are more vulnerable to violence and sexual assault * STDs etc if do sex work for survival * Neglected need under food, housing, work * Only get help when in crisis * Need health care that is free, flexible, holistic, non-discriminating, bulk bills, walk-in appointments * Need counselling to deal with their emotional trauma Need mental health services to be improved, more accessible, less waiting time; need access to drug and alcohol rehab services, more rural healthcare HOUSING * Don’t have enough money to live in a safe environment * Department of Public Housing-Homelessness Action Team * Need emergency crisis accommodation * Supported Accommodation Assistance program * Commonwealth or State Housing Agreement * Rental Assistance; and help through Mission Australia * Housing has be available, adequate, appropriate, emergency and short-term, and permanent too.

Has to meet their needs; works with education, employment, health services SECURITY & SAFETY * There not safe on the streets, alleyways, parks, etc * Temporary accommodation so they have no sense of belonging or security * Commonwealth Department of Family & Community Services- Reconnect Program: helps young homeless people reconcile with family, improve education and skills * Partnerships Against Domestic Violence Strategy gives money to stop domestic violence to there’s less people living in abusive environments, which is a major cause of homelessness SELF-ESTEEM They have low self-esteem from family breakdown, abuse, assault, lack of education, mental illness, poverty * Poor view of future * Seem aggressive or hostile because of their bad experiences and lack of communication skills * Need to feel belonging to the community SENSE OF IDENTITY * Their low self-esteem, unemployment, low/no income, homeless stigma poor sense of identity * Don’t have a proper home so no strong identity * Can’t get Centrelink Access to resources AGE * Some people are too young to access services; eg some only accept people 12+ * Centrelink payments can be age based Affects what they know and experienced; eg old person knows support services but doesn’t access it because of past bad experiences * Most homeless youth have mental illness so don’t access resources, and there’s a lot so less resources DISABILITY * Disabled people can get Disability pensions * Not mobile; so can’t physically access resources * Harder to communicate and access resources * But it depends on the type of disability and how much it affects them EDUCATION * Education helps to find and access resources Poor literacy skills = can’t access resources eg Centrelink * Can get referred to resources through school if their young * Education increases employment so less likely they’ll be homeless ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Language barrier * Need support staff that speaks other languages or are culturally sensitive * A lot of non-English speaking and Indigenous homeless people GENDER * Gender specific services; Matthew Talbot House, Catherine McAuley House, women’s refuges * Females look for help more, but more likely to have hildren so need more * Women tend to escape domestic violence * Men have more jobs available so easier to access to financial resources LOCATION * Urban areas have more resources than rural * They move place to place; No permanent address = no centrelink SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS * They have little or no money * No money = hard to get resources * Don’t get centrelink if they don’t have a fixed address * Poor people tend to live in areas where it’s hard to find a job Rural Families * Live far from suburbs and capital cities * Agricultural industry Small close knit communities * Not as much contact with others * Supportive families * Low population density NEEDS ACCESS TO SERVICES * Hard to get services at rural towns so they have to travel to bigger towns * Internet is important in getting services such as banking, but they have to know how to use technology * Centrelink assistance through rural call centres, theres rural officers so they don’t have to go all the way to the office * Have to travel far for medical facilities, sporting venues, shopping centres * Cost more money and time, reorganise scedules Expensive rural services because of the delivery * Disabled or ill people have harder access to facilities and support networks * Different ethnic backgrounds have less support networks, eg worship or help with literacy * Young people = less casual work if their at school, so less financial independence and resources * Old people = have work skills but increased mobility means harder to travel to access resources EDUCATION Usually have one big school for K-12 or one small public school, limited subject choice and teachers have to teach more * Rural students might need educational resources from far schools or school of the air, boarding school * Ned access to computer and facsimile technology long distant or school of the air, financial resources needed for boarding school * Assistance for Isolated Children scheme designed by Department of Education * Training and Youth Affairs program from Centrelink = helps students who can’t go to government school everyday cause it’s too far; gives allowance without a mans test * Boarding Allowance but have to pass the Parental Income test EMPLOYMENT Limited to work on farms and properties, or trade in the town, seasonal work like fruit picking but no security * Females have less career choice but can still do farming property * Most youth have to leave rural rown for further education FINANCIAL SUPPORT * Rural towns are dominated by one industry, so there’s no predictable income, and there can be rapid financial downturns; eg if the harvest doesn’t do well that year then there’s payments from Centrelink eg Flood Assistance Package * Rural people can get: * Remote Area Allowance * Crisis Payment * Diaster Relief Payment * Exceptional Circumstances Relief Payment HEALTH * Severe doctor shortage * Neglected because there’s only a few specialist facilities, ill or disabled have to travel far for health services * Less support networks for disabled or chronically ill Less bulk billing so it’s harder for socio-economically disadvantaged to get medical attention * Government scheme to encourage young doctors to move out of urban areas into rural areas, rural doctors get full Medicare Rebate which means the patient gets more rebate, so more doctors can bulk bill HOUSING * Lower cost of living but spend more on travel * Can feel isolated at home * Need resources like communication, entertainment eg computer, internet, mobile phones, cable pay television SECURITY AND SAFETY * More physical security because of close knit community * Feel threatened from travellers * Financially insecure cause stress and worry if in debt * Need financial assistance and emotional assistance, counselling and informal support SELF-ESTEEM Feel helpless if there’s natural disasters impacting their work and income * Can feel like a failure if there work fails * Can rely on family, friends, banks, government = low self-esteem and self worth * Need emotional support and new work so they don’t give up and can still provide for family * The Farm Help – Supporting Families Through Change program gives them access to payments, financial counselling, grants; lets farmers meet their physical needs for family and emotionally by increasing self-esteem and security SENSE OF IDENTITY * Farmers used to be well off but now the weathers unpredictable and commodity prices are lower, their future can be uncertain * Rural areas are seen as for farming and mining Tourism creates a new sense of identity for these areas Factors affecting access to resources for rural families AGE * Not a barrier for farming & work, young and old can do it * Teenagers have limited access to social or sporting commitments, special resources, but most leave after high school so the average age of farmer is increasing * so older farmers have less mobility making it harder to maintain their farm DISABILITY * disabled people have extra limits to resources eg support groups, services, recreation, shopping * hard to transport; no community bus * hard to fix equipment, get new supplies * almost no respite care facilities in rural areas, limited community houses and shelters workshops EDUCATION Very limited, eg only teaches up to year 10 so parents have the send children off to boarding school * Boarding School Allowance from Centrelink helps * Open Training and Education Network (OTEN) courses through Distant Education * There’s a lot technology; video conferencing, online courses that had subjects that their school might not * Tertiary education students usually have to leave home * If they stay and work on a property they have to educated in things like retail hospitality, health ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Ethnic people have difficulty fitting in because of their language and finding information support, hard to find their food as well GENDER * Gender impacts what jobs they have Country Women’s Association looks after welfare of women and their family, in both country and city by lobbying to gov, fundraise and teach life skills * Traditional role is men are farmers and women look after children, but it’s chaning and there’s more jobs for women LOCATION * Biggest factor, limits their access to special services in health and education * So they have to travel more for school, recreational supports SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS * High = more opportunities in education, mobility, lifestyle (can afford books, travel, entertainment) * Low = rely on government, less health advantages Disabled * Restricted or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within range considered normal for a human being * Eg difficulty in sight, speaking, hearing, moving, etc * Different types and extents of disability * Physical/intellectual disadvantage * Need a carer for help with everyday activities

TYPES OF DISABILTIES IS PIPS: PHYSICAL INTELLECTUAL PYSCHOLOGICAL SENSORY (HEARING/VISUALLY IMPAIRED) NEEDS ACCESS TO SERVICES * A lot of services that they don’t access because * Don’t know about the services or know that they have a disability * Can’t get to it because of disability * It’s not free * Judgement that their intellectually disabled as well; community ignorance * Government, community organisations have to work together: * NSW Down’s Syndrome Association * Royal Blind Society * Deaf Society of NSW * The House With No Steps * Life Without Barriers * The Spastic Centre * Disability Information Service * People with Disabilities NSW Life Activities and Mission Australia: helps them live independently in the community, effective communication, planning, goal settling, how to do day-to-day activities * National Council for Sport and Recreation for the Disabled: helps them interact and participate in recreation and leisure activities * Government’s Disability Policy Framework: makes sure disabled people can still access services for normal people * Illegal to discriminate against disabled people * Schools can have language interpreter for hearing-impaired student EMPLOYMENT * Government made the Commonwealth Disability Services Act 1986 so more disabled people can work especially in labour. Achieves it through job search, job placement, individual job training and support, disability employment services * Post School Options program is from NSW government forces disabled people to have the same job opportunities as a normal person if they are both able to do it, eg pick up a phone * Need the employers o know that their not fully disabled, and gov offer subsidies and support for their education and training * Disabled people might need changes in work premises, equipment, schedules and training but can still do a good job FINANCIAL SUPPORT * Can support themselves through work * Others need extra support or full support from someone else or agency * Centrelink gives it for disabled and carer of disabled, Disability Support Pension for people with physical intellectual, psychiatric impairment so they can’t work * Carer Payments * Still need their independence, so it helps them with their medical expenses, special equipment and changes to be independent HEALTH * Disability usually comes from disease, disorder or injury * health needs depends on their disability some have to be in hospital, nursing homes, etc for to be cared for * household disabled need help moving around from friends, family, partner * carer gets strained HOUSING * have the change their house * Department of Housing builds or refurbishes home so they can live there * Home and Community Care gives home nursing, delivered meals, home help, transport, shopping, paramedical services, advice and assistance * Illegal for real estate to discriminate; eg guard dog must be allowed for the blind SECURITY AND SAFETY * Financial assistance = they can meet their basic needs * Emotional support from informal support * Have to feel belonging to community and safe; so there’s disabled car parks, ramps at shops, disabled seats on transport SELF-ESTEEM Feel different; so low self-esteem * Need love, care and encouragement * Need a positive attitude SENSE OF IDENTITY * Some always need care so no sense of id. * Others are independent and have their own identity * Disabled kids shouldn’t get pities and over protective FACTORS AFFECTING ACCESS TO RESOURCES FOR THE DISABLED AGE * Age makes the disability worse * Age is carer; too old to work DISABLITY * Formal resources helps eg Disability Support Pension, Mobility Parking Scheme sticker, Mobility Allowance = lets disabled use taxis to work or to training programs * Learning support at schools and special schools for very disabled * Special Olympics of Paralympics Crossways: spiritual support EDUCATION * Education helps their disability to manage it * Intellectually disabled can use internet and mobile phone to get access to information, enhance communication especially if they don’t leave the house * Important to learn about their health issues and what support groups are out there for them * Disabled youth get more assistance at school and in tafe with special teachers/classrooms ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Limits their access to formal services eg health resources and also friendships * Handital NSW is a community facility for people from ethnic background, disabled Italians and there carers through programs GENDER Disabled men more likely from motor vehicle or occupational inkury * Disabled women less education, earn less money, more likely to be institutionalised and vulnerable to violence LOCATION * Urban areas have more access to resources and the rural disabled have to travel more for it, eg health, education, support groups, government departments SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS * Less money because they rely on government, limits access to private health insurance, leisure activities, and have to be on long waiting lists for equipment eg motorised wheelchairs * More money = can buy more specialised equipment Youth * Age between childhood and adulthood * 15-24 years Usually studying so dependent on parents * Puberty, body changes * Getting their independence and learning about life NEEDS ACCESS TO SERVICES * Voluntary organisations give emergency help, basic needs and advice * The smith family * Mission Australia * St Vincent de paul * Lifeline gives crisis help, and counselling * Centrelink, HSC advice line, school and employment counsellors: employment training and counselling * Centrelink payments; Austudy, Newstart, Youth Allowance * Gym for physical wellbeing * Community organisations: * Sydney City Mission * Centrecare * Doctors * Community Centres * Community Transport * Educational Support Teams * Housing services Assistant employment opportunities EDUCATION * Lack of money or family support makes it hard to complete and access further education * Youth Allowance is there income while they study, look for work, training course, sick * Education is free and they have counsellors, social workers, career advisers for young people’s needs EMPLOYMENT * They can work full time, part time, casual so they have more responsibility especially to find a job/future career * Community resources help them find jobs eg Job Networks, Training Courses, Apprenticeship programs eg Green Corp * Informal eg charity, family, peers, teachers, coaches FINANCIAL SUPPORT Most are supported by family, so their parents income and social location impacts how much help they get from their parents and for how long, but higher earners won’t get centrelink * lower earners get family allowance, rent assistance, away from home rate eg * 20-24 are more independent, their job income lets them meet their needs, more are living with parents so saving money for travel, car, clothes, etc * Youth have to learn to manage money, get a good credit rating, save for a house deposit HEALTH * Have good health but vulnerable to asthma, sexual issues, unwanted pregnancies, risk behaviour; drugs and speed, mental/emotional problems; depression * Increasing rate of suicide especially for males HOUSING * Provided by family but problems at home e. g. family conflict, violence, health issues, poverty, desire for independence = they move out * They work and can pay for rent Others struggle and rely on department of housing, mission Australia or centrelink * Older youth need privacy and independence at home; some can live in the granny flat for les conflict over noise, friends over, personal space SECURITY AND SAFETY * Find it in family and peer group * Need a positive family environment and have enough resources for emotional and physical needs * Good peer group that doesn’t make them involved in drug abuse, binge drinking, safe sex, violent behaviour, gangs SELF-ESTEEM * They have to feel good about themselves, family is important * Parents should praise and encourage for them to succeed * Low self-esteem and depression from unemployment, poor self-image, peer pressure, relationship problems * Family has to give support and encourage if low self-esteem SENSE OF IDENTITY Move away from parents influence and into peer approval and acceptance * Grow personal and sexual identity and need a supportive and trusting environment for it * Society wants them to be responsible but sometimes don’t get the chance to prove it, eg can’t work until 14 yr 9 months, Factors affecting access to resources for the youth AGE * Government policies and regulations based on age; Abstudy for 14, Youth Allowance for 14-24, get their L’s at 16, P’s at 17 * Legal Aid hotline for people -18 * Impacts how they can access resources and services; eg access to school, gap-year programs, youth groups, etc * Barrier if they can’t vote or sign contract, go to nightclubs, buy alcohol * Not as much life experience = limits decision making ability DISABILITY Disabled that goes to mainstream schools can get special provisions for exams, or go to special school * Disabled youth can get Mobility Allowance if they can’t use public transport at 16 * TAFE has special courses too EDUCATION * Needed for further education and training eg university, so they can get higher-paid employment with more career opportunities to meet housing and self esteem needs also ETHNICITY/CULTURE * They have to learn English through intensive language course before school, a lot of private colleges teaches students English for their school * Ethnic people can study their language as a subjects and do well in it * Language and cultural barriers can make it harder to make friends at school GENDER Not as much of an impact as before; but still might be harder for some employments or promotion, eg easier for men to succeed in professional sport and get paid more LOCATION * Rural youth don’t get as much access to education, employment opportunities, recreational activities, health services, public transport * Negatively impacts how they can meed needs for education, health, employment, housing, financial support * Internet and technology breaks down the location barrier * Urban youth have more access to services and resources * Rural youth have more community support informally; friends, family, neighbours SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS Youth with more can afford more expensive recreational choices, private schooling, private health care * Lower socioeconomic status face limits with education and training but can’t work full time Sole Parent * One parent living with 1+ children * Due to divorce, separation, death, illness, desertion, child out of marriage * More at risk of poverty * Increasing due to increasing divorce NEEDS ACCESS TO SERVICES * Have more services but don’t access it * Public transport, the Jobs, Education and Training program, Parenting Payment, Family Allowance, Child Support Agency, childcare, DOCs * Ethnic sole parents aren’t as accepted in their community, especially unmarried women having kids EDUCATION * Going to school is time and money consuming Single parents could of interrupted their high school or uni education, hard to go back with a child, would need child care and financial help if they do * Workers might take time off for full time parenting, need qualification and update their experience, get training and education for a good job * Sole parents can still work full time and get their Centrelink payments * Parenting Payment can use the Jobs, Education and Training program for educational needs * Sydney western schoos have intensive programs that makes school more flexible for students to finish hsc EMPLOYMENT * Might spend more money with healthcare, travel, clothing than they get at work, get less rental assistance and rebate if they work, plus less time parenting so a lot don’t work * They don’t need to work until youngest child is 16 Need flexible work; with hours for them, family leave, eg * Employment lets them socialise with other adults FINANCIAL SUPPORT * Some need community and government support; government needs to give them more money * The Parenting Payment (Single) for single parents; depends on your income and allowance assets * Health Care Card * Parent who look s after child can get Child Support HEALTH * Medicare because private health care is expensive * Emotional health because they broke up with partner * Need advice and support; counselling services eg Lifeline, St Vincent de paul society, kids helpline * DOCs for family in crisis * Children can go into foster care while parents work out how to manage situation HOUSING Most rent, some get rental assistance; long waiting list for public housing * Public housing people get accessed every few years so they don’t have security * Have to find affordable housing if they can’t get public housing * Moving between homes of both parents can disrupt their education and daily lives SECURITY AND SAFETY * Women might not feel physically safe so get alarm system, live closesr to family and friends, feel threatened by ex partner, get an VO * Suffer loss, grief, shock * Parents Without Partners, Lone Fathers Association, Supporting Mothers Groups, Relationships Australia * Same needs as normal families but less flexible Might not feel like a good parent = low self-esteem * Person who got dumped feels rejected, the other feels bad, child can feel like it’s their fault; need to discuss issues and get counselling * Less time so less socialisation = low self-esteem SENSE OF IDENTITY * Isolated, feel different, lost friendship from partner, better for child if they have both parents still sharing responsibilities * Community shouldn’t just all as broke Factor affecting access to resources for sole parents AGE * Age impacts; eg 15 y/o won’t have the knowledge or about community organisations (or can’t drive to it) such as * Toy libraries * Community support eg Early Childhood Clinic Parents Without Partners; social groups for parents to get together and talk * Child Support Agency; helps parent get parent from the other parent that doesn’t live with them * Lone Fathers Association; support and socialising for single dads * Child Care Centres; parent support and socialising for children * Agencies eg St Vincent de Pauls Societ, Smith Family, Burns Side (for kids), Red Cross, Salvation Army; all offer financial, emotional, physical support for families * There’s local support groups for teenage parents with these difficulties DISABILITY * Harder if child or parent has disability * 16+ disabled child can get Disability Support Pension They can get Mobility Parking Scheme; easier access for shops/medical appointments * Child can access young carer networks to deal with emotional strain if the parent has disability EDUCATION * Education = employment & money; higher wages * Use internet for access to educational programs * Might not get education if they have to look after child, or don’t have enough money because they spend it on childcare; Childcare rebate helps * Jobs, Education and Training (JET) = useful to find work, study ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Ethnic families and friends might not support single parenthood; so the parent doesn’t get as much informal support * Language and cultural barriers limits access to community groups GENDER * Most are women so there’s more support out there for women then men LOCATION Urban parents have more community resources; childcare, schools, employments, adult education, support groups * Rural sole parents have more community support; family and friends SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS * High socioeconomic status; own a home, private health insurance and education for children * Low socioeconomic status; disadvantaged area, less recreational activities to save money, less informal support services Families in Crisis * Suffers from some kind of trauma; physical, social, emotional, financial * Trauma disturbs their daily life * More demands than resources * Due to natural disaster, death of family members, family breakdown, domestic violenc, alcohol/drug/gambling problems, retrenchment (broke) Needs ACCESS TO SERVICES Informal; family and friends * Centrelink payments; if parent dies there’s bereavement paysments, also for widow allowance. If divorced; family tax benefit, parenting payment, child-care benefit, maternity allowance. A lot for natural disaster. * Crisis from domestic violence; domestic violence line for support. Counselling service for women, also works with women refuges. Domestic volence advocacy serive for fre support and legal advice, solicitors. * Family protection and family crisis services; Relationships Australia gives counselling and assistance. DOCs: child protection and family crisis service if child gets abused or is in danger, also helps families adapt to ocial/economic changes by giving financial support, affordable housing, clothing, emotional support * HOUSING ASSISTANCE ACT 1996: gives funding to people to meet needs if they can’t do it themselves, family can get money to access resources * Addiction problems: Alcoholic Anonymous, self-support for alcoholics that help each other and give hope * Smith Family, vinnies, Mission Australia, Centcare gives welfare support and counselling * A lot don’t use these because they don’t know or have too much pride, informal support is important to direct them there. * But these resources don’t meet the demands EDUCATION * Important that crisis families doesn’t disrupt children’s education * Their only normal aspect of life, focus on study can shift focus from problems * If crisis is from something emotional eg parent divorce, drug/gambling problem than child might have concentration problems. Principle should be notified so teachers are nicer and don’t give them hard time at school. * School counsellor helps * Teachers/tutor can give extra help if they fall behind the school work EMPLOYMENT some still work, take leave or resign; depends on crisis or can get leave or holiday if work lets for time to deal with crisis and come back after crisis gets better * eg bushfire burns home; take 6 weeks leave and get financial help * government helps if it’s really bad and they can’t work or get help from employment assistance program * personal support programs helps people find work by helping them get over what’s stopping them from working, give them access to drug or alcohol rehabilitation programs and counselling; free program FINANCIAL SUPPORT * unexpected and sudden crisis means they’re not financially prepared * might need money if their broke or family member dies Centrelink gives Special Benefit payment for people broke due to reasons out of their control, DOCs considers their reasons and says if payment is granted or not * Diaster Relief Payment; short term help for victims of disaster, only if their house or source of income got damaged due to disaster * Exceptional Circumstances Relief Payments; for famers in affected areas that are struggling HEALTH * Stress from crisis is bad for long term health * Chronic stress leads to heart disease, cancer, alcoholism, high blood pressure, ulcers, metnal illness * Physical/emotional health problems from crisis of abuse or addiction; adult should remove themselves or remove the perpetrator HOUSING * Basic need might be at risk/jeopardy due to crisis e. g. : * Have to move out due to domestic violence * Lose home due to fire/earthquake * Can’t afford rent due to retrenchment They all need alternative housing or accommodation * The Supported Accommodation Assistance programs give money to community services that help people in crisis who need accommodation (both long term and emergency) and help them get back to independency and get their own home * Community services eg refuges, shelters, halfway houses * Charity organisations give money for housing needs or accommodation SECURITY AND SAFETY * Crisis threatens this important physical and emotional need * Eg violent homes harm physical need; child with domestic violence need help; alwas ill, low self-esteem, nightmares, disruptive at school, think it’s their fault.

Need counselling and move family to somewhere safe * Death; family can feel fear, anger, guilty, anxiety, stress; might need professional help * Parent divorce; insecurity because family structure changed, children need help from parents that family changed but there’s still love, don’t make child choose between parents and keep child’s normal routines and discipline SELF-ESTEEM * Disturbed emotional well-being if family lost their home, life savings, family member * Might blame themselves or another family member; gives guilt that reduces their self-esteem * Crisis might make them lose independence, security, sense of belonging; family need each other and need to feel like they still have a good future and get it all back (independence etc) * Bad family members (eg addicts) still need love, professional help, informal support, feel worthwhile and confident to get new job, move on with life etc SENSE OF IDENTITY Family unit might break down and those who leave lack identity * Some family gets closer and stronger sense of identity * The quicker they overcome it, the less impact it has Factors affecting access to resources for families in crisis AGE * Age impacts ability; eg young people who can’t be independent if parents die, can’t drive or sign contract for loan * Old people can’t deal with crisis without help DISABILITY * Crisis resulting in disability changes family; they’ll need help/carer * Type of disability determines impact of education/employment EDUCATION * Need to know the government and community support available ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Might need help from translator; at major hospitals * Language/cultural barrier; less informal support Racism; Sudanese family can’t get a house to rent due to racist landlord GENDER * Women get help more and have better social support from family/friends LOCATION * Urban families; more access to major hospitals, support groups, employment opportunities * RURAL; community support SOCIOEONOMIC STATUS * Impacts wellbeing * HIGH; private health insurance and hospitals instead of waiting list, holiday house if theres burns down but can’t get government support due to high assets Socioeconomically disadvantaged * Lack sufficient income for basic needs (health services, food, housing, clothing) that the rest of society can afford * Hard to maintain adequate standard of living * Unemployed, rely on social security Poor due to disability, illness, living in remote area so can’t work and earn good income * Aged, sole parents, migrants, aborigines = at risk of being disadvantaged * Hard to break out of poverty cycle (poor parents raise kids to be poor; in environment that doesn’t foster education, or leave school for work, and get a low status/paying job, marry same social class) Needs ACCESS TO SERVICES * Can’t afford expensive things like private health insurance, specialist doctor care; social activities like holidays, eating out, entertainment; cars so rely on public transport; own home or home so need low cost housing, maybe even telephone * Rely on: * Department of Housing * Centrelink * Charity groups (Vinnies, Mission Australia, Smith Family) * Government’s welfare sysyem EDUCATION Most leave school early due to money; part time work, tire at school/can’t keep with work because basic needs aren’t met poor results, difficulty learning, home isn’t the learning environment * High priority because it gives them job with high income, so gov tries to keep them in school with Austudy payment (full time 25+ students), Youth Allowance for 16-24 y/o studying and independent 15y/o. EMPLOYMENT * Unemployed because no education, skills * Unemployed people poorer than those dependent on centrelinK * Usually long term unemployment * Need help to find jobs so government tries using an early intervention strategy; Persoanl Support program, Job Network programs, Literacy and Numeracy programs for people at risk of long term dependence * Centrelink has career counselling FINANCIAL SUPPORT Centrelink often not enough to meet rising cost of living * Youth Allowance; 21 and under & unemployed } * Newstart Allowance: 21+ & unemployed } enough money to find a job * Mature Age Allowance: 60+ & unemployed, but too young for Age Pension * Only have just enough money for needs, can’t save, need help from charity organisations, family, friends * Need help claiming benefits if they can’t read/write * Credit victims because they take loans on credit cards to buy things they don’t ed and end up in debt; buy things due to advertising/marketing persuading them that society needs it to improve standard of living HEALTH * Poor health, more illnesses * Not a top priority under everything else Medicare Levy provides essential medical services but not all, can’t afford private health insurance so end up on long waiting list at oublic hospital * Health Care Card if on centrelink = cheaper medicine * Health, household, educational, recreational, transport concessions from government HOUSING * Rent assistant and public housing * If they rent or buy a home and spend most of the money on that and only have enough for basic needs, wellbeing is damaged SECURITY AND SAFETY * Physically & financially unsafe and insecure * No income security * Poorly protected homes, insecure because they can’t stay there if they can’t afford rent/bills SELF-ESTEEM Poor people can feel undervalues, less dignity and chances to show their true potential, don’t get the same things as society gets = low self-esteem, depressed & nervous about financial stress, can’t provide for family = low self-esteem * Need to feel worthwhile members of society, and long-term help, charities help with physical, basic and also emotional needs in increase self worth and give positive state of mind SENSE OF IDENTITY * Poor, unemployed, bad home; question sense of identity * Society looks down on them so they feel like failures that aren’t accepted. Strategies to overcome sense of failure needed, eg quit what’s making them poor like gambing, drug problems, leave and use family/community support increase self worth, government department & community resources give direction and sense of hope Factors that affect access to resources for socioeconomically disadvantaged people AGE Age impacts centrelink payments that are age based and knowledge about accessing those payments & other support services DISABILITY * Disability limits education and hence high earning jobs EDUCATION * Youth Allowance helps them finish their studies * Private schools offer scholarships * Children leave school early for work and income ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Ethnic people know less about community resources to help their health, financial, employment, educational needs * Language and cultural barrier limits informal support GENDER * Women get less further education and employment due to gender role; eg sole parents, chronically ill, cultural groups LOCATION Urban have less access to resources like welfare groups, employment support, public transport, hospitals * Rural community have more informal support SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS * Status causes disadvantages, overcome by youth allowance, rental assistance, health cares, free literacy and numeracy courses Chronically ill * Ill for an extended period of time, because it’s continuous or reoccurring * Can get more serious and fatal * Can impact physically, emotionally, intellectually, socially, spiritually * Eg asthma, arthritis, diabetes mental illness, hypertension, emphysema, hay fever, back and neck problems, irritable bowel syndrome NEEDS ACCESS TO SERVICES * Rely on health professionals (doctors, surgeons, etc) Some can’t afford it, rely on public health system but there’s long waiting period and lists * Might not get coverage straight away of even be eligible for it if they were already ill * Can use home health care, respite care centrelinks EDUCATION * Same right to education as everyone else, but might have more absences * Special provisions at school, uni, tafe * School at some children’s hospitals; work sent to them * Education satisfied intellectual well-being, takes focus away from illness * Education about their illness makes them understand it more and control it, eg asthma avoids pollen EMPLOYMENT * Most work give sick leave with full pay, partial pay or no pay * Some can work from home * Might lose job if they over use their sick days * Hard to get another job with high absenteeism Some don’t interfere with job cause they can be controlled, eg diabetes * Worksafe Australia makes safety standards to prevent injury and disease * Legally protected (SW Workers Compensation Act 1987) gives workers compensation if there ill from work FINANCIAL SUPPORT * Chronic illness needs costly ongoing medical treatment, Have to change home and hard to keep job financial burden * Temporary sickness allowance for employed and sick people, need medical certificate * Centrelink: mobility allowance for people whose sickness prevents them using public transport * Government gives Medicare and Health Care Card to reduce financial burden HEALTH * Bad health might reduce their quality of life * Daily health affected by medication or treatments eg chemotherapy * Prevented or improved by control of diet and lifestyle choices HOUSING Financial burden might lower their housing standards; have to live in a poor area, struggle * House might need help for the ill eg ramps, handrails to meet there needs * Need there own room especially for extra sleep SECURITY AND SAFETY * Have to feel secure and safe in whatever environment; home or hospital * Positive and supportive environment if they feel depressed * Good communication with carer so they work together to reach common goal of better health * Need more love and support for their insecurity and powerlessness * Might change lifestyle for better health, eg diet and house changes eg handrails both to improve safety SELF ESTEEM Might get physical changes eg weight gain or loss, skin problems; negatively change their body image and wellbeing, lose independence low self esteem. So they should be treated like their capable, important members of society so they don’t feel useless and lonely SENSE OF IDENTITY * Depends on illness if it stops work, sport, social family life so they lose sense of identity * Can still manage illness and live life to the max FACTORS AFFECTING ACCESS TO RESOURCES FOR CHRONICALLY ILL AGE * Chronic illness more likely as you get older DISABLITY * Chronic illness can be with or made worse with disability like arthritis * They can get Disability Support Pension or Mobility Parking Scheme * Can use patient transport operated from ambulance service or get taxi allowance EDUCATION Need to know about their illness; its treatment and medication, support groups, new research and treatment, through internet; but can get wrong diagnosis * Internet increases access to social support, good if they don’t leave the house ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Language and culture can be barrier to understanding info and getting treatment, so harder to get health resources in community of centrelink benefits GENDER * Women more confident in getting services like doctors/counselling LOCATION * Rural have less access to health resources;major hospitals, support groups SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS * Impacts access to treatment and services * HIGH; private health insurance and hospitals, can get surgery overseas instead of being on waiting list Cultural groups; e. g. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Culture impacts lifestyle; diet, dress, language, social activities * Differs needs, wants, values, goals * Can be good but also draws lines and discrimination eg Aboriginals, Greeks, Italians, Lebanese Muslims, Tongans, Pacific Islanders, Jewish community, Asians, Sudanese * Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander; members of the indigenous community, indigenous meaning ‘first people’ NEEDS ACCESS TO SERVICES * Need services that have experience in dealing with different cultures; interpreters at most government departments * Can learn new language at schools, community centres for immigrants * Cultural groups value spiritual programs in their own language * Indigenous might be in remote area so hard to get support EDUCATION Need education to improve language skills for interaction with community, find and use resources, get qualifications to find employment * Indigenous have a greater risk of academic failure and dropping out of school, nee to learn about their customs and the available government funding provisions EMPLOYMENT * Employment means money, but cultural groups that come from overseas with overseas qualification or no qualification can find it hard to secure employment if they don’t speak the same language as their work/clients FINANCIAL SUPPORT * Might need help to finish Centrelink paperwork * Abstudy: for Indigenous people at school 14+, makes them stay in school so they can get a job * Indigenous people need support to get affordable housing, basic needs; government assistance provided HEALTH Different groups have different health issues; Indigenous have diabetes, Jews have hereditary condition Tay Sachs disease * Indigenous have lower life expectancy because of their poor health care and nutrition; need to improve health and education, government aims at this HOUSING * Cultural groups usually live closer together, so the similar culture gives sense of belonging and support. Language barriers with rest of community. * Aged usually live with family and don’t want to move with nursing home because of cultural/language barrier * Indigenous = need support services to get affordable and safe living standards SECURITY AND SAFETY * Needed in community; some groups are scared and scarred from history and experience of violence. Some might experience racism for their differences, which is protected by the Anti-Discrimination Act * Risky behaviour and preventative measures = more and longer survival, better wellbeing SELF-ESTEEM * Pride in their culture, culture adds diversity to food, dance, music, costumes; gives them self-esteem to belong in that group * More academic achievement, employment, increase in health and nutrition, helps with emotional and social wellbeing SENSE OF IDENTITY * Sense of identity in their heritage and traditions; pride in culture brings sense of idenitity * Eg greek men brough up to be providers of families, New Zealanders have sporting pride, Fijians are devout Christians; ig part of the identity * Indigenous = learning programs teach about their traditional customs FACOTS AFFECTING ACCESS TO RESOURCES FOR CULTURAL GROUPS AGE * Certain groups traditionally give more respect to the aged; eg Indigenous, Japanese * Some need nursing homes that cater for their background, others forget English and only speak their original language so limits communication and understanding with family, friends * Indigenous = Abstudy is aged based DISABILITY * Some cultures get it more; eg Sudanese get physical disabilities from their home country atrocities. Handital; formal support for disabled Italians and their carers. Organisations for specific cultures in their community EDUCATION * For employment and income * Programs for education: Multicultural community centres with employment and training programs * Saturday School of Community Languages for young people to learn and speak native language * Tutor at school and uni for Indigenous students ETHNICITY/CULTURE * Formal resources for groups to meet needs, eg schools, nursing homes, community centres, hospitals * Centrelink has multilingual publications in different languages, and call centres. Makes them understand and use services GENDER * Impacts roles and responsibilities, eg men are providers LOCATION * Cultural group lives close together and closer to community support. * Rural cultural people get socially isolated, especially with language barriers SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS * Varies with individuals; Indigenous have lower due to low education and employment

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