The aim of this paper is to make a rhetorical analysis of prophesying manner of Southern Baptist Preacher Dr. Rick Warren with an application for us today. The research seeks to analyse the hypothesis that the manners adapted by Warren will uncover rules that can be applied to our prophesying manner. The intent of the paper is embodied in the inquiry, “ What makes Rick Warren ‘s sermon and learning so effectual and persuasive? ” This paper besides intends to supply a principle for why Rick Warren is worthy of this analysis and a study of his influencers and his influence and eventually try to reply how Warren fits into the larger watercourse of SBC prophesying.
In order to prove the hypothesis and an effort to reply the inquiry, the research worker did the followers: analyzed one of his written beginnings selected based on its popularity and listened to or viewed ten most current discourses.
Richard Duane Warren was born on January 28, 1954 in San Jose, California to Jimmy Warren and Dorothy Warren.
He was the 3rd of four kids and was preceded by a brother, Jimmy Clyde, and a sister, Chaundel Warren after Rick.[ 1 ]( Before Rick, Wayne was still born because he got entangled in the umbilical cord ) . His male parent was a Baptist curate, his female parent a high school bibliothec. He was raised inA Ukiah, California, and graduated from Ukiah High School in 1972, where he founded the first Christian nine on the school ‘s campus, The Fishermans of Men Club.
[ 2 ]
Rick ‘s male parent Jimmy was a Southern Baptist curate, who pastored bantam churches in little Northern California town. His great-grand male parent on his female parent ‘s side, Ebenezer McCoy Armstrong was a sermonizer in Illinois and Kansas, who came to faith under the British Baptist Preacher Charles H. Spurgeon. Armstrong ‘s boy Warren ‘s maternal gramps, Chester Moody Armstrong, was an appointed Baptist deacon and church plantation owner, and most of Warren ‘s aunts and uncles on both sides of the household were committed Baptist laypeople.[ 3 ]Rick Warren had a strong Baptist influence.
Warren received aA Bachelor of ArtsA grade fromA California Baptist UniversityA in Riverside, California ; aA Master of DivinityA degree fromA Southwestern Baptist Theological SeminaryA ( 1979 ) in Fort Worth, Texas. During his clip atA Seminary, Warren worked at the Texas Ranch for Christ, a ministry installation of Billie Hanks, Jr. , where he began composing books. He co-wrote two books, A The Victory Scripture Memory SeriesA and Twelve Dynamic Bible Study Methods for Laity, with Billie Hanks, Jr. and Wayne Watts ; and a Doctor of MinistryA grade[ 4 ]fromA Fuller Theological SeminaryA in Pasadena, California.[ 5 ]
As mentioned earlier Warren ‘s household were Southern Baptist churchs and doubtless played a important function in determining him. In the Fall of 1971 Warren was influenced by a book entitled The Key to Triumphant Living written by Jack R. Taylor, a Baptist curate and conference talker from Texas.[ 6 ]Criswell in his preface for The Purpose Driven Church writes that “ God could non hold given me a more darling and effectual ‘son in the ministry ‘ than Rick Warren. ” Rick Warren had high respects for W. A. Criswell and so in 1974, when he was a 19-year-old pupil at California Baptist skipped out on categories with his friend and drove 350 stat mis to go to the California Baptist Convention in San Francisco. Warren stood in line to agitate custodies with Criswell: “ When my bend eventually arrived, something unexpected happened. Criswell looked at me with sort, loving eyes and said, rather decidedly, “ Young adult male, I feel led to put custodies on you and pray for you! He placed his custodies on my caput and prayed: ‘Father, I ask that you give this immature preacher a dual part of your Spirit. “[ 7 ]Rick read tonss of books on supplication by Edward McKendree Bounds, a celebrated civil war revivalist. An American missionary to India Donald McGavran ‘s profile, inspired Rick to seek for principles-biblical, cultural and leading rules that produce healthy, turning churches.[ 8 ]James T. Draper, John Bisango, Billy Graham, direction specializer Peter Drucker were besides among those who greatly influenced Warren.[ 9 ]
Rick Warren is ranked figure three and is a ‘model ‘ and ‘guru ‘ for the immature draw a bead oning sermonizers of today.[ 10 ]Rick Warren is besides recognized as a planetary strategian, theologian, and altruist. He ‘s been frequently named “ America ‘s most influential religious leader ” A andA ” America ‘s Pastor. ” Fortune magazine described him as “ secular America ‘s favourite evangelical Christian.[ 11 ]Warren claims that he had been busy practising the penetrations he learned at Saddleback and had to wait for 20 old ages to compose and portion them in the book The Purpose-Driven Church, which has become one of the most popular Christian books of recent old ages.[ 12 ]The Purpose Driven Life has been translated into 20 one languages and twenty million transcripts sold. The Purpose Driven Church is listed in “ 100 Christian Books that changed the twentieth Century. “[ 13 ]
He is besides the writer of The Purpose of Christmas, Personal Bible Study Methods, God ‘s Answers to Life ‘s Difficult Questions, God ‘s Power to alter Your Life.[ 14 ]Alan Wolfe, a celebrated Boston College political scientist, one time referred to Warren as “ non merely the best sermonizer, but merely the best public talker I have of all time heard.[ 15 ]President-elect Barack Obama chose Rick Warren though many opposed to present the supplication at his startup.[ 16 ]White house sought his advice on how to detect the first day of remembrance of 9/11.[ 17 ]So much is said about Warren, what has made him to be what he is and likely the best tool to measure may be Aristotle ‘s agencies of persuasion.
Aristotle ‘s Triad of Communication Theory
Possibly if one can conceive of human history as a wall a major part or block or possibly the indispensable brick would be and will be effectual communicating or rhetorical discourse. In fact, the procedure of communicating was of import in the history of communicating, world has inflated communicating by communications.[ 18 ]Burke and Ornstein in their article titled, ‘Communication and Faith in the Middle Ages, ‘ concur that by that the church had control over all people in all affairs. The influence of Greek reached its tallness in the 8th century of which Aristotle was one.[ 19 ]
Harmonizing to a narrative, Plato gave Aristotle the nick name “ The Reader. ” Aristotle was the first to learn rhetoric at the academy.[ 20 ]He was besides the first individual to acknowledge clearly that rhetoric as an art of communicating was impersonal and could be used positively every bit good as negatively. He wanted the talkers to acknowledge how the heads of the hearers work, and in the procedure one comes to an apprehension of who they are, why and what they do.[ 21 ]So what is rhetoric and what is its connexion to sermon?
To reply in simple words rhetoric is the survey of the art or scientific discipline of utilizing words efficaciously in composing or speech production.[ 22 ]Jerry Vines a dynamic SBC sermonizer defined rhetoric as the art of utilizing words efficaciously in talking to act upon or carry others.[ 23 ]Quintilian a first century Roman speechmaker defined Rhetoric as “ a good adult male prophesying good. “[ 24 ]
A Brief overview of Aristotle ‘s Rhetoric
Aristotle wrote Rhetoric to react to Plato Phaedrus and to promote his readers to heighten the accomplishment of address, though it was non meant for publication.[ 25 ]However it is one of the beginnings kind after on the subject of address. His treatise is divided into three books called the officia oratoris the responsibilities of the speechmaker.[ 26 ]Aristotle ‘s Rhetoric is likely the oldest on the topic and in Book I and II,[ 27 ]Aristotle defines rhetoric as “ the module of detecting all the available agencies of persuasion. “[ 28 ]There are three agencies of persuasion, foremost those ensuing from character ethos of the talker, 2nd those derived from the emotion poignancy and the 3rd derived from true statement Son. He farther discusses deliberative Rhetoric, Epideictic Rhetoric and Judicial Rhetoric.[ 29 ]Book 2, trades with persuasion derived from the Character of the talker and from Appeal to the emotions of the hearer and a treatment of Logical statement. Finally book 3 trades with Style and Arrangement.[ 30 ]
Logos, Ethos and Pathos
Harmonizing to Aristotle, the cogent evidence of the statement is grounded in logical, ethical and emotional entreaty, the three agencies of persuasion. Exerting these three entreaties will do the speaker/preacher in a topographic point where he can actuate the hearers to action.[ 31 ]Our ultimate purpose as sermonizers of the Good intelligence is to carry all peoples to go good and godly.
Logos relates to the rational statement or rational content of communicating.[ 32 ]Aristotle discusses Sons in Book 1, chapter 2. Alan of Lille in his The Art of Preaching says:
Preaching is an unfastened and public direction in religion and behaviour, whose intent is the forming of work forces ; it derives from the way of ground and from the fountain caput of the governments which is Holy Scripture.[ 33 ]
The sermonizer as a rhetor has must turn out that his statement is true and earn credibleness. Credibility must be established to the place where the hearer ‘s trust is in its extremum and the hearer agreed upon the fact that the statement is applicable and relevant.[ 34 ]As sermonizers we hold to the Scripture as the footing for our religion and truth on which the Gospel message is shared and built. In most of the instances in a peculiar fold which is chiefly a truster crowd there would be no demand to turn out genuineness and dependability.[ 35 ]However a sermonizer must stay must stay faithful to the text and present it with unity and lucidity. In simple footings as a sermonizer 1 must turn out that he is persevering in analyzing the word of God and prepared to prophesy the Word of God in season and out of season.
Harmonizing to traditional position Aristotle divides logical entreaties into “ enthymeme, ” “ maxim, ” and “ illustration. “[ 36 ]
Enthymeme[ 37 ]
Enthymeme is a signifier of deductive statement or logical thinking and is besides called the rhetorical syllogism. A common position is that the enthymeme ‘s footing is on likely, non certain, and the full idea of logical thinking may be shortened.[ 38 ]In prophesying the usage of deductive logical thinking is critical step of Son since it does non appeal straight to the hearers understanding but to the human sense of ground. Deductive logical thinking will assist the hearer to easy hold trust in the sermonizer and the truth presented.
Maxim[ 39 ]
A logical entreaty to a “ axiom ” may mention to admiting authorization or supply a sort of premiss for enthymemes.[ 40 ]Preachers could utilize pictures, film cartridge holders from intelligence channels which can be of some authorization. This is done so that those non experts in a peculiar field will be able understand what is communicated.
Example[ 41 ]
The Logical entreaty to “ illustration ” is inductive concluding. Inductive logical thinking occurs when the cogent evidence is based on a case in point, anterior instances. The purpose of inductive logical thinking is to do the statement clear and more persuasive.[ 42 ]In sermon, Jesus used inductive logical thinking by stating fables so that the hearer will be persuaded.
Ethos drives persuasion based on the credibility of the talker. Aristotle discusses Ethos in Book II, chapter 12 through 17 of the Rhetoric.[ 43 ]Ethical entreaty is artistic in that the sermonizer supplies his place of credibleness ; ethical entreaty is one which deals with sermonizers ‘ credibleness as the one showing the message.[ 44 ]In other words it refers to character, normally the moral character of a individual, either the talker or the hearer.[ 45 ]Interestingly ethical entreaty is non-scientific in nature and is hence more nonreversible than the logical entreaty, however, it is no manner less influential in the procedure of persuasion.[ 46 ]Luntz in his work, skilfully writes, “ By all agencies, show do n’t tellaˆ¦reveal your personalityaˆ¦be the message instead than narrating it, but above all, be reliable. “[ 47 ]The worthiness of sermonizer to be believed is carried within the ethical entreaty. We tend to believe people whom we respect and one of the jobs of debate is to project an feeling to the hearer that you are person deserving listening to.[ 48 ]
Aristotle defines virtuousness as “ the ability to bring forth and good. “[ 49 ]When a strong character or virtuousness is tagged with the sermonizer by the hearer, so the message will be accepted as virtuous.[ 50 ]Aristotle lists nine virtuousnesss in book I: Justice, bravery, self-denial, liberalness, munificence, impressiveness, prudence, wisdom, and gradualness.[ 51 ]
Wisdom has been capable to assorted readings: good sense, practical wisdom, expertness, and intelligence. The sermonizer must cognize a great trade to be successful, a show of cognition and expertness on a topic may go an of import factor in persuasion.[ 52 ]
Aristotle interestingly compares “ friendliness ” with good will in the Rhetoric. A sermonizer must portion the best advice out of good will as a friend would care and portion for a friend of his. As preacher one must wish good for the hearers who may be in a hard state of affairs and so surely goodwill creates more credibleness and therefore a higher grade of persuasion.[ 53 ]
Pathos is derived from the emotional facet of the sermonizer and the message and the consequence of persuasion this has on the hearer. This cogent evidence is discussed in Book II, chapters 1 through 11.[ 54 ]Emotional entreaty presents the affectional impact of the message on the sermonizer and translates to the emotional responses from the hearers. Ethical entreaty influences both the emotions every bit good as the mind of the hearers. A hearer is convicted of his/her province against the Word of God and persuaded toward an action by the hearer.[ 55 ]
Emotion of the Speaker/Preacher
The primary status of emotional entreaty sets the usage of emotion. A sermonizer uses his emotions as a cardinal beginning to carry his hearers to action. Emotional entreaties, are used to carry. Language pick affects the audience ‘s emotional response, and emotional entreaty can efficaciously be used to heighten an statement.[ 56 ]
A presentation of emotion coupled with passion for the message exhibits the value of the content of the message and therefore renders the message more persuasive and therefore as a sermonizer one plays the function of construing the temper or emotional province which the sermonizer induces to light within the hearers.[ 57 ]
Emotion of the Listener/Audience
The response of the hearer is really much connected to the emotions of the sermonizer and is hence critical for persuasion. A good sermon should lend to the redemption of both those who deliver the message and the hearers.[ 58 ]It is the duty of the sermonizer to elicit equal emotional response from the hearers after analysing the hearers which may or may non be contributing.[ 59 ]The response is measured by the emotional impact that the message has created immediately every bit good as in long tally. It is really of import to observe that success of persuasion must be evaluated in relation to where the hearer was or stood to get down with.[ 60 ]However, the response of strong belief may or may non be apparent during the act of sermon, but will be displayed in the action on the portion of the hearer to be good and godly.
An analysis of one of Warren ‘s written beginnings which is popular and ten most current discourses preached by Warren at the Saddleback church will be followed.
Warren ‘s intent for the Purpose Driven Church
Warren ‘s intent or his end is spelled out in the purpose statement that Saddleback and Warren wrote together: “ To convey people to Jesus and rank in his household, develop them to go more similar Christ in their adulthood, fit them for their ministry in the church and life mission in the universe, in order to amplify God ‘s name. “[ 61 ]Warren nevertheless believes that this is Christ ‘s design for the cosmopolitan church and the intent of the church is to carry through the Great Commission and the Great Command.[ 62 ]Warren states, “ Until you know what your church exists for, you have no foundation, no motive, and no way for ministry. “[ 63 ]
An Overview of The Purpose Driven Church[ 64 ]
Warren carves out five alone rules which are cosmopolitan and of import in nature. First, he gives a short sum-up of his life and ministry and negotiations about the myths that people in churches have about church. Second, he answers the inquiry of how a church can go purpose goaded. Third, he talks about evangelism and making out to the lost. Fourthly, explains what Jesus did to pull people to Himself. Last, he shows how to prolong, beef up a church and maintain it traveling.
Warren here uses a surfboarder metaphor and encourages his readers to acknowledge God ‘s autonomous manus in all affair of constructing a church particularly in its growing. He says, “ We are populating in the most exciting clip in the history of the churchaˆ¦ , and if a church is non turning so it is deceasing. “
Warren draws his readers attending by utilizing pick words stating that church wellness will go more attending seeking than church wellness. In order to for the church to turn healthy at that place must Bible survey and persevering making of what the Bible says in footings of loving and populating a Jesus lauding life.
Warren concurs that the Great Commandment and Great Commission have intents and they are summarized as follows, worship, discipleship, ministry, family and evangelism.
In portion two he points that truth entirely should steer a purpose goaded church, but frequently times programmes and construction hinders making the doomed. Warren believes that the New Testament churches are the best illustrations for a healthy growing and individuality. As Aristotle points out that the church ‘s intent is to construct, enlighten and promote God ‘s people. The same is pointed here by Warren, “ the church exists to enlighten or educate God ‘s people. “
Warren in chapter 18 Teachs against the myths of religious adulthood, he poses inquiries like, “ How does religious growing go on? How do we go spiritually mature in Christ? ” He answers the inquiry by citing, the “ Five degrees of Learning, ” which are cognition, strong belief, position, accomplishments and character. When a church fulfills the five intents it will be a church that will convey glorification to God.
Analysis of Purpose Driven Church and Ten most current Sermons based on
Ethos, Pathos and Logos
The inquiry to be asked refering the major class of logical persuasive entreaty was: “ Was it persuasive plenty to see from the content communicated that it was credible? ” Has he adequately argued his instance to where the hearers are persuaded that the instance he presented is true? The rating was scored high in persuasion if at the terminal of the message the sermonizer logically defended the place asserted in the message. A lower mark of persuasion was rendered if there was uncertainty that the sermonizer efficaciously argued his instance based upon logical, and more specifically sound scriptural logical thinking.
The inquiry asked in mention to the sub-measure component of deductive logical thinking, which falls under the major class of logical entreaty, was “ How strongly was the content communicated through deductive logical thinking? ” In sing this inquiry with regard to the discourse, an appraisal made to see what extent of the statement unfolded from a major premiss to a minor 1. Did the sermonizer construct his attention consistently as to appeal to the fold ‘s principle and sense of concluding?
Out of the bulk of discourses analyzed Warren could non show good exegesis of the text, but focused more on the demand based inquiries that he answered. The series was Decade of Destiny which began on 10/10/2010. Warren besides did non travel through a transition but referred to several Bibles.
But still Warren was able to show his ability to set up the statements by traveling from the major theological point of the text to the homiletic application. Warren besides is skilled in utilizing memorable phrases and catchy phrases, ‘God chose to give you the SHAPE you are in, ‘ he uses an acronym and makes it memorable, “ religious gifts, bosom, ability, personalities and experiences. ” In his discourse titled, “ Making the most of your head, ” he shared an acronym, THINK-Test every idea, Helmet your caput from evil ideas, Imagine great ideas, Nourish a godly head, Keep on larning. Of class in this discourse the Scripture poetry he started with was 2 Corinthians 10:3-5, but he barely touched on it or exegete the transition. He scores 3 on 6 in this class.
The enquiry used to measure the logical entreaty sub-measure of inductive logical thinking was, “ How strongly was the content communicated through inductive logical thinking? ” Contemplating this inquiry involved sing how good the sermonizer used illustration, imagination and illustrations to convey his statement.
Warren ‘s usage of deductive logical thinking was enhanced through his adept usage of linguistic communication. He was able to link good with the younger coevals particularly when he employed modern-day linguistic communication. He besides did link with senior folks as in one of his sermon, he bragged about the wisdom that seniors had and he in fact asked them to stand and honour them. He besides used short film cartridge holders to exemplify to formalize his content. He had a picture cartridge holder in three of his discourses that were analyzed. Warren is a great narrative Teller and used this accomplishment to reason his content. Warren besides has the ability to light thoughts through narrative portraitures.
Overall Warren ‘s logical entreaty and credibility is apparent in his usage of both deductive and inductive logical thinking. However, he did non make a good expounding of the Scripture but did a superficial touched one or two points but used the Bible to reply the inquiry originating in the head of the hearer. So his overall-Logical entreaty was 3 of 6.
The major class of ethical persuasive entreaty beacons the inquiry to the judge: “ Was at that place adequate persuasion that the sermonizer was believable? ” This component relates straight to the feeling the sermonizer left upon me with regard to his ain unity as an authorization on the subject presented.
The ethical entreaty was considered extremely persuasive if there was influence toward persuasion because the unity of the sermonizer was echt and that he was pityingly interested in my improvement as a receiver of the message. A lessened persuasive mark was given in the event when there was strong belief that the message was more self-seeking to the sermonizer than it was to the enlightening the hearer.
The inquiry of the ethical entreaty sub-measure of character was, “ How strong of an influence was the sermonizer ‘s character on his credibleness? ” In other words, did the sermonizer look to be a virtuous adult male every bit good as one whose life is being conformed into the character of Christ?
Warren exhibited assurance about himself and presented himself as a adult male of credibleness and virtuousness. Several cases he was honorable and crystalline particularly when he confessed before get downing his discourse titled, “ God ‘s prescription for wellness ” that he had been a victim of gluttony and how everything felicity or sorrow was tied to nutrient. Warren is compared to Billy Graham and his life manner has attracted even Barack Obama to take to make the inaugural supplication on the installing of his president ship. Warren portrays to be low and virtuous in his personality which helped him link good with the hearers.
Under the major class of ethical entreaty, the inquiry with regard to the sub-measure of intelligence was, “ How strong of an influence was the sermonizer ‘s lever of intelligence on his credibleness? ” This inquiry seeks to mensurate if the sermonizer demonstrated a sufficient cognition of the stuff every bit good as an appropriate sum of aptitude as it relates to his statement.
Warren ‘s prophesying particularly his consciousness on general subject is applaudable. He is articulate and deliberate in his sermon. His books though critiqued has become the largest selling book in America. His six books and other brochures show his intelligence.
The enquiry made refering the sub-measure of good will within the class of ethical entreaty was, “ How strongly did the sermonizer demonstrate good will and benevolence for the audience? ” This inquiry takes into consideration the grade to which the sermonizer developed a sense of friendly relationship with the fold and showed the echt involvement for their wellbeing.
Warren exhibited a sense of benevolence for the wellbeing of the hearer. He seemed sincere in his desire to better the lives of his hearers both now and everlastingly. In fact the current series “ Decade of Destiny ” reveals it and every discourse he started he connected with his hearers stating that as their curate he is committed to assist them win in the following 10 old ages in all domains, spiritually, emotionally, financially, physically, relationally in their calling, household and separately. Warren seems to hold built a lovingness and friendly relationship with his hearers.
Warren ‘s over all ethical entreaty is really persuasive, his strong character and virtuousness is discernible and the hearers are convinced that he is a adult male of unity and honestness. In the discourse titled, ‘The Life that God blesses ‘ he makes a remark “ Short cuts are short sighted, do it the right ways, ne’er acquire into the trap. ” He makes another remark, “ Dare to different than your civilization. ” Warren ‘s ethical entreaty is strengthened by the grounds of his readiness and intellect displayed in the bringing of his messages. The overall mark for the class of ethical entreaty, the mark is 5 of 6.
The inquiry to be asked environing the premier class of emotional persuasive entreaty was, “ Were the hearers persuaded emotionally to react to the message and the courier? ” In another sense, was the message delivered with passion by the sermonizer and did it stir up positive sentiments and responses within the hearer?
The emotional persuasion was given a higher mark if it was observed that the emotion within the sermonizer while the statement was being relayed and the hearer was moved to action or strong belief by the message. A lower ranking was given if there was no motion to action or contemplation ignited from the hearer. Further diminution in marking was awarded if the sermonizer appeared to be monotone and unattached emotionally to his ain message.
The inquiry asked refering the emotion of the emotion of the talker as it relates to emotional entreaty was, “ How strong did the sermonizer show emotions that connected with the hearer? ” In other words how passionate was the sermonizer as he was pass oning the message? Since emotions are contagious and surely effects the people around.
Warren ‘s emotion was clear as he presented his message. His voice transition was good, except he was sort giving a image that he was glued to the dais. He expressed his emotion through wit and laughter, for case, in the discourse, “ God ‘s prescription for wellness ” He says, “ I love pasta and that is my drug by pick and that is the ground they call me, ‘Pasta Rick. ‘ ” The emotion of the sermonizer was strong through the message and so the mark is 5 of 6.
In relation to the emotion of the audience, as a sub-measure of the ethical entreaty class the inquiry to be posed is, “ How strong did the hearer emotionally respond to the sermonizer? ” Was there grounds of connexion points from the talker with the hearer?
Warren has the gift of painting his images in the heads of his hearers by utilizing emotional phrases or narratives. He brings in strong emotional contrast that forces the hearer to pay attending. He controls contrast by utilizing present tense and active verbs, it seems he brings the scriptural text to life and challenges his hearer with verbs that are lively yet obliging to set the truth to work. Some illustrations are: “ Stop anticipating anyone or anything else to be your savior, ” “ You merely halt life in denial and face world. ” He besides uses brief analogies life, “ religion is like a musculus. ” The audience acknowledged with laughter and mockery to show that they were with him. There were minutes of co