A grand jury falls under a Heterogeneous Crowd because each person in the grand jury has a different personality.
Heterogeneous crowds consist of different types of groups, each potentially independent in their behavioral characteristics and goals. If you want to start modeling the behavior of individuals within a crowd, even simple tasks, such as walking toward a chair, involve several complex decisions such as what course to take and the different ways to avoid bumping into people and other objects. As a result, different people will gain the same goal in different behavior.
In the criminal process, the grand jury plays an important role, but not one that involves finding a party’s guilt or punishment. A prosecutor will instead work with a grand jury to decide whether to bring criminal charges or prosecute a potential defendant. How a grand jury function is much more relaxed than normal court proceedings. There are no judges present and often no lawyers except the prosecutor.
Exhibits and other testimonies must adhere to strict rules before admission under normal court rules of evidence. And in the end, the jury has to decide the whether the plaintiff is guilty or innocent, the jury must be by definition “unorganized group of people” so that the defendant can receive a fair trial; otherwise, the jury will be biased toward either the plaintiff or the defendant.
In not more than 3 sentences, please specify the most important characteristics of the category of Gender.
The term gender role was coined by sexologist John Money in 1955.
The term role of gender is defined as actions or responses that can reveal their status as a boy, man, girl, or woman. Gender roles include clothing, speech patterns, movement, jobs, and other factors not limited to biological sex. In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have tried to argue that gender ‘is a vast orchestration of subtle mediation between oneself and others ‘rather than ‘a private cause behind manifest behaviors.’
Gender is the range of characteristics related to masculinity and femininity and differentiates between them. People who identify as men or women or use male or female gender pronouns traditionally use a gender binary system, while those who exist outside these groups fall under the umbrella of non-binary or gender-quiring terms.
Because social aspects of gender can normally be presumed to be the ones of interest in sociology and closely related disciplines, gender role is often abbreviated to gender in their literature.
In not more than 3 sentences, please explain the meaning of the concept of Polygamy. What are the types of the category of polygamy?
Polygamy is the practice of marrying multiple spouses. Sociologists call this polygyny when a man is married to more than one wife at a time. It is called polyandry when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time. If a marriage involves several husbands and wives, it’s called group marriage.
Polygyny is by far the most common form of polygamy, the practice in which a man has more than one wife at the same time. Many countries with a Muslim majority and some countries with a large Muslim minority legally and culturally accept polygyny to varying degrees; some secular countries also accept it to varying degrees.
Polyandry, a woman who has more than one husband at a time, is far less prevalent than polygyny and is now illegal in almost every country in the world. It only happens in remote communities. It is believed that polyandry is more likely to occur in societies with scarce environmental resources, as it is thought to limit the growth of the human population and improve the survival of children. It is a rare form of marriage not only between poor families but also among the elite.
Group marriage is a marriage in which the family structure consists of more than two partners, each of whom shares parental responsibility for all marriage children. Marriage in groups is a form of non – monogamy, and polyamory.
One of the processes of the steps that create a crowd from a collectivity of people is Contagion. Please explain in 3 sentences what contagion is and how it works as a creator of the crowd.
The theory of contagion, argues that crowds somehow cause people to act. The theory suggests that crowds have a kind of hypnotic influence on their members. The hypnotic influence combined with the anonymity of belonging to a large number of people leads to irrational, emotionally charged behavior even at that moment. The crowds are somehow contagious, like a disease, and the contagion feeds on itself and grows over time.
Crowds are common in football games, rock concerts, grocery shopping, and amusement parks. Crowd behavior is the behavior of people gathering in a crowd, while a crowd is defined as a group of people who share a purpose
Please describe in short culture shock stages as explained by Canadian anthropologist Kalervo Oberg.
Kalervo Oberg defined the shock of culture as a series of emotional reactions ‘precipitated by anxiety resulting from the loss of all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse (Oberg 1954) and the adjustment we are forced to make to adapt to this situation. This shock affects all those ‘people who have suddenly transplanted abroad’ (Oberg 1954) and, although it can not be eliminated, its negative effects can be mitigated.
Kalervo Oberg, who in the mid-1950s coined the term ‘cultural shock,’ defines ‘cultural shock’ as ‘anxiety caused by the loss of all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse (Oberg 1954). A person is not born with a culture, according to Oberg, but only with the ability to understand and use it. This culture becomes our way of life as we grow up in a determined cultural environment and learn to interact socially in this environment; it becomes a safe, automatic, and familiar way to achieve what we want.
When people leave the social environment so they know and feel safe and comfortable and move to a new cultural environment, as in the case of students who choose to spend time abroad, they will have to adapt to the new environment and culture. It should not be assumed that the target culture is governed by the same patterns as the culture of origin since each culture (not just each country) perceives the world around it in different ways and develops different interpretation mechanisms and strategies. For all this, those people who have been transplanted abroad will be exposed to stimuli, which they will not know how to interpret coherently at some point, since they will try to apply interpretation patterns that they found useful in their culture of origin, but which are not always useful in the target culture. Everyone entering a new cultural environment isexposed eisxposed to this cultural shock. The only difference is the extent to which this person is affected.
Communication Theory. (2019). CONTAGION THEORY. [online] Available at: https://www.communicationtheory.org/contagion-theory/ [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].