Chronic Autoimmune Neuromuscular Disease in the Skeletal Muscles

Topics: Skeletal System

The muscular system is an essential part of the human body and it relies on the different muscles for vitality. Muscles make up 40% of the human body weight and in an hour approximately 10,000 movements can occur within just the eye muscles. The masseter has a force that can be as great as 200lbs when closing one’s mouth.

The muscular system is comprised of many muscles that are categorized as smooth, cardiac and skeletal. They have voluntary and involuntary functions, depending on use of the muscle that will determine which function it will have.

Muscles can attach to tendons which then attach to bones muscles they even form the heart. The muscular system provides movement and functionality to sustain life.

The basic anatomy of a muscle is divided by its categories; skeletal, smooth and cardiac. The skeletal muscle supports structures within the skeleton and creates movement, it is voluntary. Smooth muscle is within the internal organs or stomach, it creates visceral function and is involuntary.

The other involuntary muscle category is cardiac (the heart) and it’s the impulse transmission for the body. Muscles are all formed by muscle fibers. The muscle fibers come together in bundles and are surrounded by many layers called fascia or connective tissue to form a muscle. A single muscle fiber structure consists of its own sarcoplasmic reticulum within the cell membrane.

The physiology of the muscle system is within the long fibers called myofibrils. The myofibrils are created by the sarcomeres that form protein lines and contract.

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These proteins are called thin and thick filaments. The filaments will then create a sliding filament to make the muscle contract and relax. For a muscle to move it must receive and impulse form the central nervous system to the receptor, then the filaments can transcribe what the function will be to create calcium and initiate action. This will happen in a large surplus until a signal is received to stop.

Myasthenia Gravis is a disease that is known as a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease in the skeletal muscles. The cause of this disease is from anti-bodies mistaking healthy tissues. The damage from the neuromuscular membrane adds fewer acetylcholine which blocks it and the muscle weakens.

The main symptom of the Myasthenia Gravis is weakness in the skeletal muscle. If a nerve impulse can’t communicate well with the nerve and muscle, then weakness may the occur. When having myasthenia gravis, it affects eyelids, arms, speech, facial paralysis, walking, and lifting objects. Some people may not experience any symptoms, it may vary from day to day but if left untreated the symptoms may increase.

The most affected are people over the age of 40 and women are more likely diagnosed as for men, it’s after the age of 60. The diagnosis for Myasthenia Gravis is physical exam and neurological exam. Mostly testing that can relate to the muscle movements also imaging test and blood tests. Risk factors that appear are environmental factors, smoking, sex hormones and exposure to some viruses.

There may be no cure to Myasthenia Gravis but the treatments can control the symptoms as they occur. The doctor may have the patient take medications that can minimize the immune response. Also, a thymus gland removal could result in less muscle weakness. About 10-15% of patients take out their thymus due to it becoming cancerous but it is very unlikely to happen. There are some patients that could do treatment on their own which consists of a lot of rest, avoiding stress and heat exposure. Patients say they see some improvement to their symptoms.

Fibromyalgia is a widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder. Researchers believe that stimulations within the brain cause change of abnormal increased levels of neurotransmitters that signal pain. The brain develops a memory of this pain, which then causes to over react and becomes more sensitive.

The common symptoms or signs that a fibromyalgia patient may experience is widespread pain causing constant dull aches. The patient will wake up tired even though the patient has had a long period of rest causing fatigue. Other cognitive difficulties, commonly known as “Fibro Fog,” affect the ability to pay attention, concentrate, or focus on mental tasks. Fibromyalgia may also co-exist with other conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Migraines, Headaches (Tension), Painful Bladder Syndrome (Interstitial Cystitis), Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMJ), Anxiety, and Depression.

Fibromyalgia used to be diagnosed by an exam called a Tender Point Exam in which the doctor presses firmly on 18 specific points to determine the pain. This exam is no longer used, in the 1990s doctors established a different diagnosis criterion. This diagnosis first eliminates any other possible symptoms or causes, then diagnosis will be based on pain. The symptoms would need to be on both sides of the body, both above and below the waist, along the axial skeleton, and must be in at least 11 to 18 points of the body, called the tender points. In 2010, The American College of Rheumatology accepted this alternate criterion for diagnosing the condition and gauging the severity of the symptoms. This 2010 Diagnostic Criteria will keep the requirements, making sure other causes be ruled out and that symptoms be consistent for 3 months. Along with this new 2010 Diagnostic Criteria there were 2 additional assessments that were added which were Widespread Pain Index (WPI) and Scale Score (SS).

There is currently NO cure for fibromyalgia but there are numerous treatments for patients to help minimize symptoms and improve general health. Some of the treatments would be medication such as pain relievers like Tylenol, Ibuprofen, Naproxen all over the counter medications. Other medications could be ones that are prescribed by the doctors such as Tramadol. Narcotics are not recommended because it could cause a patient to become dependent on the medication and worsen pain over time. Anti-Depressant and Anti-Seizure medications may be given to help with sleep and pain. Another type of treatment that could be offered to a patient is therapy. Different types of therapies would be physical, occupational, and counseling. These therapies will help with strength, stamina, flexibility and aide in different strategies in dealing with the stressful situations. A critical treatment for a fibromyalgia patient is Self-Care. Self-Care helps with stress management in which limiting over exertion and emotional stress aides in maintaining a healthy life style. Although there is no cure for fibromyalgia the treatments like self-care and lifestyle modifications can make living with fibromyalgia a little easier.

Clostridium Botulinum

Clostridium Botulinum is a rod shaped bacteria that produces a protein with toxic characteristics. This is related to food poisoning which is caused by ingesting contaminated food that contain bacteria, viruses and other infectious organisms. Clostridium Botulinum is a rare and deadly type of food illness ,when it produces its toxins it can cause paralysis. When the toxin enters the body it blocks neurotransmitters in the brain from functioning properly which leads to loosing motor function.

Some of the main symptoms include vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, slurred speech, diarrhea, paralysis and fatigue. The bacteria is usually found on surfaces on vegetable, fruits and meat but when in low oxygen conditions, it produces spores and toxins. This is more common along improperly canned foods at home and with foods that have a higher PH of 4.6 which mostly includes meat and vegetables. When canning foods improperly, it can trap oxygen in the can which leads to an environment where the toxin has a higher chance of growing.

In order to diagnose clostridium botulinum there are a series of tests that can be given. This includes an electromyogram which a doctor will test muscle and nerve functions, they will also test stool and blood samples. If caught early, doctors can administer an antitoxin that can block the neuro toxin that is circulating the persons blood. Physical therapy can also help repair muscle function after being in recovery for a long period of time.

Fibromyalgia is a widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder. Researchers believe that stimulations within the brain cause change of abnormal increased levels of neurotransmitters that signal pain. There is currently NO cure for fibromyalgia but there are numerous treatments for patients to help minimize symptoms and improve general health.

Clostridium Botulinum is a rod shaped bacteria that produces a protein with toxic characteristics. This bacteria causes loss of motor function and movement control of muscle tissue. If caught early, doctors can administer an antitoxin that can block the neuro toxin that is circulating the persons blood. All of these diseases cause problems with the muscular system and are serious if not treated.

 

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Chronic Autoimmune Neuromuscular Disease in the Skeletal Muscles. (2021, Dec 19). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/chronic-autoimmune-neuromuscular-disease-in-the-skeletal-muscles/

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