Gray and Green Treefrogs are alike in many aspects, they both eat insects, live on foliage, and lay their eggs in pools of water. Their habitats can overlap but one is not suited for both areas. The Gray Treefrog is better suited for the dark tree bark in the woods, which is farther north, where they are harder to see, and they favor short-term pools of water. The Green Treefrog is better suited to the green grasses in the wetlands, which are farther south, and they favor cattails and aquatic foliage.
If the Gray Treefrog were to venture into the wetlands where everything is mostly green, it could not hide from predators. They would be an easy target. The same goes for the Green Treefrog if they ventured into the woods. Natural selection has made it possible for the Treefrogs to be in the best-suited area for them to survive (Whittaker, 2012).
Genotype is the genes that a species retains. The genotype controls the species’ phenotype.
Natural selection is the means used by the phenotypes and neotypes to change the inhabitants over numerous generations. Natural selection does not work with genotypes it works with phenotypes. The genotypes produce the phenotypes, and these are what determine if the species will survive the habitat it is in and be able to reproduce to keep the species going and not become extinct. Natural selection operates on the phenotype, but the advancement is a change in the regularity of the alleles in masses over some time in genotype.
Phenotypes are a mixture of genes and ecological impacts. If the changes in the species were dependent on ecological impacts only, then the advancements would not be passed down. So, it is the link to genotype that makes a natural selection the means of progress (Becker, 2018).
Artificial selection is the process of selecting what traits you want an animal or plant to have. In other words, humans pick and choose what they want the plant or animal to look like and how they perform. Artificial selection has been used for eras to make cattle and other animal breeds for war, farming, and attractiveness. Charles Darwin used artificial selection to assemble proof to vindicate his theory of evolution. I do not have a favorite animal or plant that has been developed using artificial selection, so I will just use dog breeds as an example. The American Kennel Club acknowledges over 700 different types of dogs but, most of the types they acknowledge are the outcome of artificial selection. Breeders use hybridizing to make a hybrid out of two different breeds of dogs. Example: a labradoodle, which is the mixture of a Labrador retriever and a poodle (Scoville, 2018). Now, this can happen without any human interference, but breeders do it on purpose.
Sympatric speciation is the process that permits a new class of a species to grow from a mutual ancestor, with the new class and the old class still existing in the same environmental territory. Sympatric speciation is more common in plants than in animals. Parent plants generate descendants that have more than two corresponding sets of chromosomes. The descendants exist in the same environmental territory as the parents but are isolated from being able to reproduce. There can also be sympatric speciation in rare forms. An example would be the separation of inhabitants and passing Orcas in the northeast Pacific. These two sets of Orca appear in the same ocean region but are kept away from one another and they do not mate with anyone from the other pod. They have distinctive diets, vocal performances, and community arrangements (Dictionary, 2008). I think is similar to how some people react to other humans that do not fit their bill of how they should be.