Final Year Project Report On
DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF 3D WAX PRINTER
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Name of Student Enrollment Number
Mayur Vadher 165074119005
Marwadi Education Foundation Group of Institution
GTU Unique ID 54696
MR. DHAVAL ANDKAT
Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering – MEFGI
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
I express my cavernous sense of obligation and gratitude to my Guide Prof. Dhaval
Anadkat for his genuine guidance and constant encouragement throughout this project work. I am
highly obliged to my honorable guide for providing me such an opportunity to carry out research
work under his continuous guidance.
I extend my sincere thanks to Co- Guide Dr. Amit Sata Assistant professor Department
of Mechanical Engineering have devoted his valuable time and shared his expertise knowledge.
I also wish to express our heartfelt appreciation to our friends, colleagues a nd many who
have rendered their support for the successful works towards the completion of the research work,
both explicitly and implicitly.
Name of Student
Mayur Vadhe r
Abstract (Problem Summary)
In the 21
st century, as there is lot of competition, companies thrive to produce quality
products. Customers are the center of focus. If the quality of the product desired by the customer
is not up to the mark they may shift and buy/order it to other company. So, Qual ity products are
always desired by all the companies to increase their market share and profit.
Engineers are responsible for increasing the quality of the products and solve problems .
As we are engineers, we would also like to do the same. H ere in our project we would try
to maximize the profit by solving the problem of. By solving the problem company gets benefit
of better quality and a good profit share.
The problem was about making a wax patterns using prior technology for casting which
is developed by the manpower . D ue to th at for the mass production this technology it is one -time
investment but for the special purpose production it is very costly and time consuming relatively.
My project is about to replace that prior technology used in casting process of developing
wax patterns with the help of Additive Manufacturing process called 3D Printing and to increase
the qual ity of patterns used in casting.
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
[UNDERTAKING ABOUT ORIGINALITY OF WORK]
I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this UDP project report and that neither any part of
this IDP/UDP project report nor the whole of the UDP Project report has been submitted for a
degree by other student(s) to any other University or Institution.
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upon anyones copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques,
quotations or any other material from the work of other people included in our IDP/UDP Project
report, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard
referencing practices. Furthermore, to the extent that we have included copyrighted material that
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I have checked the write up of the present IDP/UDP Project report using anti -plagiarism
database and it is in the al lowable limit. In case of any complaints pertaining to plagiarism, I
certify that we shall be solely responsible for the same and I understand that as per norms,
University can even revoke BE degree conferred upon the student(s) submitting this IDP/UDP
Pro ject report, in case it is found to be plagiarized.
Enrollment Number Name Signature
160574119005 Mayur Vadher
Place: ——— Date: ————–
Name of Guide Signature of Guide
A. What is 3D Printing
B. FDM – Fused Deposition Modeling
C. Problem Identification
2 Literature Survey
3 Methodology 06
4 Time Chart 07
5 Present Work
Raw Material Process
List of Components
6 Conclusions 11
(i) Ideation Canvas
(ii) AEIOUS Canvas
(iii) Empathy Mapping Canvas
(iv) Production Development Canvas
8 Reference 15
The 3d wax printer is the product which will use wax as a material and make suitable patterns
and prototypes with the help of the one of advance 3d printing technology Which will enhance the
3d printing technology in the are a of jewellery design as well as investment casting , also make the
3d printing technology eco- friendly , also reduce the material cost with the use of wax
A. What is 3D Printing Technology?
The 3D Printing Technology is an additive manufacturing process to build a three –
dimensional object from a computer -aided design (CAD) model, usually by successively adding
material layer by layer .
The term 3d printing covers a variety of processes in which material is joined or solidified
under computer control to create a three -dimensional object with material being added together .
3D printing technology has been used in manufacturing, medical, industry and sociocultural
sectors which facilita te 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing to become successful commercial
The various types of 3 D P rinting processes are as follows:
1. FDM Fused Deposition Modeling
2. DLP Digital Light Processing
3. SLA Stereolithography Apparatus
4. SLS Selective Laser Sintering
5. MJF Multi Jet Fusion
6. DMLS Direct Metal Laser Sintering
7. Material Jetting
B. FDM Fused Deposition Modeling
? This is the most common technology used for 3D Printing
? In this process, a plastic material is extruded through a nozzle that traces the part’s cross –
sectional geometry layer by layer.
? The build material is usually supplied in filament form, but some setups utilize plastic
pellets fed from a hopper instead.
? The nozzle contains resistive heaters that keep the plastic at a temperature just above its
melting point so that it flows easily through the nozzle and forms the layer.
? The plastic hardens immediately after flowing from the nozzle and bonds to the layer below.
? Once a layer is built, the platform lowers, and the extrusion nozzle deposits another layer.
? The layer thickness and vertical dimensional accuracy is determined by the extrud er die
diameter, which ranges from 0.013 to 0.005 inches.
C. Problem Identification
? INVESTMENT CASTING
Investment casting is a manufacturing process in which a wax pattern is coated with a
refractory ceramic material.
Once the ceramic material is hardened its internal geometry takes the shape of the casting.
The wax is melted out and molten metal is poured into the wax into the cavity where the wax
In this wax patterns are used; this wax patterns are developed with the he lp of manpower and
S o, give this process automation with the help of 3d wax printer
? JEWELLERY DESIGN
Most jewellery casting is done through the lost wax process, whereby models are created
through wax carving, growing or printing are encased in a plaster like medium known as
The investment is heated to extreme temperature to incinerate the material, creating an
impression of the desired form
As discussed above all the designing of wax patterns are done by manpower
T o develop the 3d printing technology for automation of that projected area
2. Literature Survey
Paper-1 Experimental Study on Melting and Solidification of Phase
change Material Thermal Storage
Melting and solidification process of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are investigated
experimentally. The tested PCMs are Paraffin wax and Steric acid which typically used for solar
water heater. The objective is to explore the characteristics of the PCM when it is being melted and
solidified. The experiments are performed in a glass box. O ne side of the box wall is heated while
the opposite wall is kept constant and other walls are insulated. Temperature of the heated wall are
kept constant at 80oC, 85oC, and 90oC, respectively. Every experiment is carried out for 600
minutes. Temperatures are recorded and the melting and solidification processes are pictured by
using camera. The results show that the melting process starts from the upper part of the thermal
storage. In the solidification process, it starts from the lower part of the thermal storage. As a thermal
energy storage, Paraffin wax is better than Steric acid. This is because Paraffin wax can store more
energy. At heat source temperature of 90oC, thermal energy stored by Paraffin wax and Stearic acid
is 61.84 kJ and 57.39 kJ, respect ively. Thus, it is better to used Paraffin wax in the solar water heater
as thermal energy storage.
In this study, the melting and solidification processes of PCMs are investigated
experimentally. The tested PCMs are Paraffin wax and Steric acid whi ch typically used for solar
water heater. The objective is to explore the characteristics of those PCMs when it undergoes in
melting and solidification processes. The results are expected to supply the necessary information
on development high performance solar water heater that is suitable for Indonesian climate
Melting and solidification processes of Paraffin wax and Stearic acid as a PCM thermal energy
storage have been investigated experimentally. Temperature measurements and recording the melting
and solidification processes have been done. The results are analyzed. The results show that the
melting process starts from the upper part of the thermal storage. In the solidifying process, it starts
from the lower part of the thermal stora ge. As a thermal energy storage, Paraffin wax is better than
Steric acid. This is because Paraffin wax can store more energy. At temperature 90oC, thermal energy
stored by Paraffin wax and Stearic Acid is 61.85 kJ and 57.39 kJ, respectively. Thus, in solar water
heather coupled with thermal energy storage, Paraffin wax is a good PCM.
Melting and Solidification of Paraffin Wax in A Concentric
Tube PCM Storage for Solar Thermal Collector
A double tube phase change material (PCM) storage is investigated. The thermal energy
storage (TES) contains a polycarbonate shell filled with paraffin wax and a copper tube to carry
heat transfer fluid (HTF). The fu sion takes place radially outwards from the center. Ineffective
melting of wax was observed in bottom due to temperature gradients. An increase in HTF inlet
temperature by 5°C reduces the melting time by 6.2% and increases the efficiency by 3.9%.
Effect of mass flow rate of HTF is comparatively lower than HTF inlet temperature towards
complete melting of PCM.
Experiments were conducted to study the melting and solidification behavior of PCM for
HTF inlet temperature of 65, 70, 75, 80°C and ma ss flow rates of 2, 4, 6, 8 kg/min. Experimental
results for HTF inlet temperature 80°C and mass flow rate 8 kg/min are discussed. The other values
of inlet temperature and mass flow rates were observed with similar trends. It is observed that melting
star ts in the regions closer to outer wall of HTF tube. PCM at a radial distance 14 mm reached a
higher temperature than that of 28 mm as it is nearer to outer wall of HTF tube. Discharging
experiments are conducted for same mass flow rate and HTF inlet temper ature. The increase in inlet
temperature of HTF from 65 to 80°C increases the efficiency from 66.8% to 78.4%.
The higher HTF inlet temperature increases the melting rate and energy stored. An increase
in inlet temperature beyond the certain level may deg rade the performance due to more heat losses.
Fig. 3 shows the effect of HTF inlet temperature on melting time. The increase in inlet temperature
from 65°C to 80°C reduces the melting time by 30.81%. Mass flow rate of HTF increases the melting
rate (Fig. 3 ).
The increase in mass flow rate from 2 kg/min to 8 kg/min reduces the melting time just by
16.31%. A sharp rise in the temperature of PCM was observed at top section because of effect of
buoyancy. PCM in bottom takes more time to melt as most of the heat is transferred to the top section.
Though conduction heat transfer takes place at the starting
A. Process Flow Chart
4. Time Chart
Project Selection & Registration
Abstract & Literature
Raw Material selection
October Report Preparation
December Components identification
Components Design January Manufacturing Design
February Data Analysis
5. Present Work
(1) Raw Material
Material Name Paraffin Wax
Additive s Casting wax, Stearic Acid
(2) Raw Material Process
1. Add paraffin wax, casting wax to the internal mixer, and knead in the temperature range of
90°C for 8 minutes,
2. Then add stearic acid to the internal mixer
3. After 25 minutes of refining, after all the raw materials are dissolved and uniformly mixed,
4. The dissolved raw materials are placed in a blender and stirred for 1.5 minutes to discharge
5. The good material is injected into the wire screw extruder and kneaded uniformly and extruded
into a wax line.
6. The blending and extrusion conditions of the wire screw extruder are controlled in the range of
9 rpm, and the feeding speed is controlled at 4 Within 5 rpm.
7. The Raw material is ready for the 3D Wax Printing
(3) List of Components
1. Print Bed
2. Heated / Non -heated
3. Bed Surfaces
4. Bed Levelling
7. Direct Drive / Bowden Drive
8. Hobbed Gear
9. Idler Gear
10. Hot End
11. Heater Cartridge
14. Motion Control
15. Belts and Motors
1. Power Supply
3. SD card
4. Motor Driver
5. User Interface
? MECHANICAL PARTS
? ELECTRICAL PARTS
Under this project, we design different components for reducing time for the pattern
making and Prototyping which will improve the quality of design.
Following points can be concluded from design: –
a. Improved pattern quality
b. Reducing the material cost
c. Eco -Friendly
d. Convenient to use
e. Smart control
f. Higher profits
g. Customer satisfaction
h. Lower inventory
i. Time saving
(i) Ideation Canvas
(ii) AEIOUS Canvas
(iii) Empathy Mapping Canvas
(iv) Production Development Canvas
1. Fibrox 3D Printing Solutions
2 Gokulnagar, Nr Vijay Hotel, Krishnanagar Main Rd, B/H, Samrat Industrial Area, Rajkot,
2. Fablab CEPT
Kasturbhai Lalbhai Campus, University Rd, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380009
4. -metal -parts -for -prototyping- from-3d- prints
6. -3d -printing- how-to -3d- print -wax/
7. -printed -wax/
12. Google Patents