The technique of setting music for instruments in various combinations. Page 192

Song structure that is composed from beginning to end without repetitions of large sections. Page 196

Modified strophic form
Song structure that combines elements of strophic and through-composed forms; a variation of strophic form in which a section might have a new key, rhythm, or varied melodic pattern. Page 196

German for “song”; most commonly associated with the solo art song of the nineteenth century, usually accompanied by piano.

Page 195

Plural of Lied. Page 196

Song cycle
Group of songs, usually Lieder, that are unified musically or through their texts. Page 196

Art song
A song that sets a text connected to a tradition of high-art poetry. See also Lied. Page 195

Strophic form
Song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (strophe) of the poem. Page 196

Borrowed time; common in Romantic music, in which the performer hesitates here or hurries forward there, imparting flexibility to the written note values.

Also tempo rubato. Page 204

Minstrel shows
Racially charged theatrical variety shows featuring white performers in blackface, acting out “idealized scenes from the plantation.” Page 212

See minstrel show. Page 213

Absolute music
Music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program. Also called pure music. Page 228

Bel canto
Beautiful singing; elegant Italian vocal style characterized by florid melodic lines delivered by voices of great agility, smoothness, and purity of tone. Page 234

A French movement developed by visual artists who favored vague, blurring images intended to capture an “impression” of the subject.

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Impressionism in music is characterized by exotic scales, unresolved dissonances, parallel chords, rich orchestral tone color, and free rhythm. Page 256

Ninth chord
Five-note chord spanning a ninth between its lowest and highest pitches. Page 256

Program music
Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the nineteenth century. Page 216

Thematic transformation
Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm. Also thematic transformation. Page 218

Comic German drama with spoken dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera. Page 242

Music drama
Wagner’s term for his operas. Page 244

“Leading motive,” or basic recurring theme, representing a person, object, or idea; widely used in Wagner’s music dramas. Page 244

Single-movement concert piece for orchestration, typically from the Romantic period and often based on a literary program. Page 221

Incidental music
Music written to accompany dramatic works. Page 222

Symphonic poem
One-movement orchestral form that develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene, or creates a mood, generally associated with the Romantic era. Also tone poem. Page 222

Tone poem
One-movement orchestral form that develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene, or creates a mood, generally associated with the Romantic era. Also symphonic poem. Page 222

Romantic melody is best described as:
Lyrical and Singeable

Romantic harmony is best described as:
chromatic and treated expressively

Which of the following is NOT typical of Romantic music?
Select one:
a. smaller orchestras
b. interest in new orchestral forms
c. increased dissonance for expression
smaller orchestras

Who was NOT an author of the Romantic era?
Select one:
a. Victor Hugo
b. William Shakespeare
c. Walter Scott
William Shakespeare

Nicolò Paganini was:
a virtuoso violinist

Which is NOT a considered a work with an “exotic” narrative?
Select one:
a. Madame Butterfly
b. Brahms’s Symphony No. 2
c. Aïda
Brahms’s Symphony No. 2

Which is NOT a new instrument added to the Romantic orchestra?
Select one:
a. piccolo
b. English horn
c. French horn
French horn

Musicians and composers achieved a higher social status during the Romantic era than in the Classical era.

Nationalistic feelings inspired composers to incorporate folk songs and dances from their native lands into their works.

Romantic composers rarely used dynamic markings and other expressive comments in their scores to communicate their intentions to musicians.

The Industrial Revolution produced more refined, but also more expensive, musical instruments.

The French Revolution fostered the rise of a middle-class society.

Characteristics in nineteenth-century music reveal an conscious break from the past.

Orchestration was of little value in nineteenth-century composition.

The Bohemian artist rejected the social norms of the establishment.

Nineteenth-century composers sought to make their instruments “sing.”

Symphonies by Romantic composers are shorter than those of the Classical era.

A song form in which the same melody is repeated for each stanza, often heard in popular music, is known as:
strophic form

A song form that is composed from beginning to end without repetitions of whole sections is called:
through-composed form

A group of Lieder unified by a descriptive or narrative theme is known as a:
song cycle

A Lied is an art song for solo voice and piano sung in ______.

Schubert’s Erlking was written:
early in his life

The text of The Erlking was written by:

Schubert wrote approximately_____ songs.
six hundred

Schubert died young from:

What is the form of Schubert’s song Erlking?

What does the triplet rhythm in the piano accompaniment symbolically represent in this song?
the horse’s hooves

Which best characterizes the range for the father’s role in the song?
low range

What expressive technique does Schubert use in the boy’s cry, My father, my father?
high range and dissonance

How is the character of the Erlking differentiated musically in the song?
medium range and major mode

The composer normally writes the lyrics for the Lied.

Lieder composers often set the same text as other Lieder composers

The piano was declining in popularity at the time of the Romantic Lied.

Two prominent German Romantic poets whose texts were often set to music were Heinrich Heine and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Romantic Lieder texts often speak of love and/or nature.

Women composers wrote Lieder in the Romantic era.

Schubert wrote symphonies based on the forms established by Classical composers.

According to legend, a child touched by the Erlking must die.

The art song became a popular repertory for amateur and professional musicians in the nineteenth century

Frédéric Chopin spent most of his productive career in:

Chopin was romantically involved with George Sand, the renowned:
French novelist

Which genre is NOT a part of Chopin’s compositional output?
French novelist

Which is the best definition of tempo rubato?
robbed time

Chopin’s Mazurka in B-flat minor is set in _____ meter.

What best describes the character of the Chopin’s Mazurka?

Chopin paid homage to his Eastern European ancestry by composing:
mazurkas and polonaises

The piano changed little technically during the nineteenth century.

The piano was the most central instrument in nineteenth-century musical culture.

The short, lyric piano work might be considered the instrumental equivalent to the nineteenth-century Lied.

The nineteenth century was an age of great virtuoso pianists.

Romantic-era piano works often had fanciful titles.

Steinway was important in the history of the Romantic-era piano.

Chopin lived a long and productive life, turning to the church in his later years.

The mazurka was originally a noble, processional dance

Melody plays no role in Chopin’s piano music.

Who was NOT a woman composer of the Romantic era?
Select one:
a. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
b. George Sand
c. Clara Schumann
George Sand

Which role did women NOT generally play in Romantic society?
Select one:
a. conductors
b. music patrons
c. performers and composers

Which genre did Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel NOT contribute to?
Select one:
a. songs
b. opera
c. piano music

From a trip to which country did Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel draw inspiration for her work The Year?

During her later years, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel was responsible for:
organizing the famous family Sunday concerts

The aristocratic woman who had an important influence on Liszt’s later years was:
Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein

The overall tempo of the melody in “September: At the River” by Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel is best described as

The concept of “river” in “September: At the River” by Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel is expressed by:
quick-moving notes that accompany the melody

The music of which Mendelssohn was overlooked until recently?

A lost manuscript of Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, in her own handwriting, that contained “September: At the River” was discovered in:

In the recently discovered manuscript of Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel’s “September: At the River” poetry of which nineteenth-century poet was included:

Women seldom composed for the piano in the Romantic era.

Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel wrote several large-scale works as well as many Lieder.

Women played a critical role in music making in the nineteenth century, except as teachers.

Music composed for the home was associated with masculine character traits.

Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel was enthusiastically encouraged to pursue a musical career by her family

Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel lived a long and productive life.

Each of the pieces in the manuscript of Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel’s Das Jahr was originally accompanied by poetry and artwork.

Nineteenth-century songwriters in the United States combined elements of:
a. European art song
b. both a and b
c. opera

The songs of which nineteenth-century composer remain popular today?
Stephen Foster

Foster’s My Old Kentucky Home was inspired by:
a. his limited visits to the American South
b. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin
c. both a and b

Foster’s Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair is primarily composed in what texture?
homophonic, with some polyphony

Stephen Foster is known for his ballads, minstrel show tunes, and plantation songs.

Music in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century America was wildly divergent from European traditions.

Stephen Foster’s music was popular only after his death.

The term “popular” means belonging to “the people.”

The famous American tunes “Oh, Susanna!, Beautiful Dreamer, and Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair all were composed by Harry Burleigh.

Stephen Foster’s music sympathized with the plight of the slaves in the American South.

The music that accompanies the lyrics of “Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair” reflects Foster’s Anglo-Irish cultural heritage.

Stephen Foster enjoyed tremendous financial success in New York City during his thirties

Stephen Foster’s Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair was inspired by real life experiences.

Instrumental music that has some literary or pictorial association is called:
program music

Music lacking any literary or pictorial association is called:
absolute music

The inspiration for Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique was:
the actress Harriet Smithson

The main theme, heard transformed in each movement of the Symphonie fantastique, is called:
the idée fixe

Which best describes the character of the fourth movement of Symphonie fantastique?
a diabolical march

What does the loud chord immediately after the statement of the idée fixe in the solo clarinet at the end of the fourth movement in Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique represent?
the falling of the guillotine’s blade

In which movement is the Dies irae (Day of Wrath) theme from the Mass for the Dead heard?
the fifth

Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique exemplifies the type of program music known as:
the program symphony

Which of the following is NOT true about Hector Berlioz?
Select one:
a. Some of his works have a literary basis.
b. He was a German Romantic composer.
c. He was a genius at orchestration
He was a German Romantic composer.

The character development in Sinfonie fantastique is realized musically through the thematic development of the_______.
idée fixe

One of Berlioz’s key innovations was his orchestration effects.

Hector Berlioz looked to the writings of Shakespeare as the basis for both operas and symphonic works.

Hector Berlioz wrote a good deal of music that was meant to evoke images and ideas.

Music that is designed without intended literary or pictorial meanings is called program music.

Program music composers do not indicate the intended meaning of the program music.

Which of the following is a type of program music written to accompany plays?
incidental music

Which term describes a one-movement work for orchestra with a literary program?
symphonic poem

Which term describes a one-movement work possibly written to introduce a larger work but played independently?
concert overture

Which composer is generally credited with the first use of the term symphonic poem?
Franz Liszt

The chief difference between a symphonic poem and a program symphony is:
the number of movements in the work

Mendelssohn’s music for Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream is a famous example of:
incidental music

Which type of program best describes Smetana’s The Moldau?
geographic/historic, depicting actual events or places

Which category of program music best describes The Moldau?
symphonic poem

Grieg’s Peer Gynt is a work that suggests _________ nationalism.

Which nationalist composer was asked to revise his music to suit a political censor?

The Moldau is part of a cycle of works known as:
My Country

Composers expressed their nationalism through music by basing their compositions on:
a. both a and b
b. songs and dances of their people
c. the celebration of a national hero, event, or place

Bedøich Smetana represents the:
Bohemian nationalist school

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov represents the:
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov represents the:

Edvard Grieg represents the:
Scandinavian nationalist school

Antonín Dvoøák represents the:
Czech nationalist school

Jean Sibelius represents the:
Scandinavian nationalist school

Manuel de Falla represents the:
Spanish nationalist school

In the nineteenth-century nationalism was not a concern among composers.

Often composers are commissioned to write nationalistic music.

Composers like Tchaikovsky only selected inspiration from their own country in writing program music.

Symphonic poems have between three to five movements.

In the nineteenth century nationalist music was often inspired by folklore.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the nineteenth-century symphony?
small orchestra with limited winds
b. colorful harmonies
c. lyrical melodies
small orchestra with limited winds

The third movement of the nineteenth-century symphony is most likely in:
dance or scherzo form

The opening melody of the third movement in Brahms’s Symphony No. 3 is given to which instrument?
. the cellos

Which composer nurtured Brahms’s talents, taking him into his home?
Robert Schumann

Brahms wrote his Requiem mass in memory of:
his mother

How many symphonies did Brahms write?

Unlike the symphonic poem, the genre of symphony is often absolute music, without a program.

The Romantic symphony follows the exact forms and proportions of the Classical genre of Beethoven.

The Romantic symphony cycle typically has three movements.

The first movement of a Romantic symphony is usually the most dramatic and features the use of sonata-allegro form.

The scherzo movement in nineteenth-century symphonies generally is characterized by a slow march tempo.

Romantic composers often wrote a longer last movement of a symphony to balance the first.

The Romantic symphony required a larger orchestra than that of the Classical masters.

Brahms wrote all four of his symphonies after he turned forty.

Brahms’s Symphony No. 3 in F major uses none of the forms often found in late eighteenth-century symphonies.

In his Symphony No. 3, Brahms incorporates a melodic idea from the first movement into the other movements as well.

The literary basis for Verdi’s Rigoletto is:
a play by Victor Hugo

What is the historical setting for Rigoletto?
an Italian court, during the Renaissance era

Which is NOT a Verdi opera based on a Shakespeare play?
Select one:
a. Aida
b. Otello
c. Falstaff

Which Verdi opera is set in Egypt?

Which opera did Verdi write based on the story of the king of Babylon?

In the nineteenth century opera excerpts were marketed to domestic consumers via:
four-hand piano arrangements

The American debut tour of international singing sensation Jenny Lind was managed by:
P. T. Barnum

Il barbiere di Siviglia and Guillaume Tell by Gioachino Rossini both exhibit which style of singing?

Giuseppe Verdi is viewed as an Italian nationalist composer.

Rigoletto is an opera based on Victor Hugo’s novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

Jenny Lind was a famous nineteenth-century composer of opera.

Many Romantic composers looked to faraway lands or cultures for their opera plots.

Nineteenth-century Italian opera is characterized by the use of the bel canto style of singing.

After her husband began to flourish as a composer, Giuseppina Strepponi enjoyed continued success as an opera singer.

In the late nineteenth century France, Germany, and Italy developed distinct national styles.

Light German opera featuring spoken dialogue is called:

What did Wagner call his large-scale sung theatrical works?
music drama

How many music dramas make up Wagner’s The Ring of the Nibelung?

Which term refers to Wagner’s concept of a total artwork, encompassing all the arts?

What is the basis for the story of Die Walküre?
a medieval German epic poem

There are ____ Valkyries, all daughters of Wotan.

Which best describes the character of Wotan?
the father of the gods

A leitmotif is:
a recurring melodic theme that signifies something

Which instrument precedes Wotan’s call to Loge?

Wagner had a theater built at Bayreuth specifically for the performance of his music dramas.

The role of the Valkyries was to carry fallen heroes from the battlefield to Valhalla on their winged horses.

Wagner employed a recurring theme called an idée fixe in his operas.

Germany is noted for its long-established opera traditions.

While in Dresden Wagner began to choose subjects derived from Germanic tales.

In his music dramas Wagner created short arias that lent themselves to being separated from the larger work for performance at home.

From which source did Verdi select his text for his Requiem?
the Roman Catholic Requiem Mass

Verdi’s Requiem is part of which Christian tradition?

Verdi’s Requiem was criticized by the Church in the nineteenth century for:
being excessively theatrical

The Dies irae section of Verdi’s Requiem contains all of the following, except:
Select one:
a. soprano solo
b. major key tonality
c. full orchestral accompaniment
major key tonality

The Requiem aeternam section of Verdi’s Requiem is marked by which characteristics?
a cappella performance

The fully completed Requiem by Verdi was dedicated to whom?
Alessandro Manzoni

In the Dies irae section of his Requiem Verdi creates a sense of awesome terror through the use of which musical tools?
a. both a and b
b. dramatic orchestration including brass and percussion
c. powerfully dramatic use of loud dynamics

The nineteenth century witnessed an increasing interest in social choral-singing.

The nineteenth century was the first time, historically, where secular and sacred music on Christian practice became an issue.

Barbershop quartet music in the United States was influenced by singing traditions in nineteenth-century Europe.

Some of the major composers of choral music in the Romantic era include Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn, Verdi, and Brahms.

Verdi used the complete mass text for his Requiem

Verdi’s Requiem was written to commemorate the death of his mother:

The tone of Verdi’s Dies irae section in his Requiem is of quiet contemplitude.

The text of Verdi’s Requiem is derived from the Catholic tradition.

Prisoners condemned to die in Nazi concentration camps sang Verdi’s Requiem as an act of defiance.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Impressionist music
large-scale forms

Some of Ravel’s music reflects his travels to:

The overall form of Debussy’s Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun” is best described as:

Which genre best describes the Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun?
symphonic poem

The program for Debussy’s Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun” concerns:
a mythological creature in a dreamlike state

Which best describes the character of the opening theme of Debussy’s Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun?
chromatic and languorous

Which melodic instrument is featured in the opening melody of Debussy’s Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun?

The whole-tone scale was a favored device of Impressionist composers.

Impressionist composers use various non-Western scale patterns in their works.

The Paris World Exposition of 1889 provided French composers the opportunity to hear various musical ensembles from around the world.

Impressionist composers often made use of a strongly accented meter.

Neoclassical artists and composers looked back to the Romantic era for inspiration.

Programmatic music continued in the Impressionist period.

Impressionist artists and composers looked to mythological themes for inspiration.

Debussy primarily utilized the sonata-allegro form in his large works.

Many composers in the early twentieth century continued to be influenced by non-Western music.

Debussy is considered to be an Impressionist composer

Debussy’s music rarely looks to influences from other cultures.

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