reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art

example of allusion
Burning Bright,” the title of Part Three in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, is a what to the poem “Tiger, Tiger” by William Blake, an English poet

the effect that occurs when doubtfulness or uncertainty about the intention or meaning of the text arises.

example of ambiguity
In the story “Where Is Here?” by Joyce Carol Oates, for example, the author uses what to shroud the stranger, his visit, his past, and his purpose.

This contributes to the mood and effect the short story achieves.

patterns of literature found around the world. The term is derived from the Greek word meaning “pattern” or “model.

who identified archetype
Psychologist Carl Jung identified the archetype in the collective unconscious of mankind. A plot might be an archetypal plot (the hero’s journey/quest, for example); a character might be an archetypal character (the hero, for example).

Hero’s quest
the hero must leave his society/tribe in search of something.

The hero will encounter
difficulties/challenges/temptations. The hero will resist/overcome these difficulties/challenges/temptations (often ​with the help of others). The hero will return to society with a “boon,” aka benefit.

an archetypal character who goes on a journey, is tried by temptations and circumstances, has ​the help of others, returns from the journey with something to aid his society/group.

example of hero
Joseph Campbell (Hero with ​a Thousand Faces) advised George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, when Lucas was developing the character of ​Luke Skywalker.

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the act of creating and developing a character

Direct characterization:
a writer simply states a character’s traits.

example of Direct characterization:
Dexter in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “Winter ​Dreams wants to possess “glittering things”; this is a clear depiction of Dexter as a person who is greedy

Indirect characterization:
character is revealed through one of the following means (1.) words, thoughts or ​actions of the character, (2.) descriptions of the character’s appearance or background, (3.) what others say about ​the character, (4.) ways in which other characters relate to the character

tendency of certain authors to write about specific geographical regions.

Willa Cather, William Faulkner, and Flannery O’Connor are three _________ writers

imaginary society or life in which social or technological trends have created a diminished quality of life.

Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury presents a _________ society.

quote at the beginning of a book or chapter that relates to the theme of a literary work.

example of Epigraph
If they give you ruled paper, write the other way,” the epigraph of Fahrenheit 451(by Ray Bradbury), encourages readers to break the rules and to question authority, an important theme in this novel and a common theme among Post-Modern writer

sudden revelation/flash of insight experienced by a character

example of Epiphany
The shoemaker in Bernard Malamud’s “The First Seven Years” has an epiphany when he suddenly comprehends that the actions of his apprentice are motivated by his secret love for Miriam

literature based on fact, not imagination

example of Nonfiction
Hiroshima by John Hersey is based on the aftermath of the bombing of Japan. This work of literature is an important work of nonfiction and an early example of “New Journalism,” a style of writing practiced by both Hersey (Hiroshima) and Truman Capote (In Cold Blood).

the use of bizarre, primitive, wild, or mysterious elements in literature. Gothic stories feature the following elements- (1.) bleak or remote settings, often gloomy castles or mansions in ruins, (2.)foreboding atmosphere of impending doom, (3.) characters in physical or psychological torment, (4.) horrific or violent elements, and (5) supernatural/inexplicable elements.

example of Gothic
Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher” fulfills all the criteria of the classic Gothic story. Modern gothic elements are used by Joyce Carol Oates n her story “Where Is Here

Southern Gothic
subgenre of Gothic fiction unique to American literature set in the American South. Themes ​include deeply flawed characters, decayed or derelict settings, and other sinister events relating to or coming from ​poverty, racism, and violence.

example of Southern Gothic
The Life You Save May Be Your Own” by Flannery O’Connor and “A Rose for ​Emily” are two Southern Gothic short stories. Southern Gothic stories (Flanner O’Connor’s “The :Life You Save ​May Be Your Own”) often rely on Grotesque characters and demonstrate the elements of Modern Gothic ​fiction.

the use of bizarre, absurd, or fantastic (based in fantasy) elements in literature.

Grotesque character
a person whose obsession has caused him/her ​to become bizarre, twisted, or distorted.

example of Grotesque character
Tom Shiftlet in Flannery O’Connor’s “The Life You Save May Be Your ​Own” is a model of the grotesque character. Shiftlet is obsesses over obtaining Lucynell Crater’s car. Emily ​(William Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”) allows her unhealthy obsession with Homer to kill him and sleep with ​his corpse for decades.

a violation of the reader’s expectations. Readers expect parents will protect their children

example of Irony
Flannery O’Connor creates an ironic situation in the story “The Life You Save May Be Your Own” when the mother Lucynell Crater endangers her own child by allowing herself to be tricked by Tom Shiftlet.

Verbal irony
word or phrase used to suggest the opposite of its usual meaning.

example of verbal irony
In “EPICAC” by Kurt Vonnegut, Pat mocks the narrator calling him “poetic,” when, in fact, she means he is not poetic

Dramatic irony
the audience/reader knows something characters do not know.

example of Dramatic irony
Readers on Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter know Dimmesdale is Pearl’s father in the middle of the novel, but most characters do not find out until the end of the novel.

Lost Generation
term used to name American writers living and working together in Paris after WW I, including Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, and others. Hemingway attributed this phrase to Gertrude Stein in his memoir of the period A Moveable Feast

figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as if it is something else.

example of Metaphor
Death is a long sleep,” for example. A metaphor suggests there is a comparison between the two things identified- in this example death and sleep.

Modern Period:
1914-1945 WW I- WW II, Shock and devastation of WW I, poverty of the Great Depression, and horrors of the revelations of the Holocaust/the atomic bomb influence the culture and writers of this period.

modern period
Ernest Hemingway (A Farewell to Arms), F. Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby), William Faulkner (The Sound and the Fury), and John Steinbeck (The Grapes of Wrath) are novelists of the ______________.

Post-Modern Period:
1945-??? Post WW II – Period of literature characterized by authors who encourage readers to question all things they once held sacred- church, government, society.

Post-Modern Period:
The Crucible (Arthur Miller), Slaughterhouse Five (Kurt Vonnegut), and Catch 22 (Joseph Heller) are three important works (authors) of the _____________.

the “I” who speaks in a poem, novel, or short story

example of Persona
Kurt Vonnegut frames his novel Slaughterhouse Five with a persona; Tim O’Brien uses persona in his novel The Things They Carried. (“Ambush” was an excerpted chapter from this novel.)

sequence of events in a literary work

introduces setting, characters and situation

inciting incident
establishes the central conflict

the high point of the conflict

explains the end of the central conflict

clues that hint at what will happen next

Example of foreshadows
Judy’s bad treatment of her former lover ________ her bad treatment of Dexter in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “Winter Dreams.”

point of view
perspective or vantage point from which a story is told

speaker or character who tells a story

first person narrator
narrator is the “I” telling his/her part in the story, not necessarily the author

first person example
Ernest Hemingway uses this narrator in ​his short story “In Another Country”

Third-person omniscient narrator
the narrator can reveal the private, internal thoughts of any character

​Third-person omniscient
what narrator is James ​Baldwin’s “The Rockpile”

Limited third-person narrator
the narrator reveals the private internal thoughts of only one character and all ​other characters are treated superficially

Limited third-person example
what type of narrator is Ray Bradbury’s novel Fahrenheit 451?
Readers learn about the thoughts and beliefs of the character Montag, but other characters ​are not developed.

science fiction
fiction which draws imaginatively on scientific/technological knowledge, theory, speculation, and the effects of future events on human beings in its plot, theme, and setting

something that stands for itself and something else at the same time

Conventional _______ have traditional, widely recognized associations

symbol example
in Ray Bradbury’s novel Fahrenheit 451, the Phoenix, a mythical creature that rises from its own ashes, represents the possibility of rebirth/regeneration
the phoenix is a?

main character or central figure in a literary work

Henry Fleming
who is the protagonist in Stephen Crane’s novel The Red Badge of Courage

ordinary aspects of life are depicted in a matter of fact, straightforward manner designed to reflect life as it actually is

The movement began in the mid-Nineteenth Century in reaction to the highly subjective approach of romanticism

Edith Wharton’s short story “April Showers” is what kind of story?

literary movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that saw actions and events as the inevitable result of natural forces in the environment

naturalistic stories
Stephen Crane (“An Episode of War” and The Red Badge of Courage) and Jack London (“To Build a Fire”) are what kind of story?

another word for Romantic era/Period

an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that in the 18th century. Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature

The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is what kind of novel

regionalism or local color
literature that focuses on specific features – characters, dialects, customs, history, and landscape – of a particular region

regionalism or local color
in american lit between the Civil War and the end of the 19th century

regionalism or local color stories
Willa Cather’s My Antonia, and O, Pioneers are two novels set on the prairie. they show…

language of a particular district, class, or group of persons

major technique of characterization

the author can reveal a character’s social or geographical status

used by authors to give the illusion of reality to fictional characters

Twain uses ______ in his short story “The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”

use of humor and wit with a critical attitude, irony, sarcasm, or ridicule for exposing or denouncing the frailties and faults of mankind’s activities and institutions, such as folly, stupidity, or vice

________ usually involves both moral judgment and a desire to help improve a custom, belief, or tradition

satire example
In his novel (Slaughterhouse Five) and his short story (“Harrison Bergeron”) Kurt Vonnegut uses ________ to criticize the government, organized religion, the military, and many other institutions in American society.

time, location, and everything in which a story takes place, and initiates the main backdrop and mood for a story

culture, historical period, geography, and hour are all elements of ____________

Fundamental Components of Fiction
setting, plot, character, theme, and style

Stream of consciousness
narrative technique that presents thoughts as if they were coming directly from a character’s mind. Instead of being arranged in chronological order, events are presented from the character’s point of view

Stream of consciousness
“Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” by Ambrose Bierce and “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall” by Katherine Anne Porter are short stories with _____________________

Stream of consciousness
this technique attempts to render the flow of feelings, thoughts, and impressions of the character

central idea of a literary work

individual vs society theme of story
what is one of the most important themes in The Crucible?

a work of literature that explores enduring themes

classic examples
Huck Finn, The Scarlet Letter, and The Red Badge of Courage were all written during the 19th century and are still read today because they explore enduring themes. They are ___________

a recurring phrase, situation, object, symbol, or idea in a work of literature that helps to develop the theme

motif example
Color is an important _______ in Stephen Crane’s novel Red Badge of Courage

royalty, courage, new life
Many of the colors Crane uses in the novel are intended to be symbolic: purple symbolizes _______, red symbolizes _______, green symbolizes nature and ______.

In Fahrenheit 451 (Ray Bradbury), the author uses several _________ to develop themes: suicide, fire, violence.

emotional attitude toward the subject and toward the reader/audience implied in a literary work

Familiar, ironic, playful, sarcastic, serious, and sincere are a few examples of ________

part of the plot when the conflict increases

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Lit Terms. (2019, Jan 30). Retrieved from

Lit Terms
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