World Health Organisation along with UNDP, launched their first implementation plan in 2010 that involves Ministries of Health along with other relevant national partners in Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Kenya, Jordan, and Uzbekistan to execute pilot projects that aims to increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks.
Bhutan faces high rates of climate-sensitive health burdens that will cause Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) which will ultimately be the likely cause of vector-borne disease like malaria and dengue due to the high temperature range. Around 24 glacial lakes are considered to be a dangerous threat to the healthcare. The project targets to; enhance the meteorological and surveillance data to have effective management of climate sensitive health risks, increase in community awareness and coordinating with climate and health initiatives to provide emergency preparedness and disease prevention measures. Successful outcomes have been made such as changes in climate sensitive diseases and health risks have been identified earlier and emergency contingency plan under health sector have been implemented too and this issue has been brought up to the public.
Malaria epidemics has been a constant issue in Kenya. Without preventive measures and when there is a lack of immunity, lack of preparedness, climate variability, these will lead to increase in vulnerability across the whole country and possibly spread to new locations in the higher altitude region where it is not actively monitored. Global climate change may cause higher transmission intensity with longer period. The project targets to enhance the use of weather forecasting, the effectiveness of outbreak responses and improving disease prediction capacity, epidemic preparedness, and disease prevention measures. Successful outcomes have been made such as climate data are constantly reported and health risks are determined. Advance planning of responses for pilot regions.
One of the biggest challenges is the limited resource of meteorological data available. There are very few located meteorological stations, hence the challenge of it would be the inability to track the snow depth measurements. Another challenge would be that it is difficult to monitor the glacial lakes as they are located in an inaccessible and barren areas. As it is remote, it would be almost impossible to build an office there to monitor the situation. As time goes by, the difficulty of monitoring the glacial lakes will be higher. Secondly, it is difficult for Bhutan to continue their tasks as there is a restraint in the number of logistics as well as weather conditions. An example would be that every shovel needs to be carried manually for two weeks up to a place more than 4,000 metres above sea level. The inability to transport materials (E.G. shovels) could be a big issue as this meant that it will take more time for the problem to be solved. Furthermore, good weather only occurs three months per year, which is insufficient for Bhutan to complete their project.
In order to tackle the uprising problem of GLOF, Norway puts in effort in enforcing on the implementation of adaptation and tracking mitigating measures. One method implemented by Norway is using hydropower to channel water to reservoirs by constructing tunnels and drains. The difference in situation between Norway and Bhutan is that Norway glaciers are located near the village, making it easier to build reservoirs unlike Bhutan. If Bhutan is able to use this method that Norway has implemented, they will be able to measure and predict the future changes in glaciers accurately. In fact, Bhutan can use Norways records on glaciers to view the awareness and preparedness level as they are closely similar. However, monitoring the glaciers may be a challenge as some glaciers occurring might be the harshest or even strike in an isolated area and it is tough setting office and implementing drainage systems in these places. They will need long periods of time to complete the project as well as workers and trained personnel to deal with high altitude sickness care.