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• While relying in any percentage on renewable energy may be Paper

Words: 1717, Paragraphs: 78, Pages: 6

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Renewable Energy

• While relying, in any percentage, on renewable energy may be expensive, it often receives support not only from the government but also from its customer base, who may be willing to pay a premium price for the products that Airbus may produce.


• Intellectual property laws and other data protection laws are, as mentioned earlier, in place to protect the ideas and patents of companies who are only profiting because of that information. If there is a likelihood that the data is stolen, then Airbus will lose its competitive edge and have a high chance of failure.

• Discrimination laws are placed by the government to protect the employees and ensure that everyone in Airbus is treated fairly and given the same opportunities, regardless of gender, age, disability, ethnicity, religion or sexual orientation.

• Health and safety laws were created after witnessing the horrible conditions that employees were forced to work in during and directly after the industrial revolution. Implementing the proper regulations may be expensive, but Airbus must engage in it, not only due to the law but also out of Airbus’s personal feeling of ethical and social responsibility to other human beings.

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• Laws are also placed to ensure a certain level of quality or reasonable price for certain products to keep the customer safe and prevent them from being provided. The industries this applies to find often their costs elevated.

Other factors that affect the Airbus organisation

• The effective execution of internal performance plans, including cost lessening and productivity efforts

• Product performance risks, as well as programme development and management risks

• Customer, supplier and subcontractor performance or contract negotiations, including financing issues;

• Competition and consolidation in the aerospace and defence industry;

• Significant collective bargaining labour disputes

• The outcome of political and legal processes including the availability of government financing for certain programmes and the size of defence and space

• procurement budgets

• Research and development costs in connection with new products

• Legal, financial and governmental risks related to international transactions

• Legal and investigatory proceedings and other economic, political and technological risks and uncertainties.

Airbus target market: who are their clients?

Airbus uses a combination of diverse segmentation strategies for marketing; such as demographic, geographic, and psychographic strategies to cater to the customers of diverse countries. Specific target marketing strategy is used by Airbus this organisation caters for a different set of customers. The airline design company has re-invented themselves as the carrier offering a value-based aircraft which are technologically advanced, appealingly designed, safe & secure and their related services. Incorporating the four Ps of marketing, the organisation managed to be the cornerstone of aircraft manufacturing, landing customers like China Inc, Emirates and AirAsia.

China Inc. is one of the biggest customers for Airbus. It operates under the subsidiary of China Airlines Ltd. This airline encompasses the provision of international air passenger transport and freight services. Its biggest core business comprises of air passenger transport in regular or occasional international charter contract; air cargo services; civil aviation international airport and transit of aircraft management services; aircraft merchandise sales; aircraft catering etc.

The airline is fully controlled and governed by the Chinese government. The airline flies to major destinations in North America, Europe and Asia. It is a long-haul carrier with a fleet of 90 passenger and cargo jets, it largely relies on Airbus A330 and Boeing 747 planes for intercontinental flights. Passenger flights make up two-thirds of the company’s annual income, with the balance coming from cargo services and onboard sales of duty-free goods.

Their biggest airline Airbus A380 is commonly ordered by Emirates Airlines, making them one of their biggest customers for passenger aircraft. Emirates operates a mixed fleet of Airbus wide-body aircraft and is one of the few airlines to operate an all-wide-body aircraft fleet. Emirates is the largest Airbus A380 operator with 112 aircraft in service and a further 11 on order. The Airbus A380 has become an essential part of the Emirates fleet, particularly on long-haul high-traffic routes.

AirAsia forms part of the biggest customers of the Airbus aircraft. Its main aircraft are the Airbus A320-200. The airline ordered 200 planes to the value of US$18 billion in the year 2011, making this airline the biggest customer.

Adding value for their clients includes the following:

• increasing passenger capability and lower fuel cost of the Airbus A320 aircraft

• Ensuring quality and reliability to continue to win orders during the economic downturn

• Ensuring they maintain being the organisation that brings the most modern and comprehensive aircraft family on the market, complemented by the highest standard

• Ensure that ordered aircraft are delivered to customers on time, on cost and quality

• Safety must be prioritised at all-time in the design, building and performance of the aircraft’s

• Incorporating exceptional quality into the aircraft without increasing the price

Decision process customers undertake under the B2B organisation

The decision-making process in Business to Business organisations is different from a Business to Customer (B2C). elements such as pricing, payment approaches, repeat purchases, relationships, and the role of a purchaser at an organization play an integral role in the decision process.

B2B buying circumstances are not considered as impulsive and are discussed sensibly among various stakeholders. Figure1 shows the typical stages of the business buying process

Figure1: Stages of the business buying process

The main difference between B2B and B2C is who the buyer of a product or service is and the process of purchasing is different.

The following is a list of the main stages involved in B2B buying:

Step 1: Recognize the Problem/ Identifying a need

• This is where an airline company like AirAsia comes to a unanimous decision that they have a shortage of aircraft to fulfil their goal of expanding to new routes around the globe.

• Current aircraft are small in terms of capacity to meet the demand as per their scheduled flights

• New flight routes are established and not sufficient aircrafts available to carry the demand of the routes

• Business is being expanded to cater for a private jet client, thus a new executive aircraft is required

Step 2: General need description

• What kind of aircraft is required, size etc.

• Long-distance aircraft of short route aircraft

• Passenger/ Commercial aircraft or private jet

Step 3: Develop product specifications to solve the problem

• Buying centre participants assess the problem and need to determine what is necessary to resolve/satisfy it

• Required seat capacity

• Size of cabin and cockpit

• Operating system

Step 4: Search for and evaluate possible products and suppliers

• Evaluation of company files and trade directories and contacting different suppliers

• conduct a value analysis – an evaluation of each component of a potential purchase; examine quality, design, materials, item reduction/deletion to save costs, etc.

• conduct vendor analysis – a formal and systematic evaluation of current and potential vendors; focuses on price, quality, delivery service, availability and overall reliability

• Evaluate the Airbus and Boeing to determine which manufacturer meets specifications in terms of technology, design etc.

Step 5: Proposals

• Invitation of different manufactures for bidding

• The suppliers are given the required specifications of the aircraft and they must price accordingly

Step 6: Select product and supplier and order product

• This step uses the outcomes obtained from Step 4

• Due to orders being big in B2B organisations, customers can decide to procure from different suppliers to minimise the risk. This is referred to as multiple sourcing

• Alternatively, the customer can decide to buy from a single supplier this is known as sole sourcing. Risk is higher on this type of sourcing

• Boeing or Airbus as there are the biggest manufacturers in the industry

Step 6: Order-routine specification

• The customer at this stage prepares the final order to the desired supplier/s with the desired specification.

• Procurement is in progress

Step 7: Evaluate Product and supplier performance

• Compare products with specs

• Results become feedback for other stages in future business purchasing decisions

• After delivery of aircraft, the supplier must do customer surveys, to determine whether or not the need was met. See figure 2

figure 2: Supplier feedback

Business Feedback Loop: Firms need to compare products with specifications. The results become feedback for other stages in future business purchasing decisions.

Environmental sustainability issues

Conservationism is concerned with harm to the ecosystem caused by global warming, resource depletion, toxic and solid wastes, litter, the availability of freshwater, and other problems. Other issues include the loss of recreational areas and the increase in health problems caused by bad air, polluted water, and chemically processed food. Countries have resorted in compiling and enforcing regulations governing industrial commercial practices affecting the environment, these laws are a framework to protect the environment from harm and any deviations or nonconformity leads to hefty penalties. Industries are striving towards environmental sustainability while generating profits without harming the environment.

A different initiative that inspires environmental sustainability:

• The Aircraft Fleet Recycling Association (AFRA) assists airlines to manage unused or obsolete aeroplanes in an environmentally responsible way while maximizing their value. Unused aeroplanes are recycled through the organisation in a manner that is not harmful to the environment. AFRA states that airplanes could be recycled in a way that offered both economic advantages to operators and environmental benefits.

• Plans can be put in place to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) intensity by and eliminate hydrocarbon emissions and dust.

• Focus on improving fuel and CO2 efficiency, reducing noise pollution, and developing low-carbon alternative fuels.

• Airlines can achieve good returns for their retired aeroplanes while promoting responsible recycling and developing safe and sustainable solutions for the reuse of aeroplane parts and assemblies from older aeroplanes.

• Investing in industry-specific Spillage kits with adequate absorptive materials.


This Report outlines the marketing framework including counteracting factors that would see the Airbus diversify and grow exponentially as an organisation. One of the biggest challenges in the aviation sector is to continue to allow the global economy to prosper and grow responsibly while diminishing effects on the global ecosystem. The challenge remains in developing a framework accommodates all the stakeholders and moves the industry forward.

The carbon footprint of the aviation industry makes up an estimated two percent of the global CO2 emissions, according to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Market demand and competition will continue to drive new product innovation and improved fuel efficiency solutions based on technology and operational efficiency.

Air transportation plays a vital role in sustained global economic growth. An estimated eight percent of the world’s growth in the gross domestic product can be directly attributed to air travel according to IATA (International Air Transport Association)

About the author

The following sample is written by Matthew who studies English Language and Literature at the University of Michigan. All the content of this paper is his own research and point of view on • While relying in any percentage on renewable energy may be and can be used only as an alternative perspective.

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