Nanotechnology is defined as a growing and exciting technology on a scale of one-billionth of the meter, which breaks the barriers between physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology is the design, characterization, production, and use of structures, devices, and systems by controlling the shape and size at the Nanoscale. (Srilatha and Nanotechnology 2011)
Nanotechnology has the potential to innovate the agricultural and food sectors. Nutritious Nano capsulated chemicals, antimicrobial nanoparticles, and active food packages are already commercialized.
Many products are enabled by research and development. It is possible to enter the market shortly. Come with another related product, the candidates come to the market. Several countries have participated in the review of the adequacy of their regulatory frameworks to address nanotechnology. As a result, different approaches have been adopted to regulate Nano-based products in agricultural products/feed/food. It emerged that the EU, together with Switzerland, is the only region where provisions on nanotechnology have been incorporated into the existing force, while in other regions.
(Amenta, Aschberger et al. 2015).
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) working group has published a report addressing regulatory challenges presented by by-products using nanotechnology (FDA 2007). Since most of these potential products involve nanomaterial interactions with biological tissues, this report speaks directly of the field of nanotechnology. The regulatory challenges can be amplified because in this Nanometric scale the properties of material relevant to its safety and efficacy could be amplified. (Webster 2007).
Nanomaterials and applications are in development.
The nanomaterial (NM) used in Agri / feed/food can be of natural origin or added intentionally. Intentionally added NM can be intentionally developed using natural components or components designed by genetic engineering. Several international and national organizations have proposed different formal definitions of the term ‘nanomaterial’ and most of them seek to identify substances within a range of specific dimensions. The names used in agriculture/food/feed can be roughly divided into inorganic, organic, and combined materials, such as surface-modified clays. The inorganic NM includes metals, metal oxides, carbon-based materials based on carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, carbon black, and clay.
During agricultural production, Nano-formulated pesticides and other Nano-formulated agrochemicals are used to increase efficiency compared to conventional formulations.(Peters, Bouwmeester et al. 2016).
Nanotechnology controls the main agricultural control process, in particular for its miniature dimension. Furthermore, many potential benefits, such as the improvement of food quality and safety, the reduction of agricultural production factors, and the enrichment of nutrient absorption in the Nanoscale of the soil. (Prasad, Bhattacharyya, et al. 2017).
The governance of nanotechnologies in the health sector in India poses some challenges in terms of capacity, innovation, risks, and regulation. Preparation and compliance with voluntary standards in a period of regulatory uncertainty, compilation and provision of knowledge on labor risks, waste disposal, etc.(Anand, Srivastava, et al. 2011). Nanomaterials have different physicochemical properties, unlike chemicals in general, it has become a controversial topic due to concerns related to human health.
Due to the potential risks of Nanomaterials (OECD WPMN), the International Organization for Standardization / Technical Committee 229 (ISO / TC 229), Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals are the organizations that have been making guidelines and standardization of Nanomaterials tests. They are also reinforced by commercial regulations that guarantee the safe distribution of Nanomaterials. Representatives of EPA FIFRA are collecting information and conducting conditional registration of Nano-silver products. Alternatively, the Korean government is taking action internationally by actively participating in the OECD and ISO. Taking into account the safety of nanotechnology and nanotechnology, the Korean government plans to control internal policies, such as the nuclear safety management plan in health care. (Park and Yeo 2016).
Recent advances in nanotechnology have demonstrated numerous social benefits through the development or improvement of intelligent materials. In recent years, several engineered Nanomaterials (ENM) have been produced that can be found in related fields, such as health, food, home, automobiles, electronics, and computers. The estimated production of ENM produced was up to 270,000 tons/year and in this case considering only the nanoparticles of SiO2, TiO2, FeOx, AlOx, ZnO, and CeO2. The volume and heterogeneity of the designed Nanomaterials (NMEs) released into the environment during production use, transport and disposal have steadily increased. Therefore, it becomes relevant to evaluate the potential impact of these ENMs on the environment.
Many interactions of ENM with the environmental compartments (soil, water, air) are still imperfect as regards the mechanistic, methodological, and toxicological aspects. Environmental regulation coupled with toxicological factors is the main factor in containing the global Nanomaterials.(Grillo, de Jesus et al. 2018).