Issues Affecting Hispanic American Students in their Academics

Issues Affecting Hispanic American Students in their Academics

Marcelino, L. (2018). Factors Predicting Academic Achievement Among Hispanic Community College Students.

Research Problem

The research aims to understand the factors that lead to academic performance among the Hispanic population. The Hispanic population in the United States has been increasing over the past two decades. However, though the population has grown significantly, the college and high school graduation rates of Hispanics are still the lowest compared to other races. Thus, to fulfill the American Graduation Initiative, it is crucial to understand factors that result in academic achievement for these people.

Purpose of the Study

The main goal of this quantitative research was to describe the connection between resiliency, self-efficacy, engagement in sensation-seeking conducts, as well as academic performance among students of the Latino community. Specifically, the research was intended to provide useful insights for teachers, parents, psychologists, administrators, as well as students by identifying factors that play a part in underachievement problem among Latino Undergraduate American students.

Identifying factors that result in underachievement would help in making changes in colleges and high schools in the United States to address the factors for the Latino Americans to be readily prepared to overcome any challenges that face their academic lives.

Research Questions

The research uses several questions as a guide. They include whether the level of self-efficacy in college predicts academic performance for Latino students in community colleges; whether engagement in sensation-seeking activities predicts poor performance in academics and finally whether the degree of resiliency predicts academic performance for Latino students in community colleges.

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Quantitative Design

The research uses an experimental design to understand the cause-effect connection among different variables. The variables include dependent variables (self-efficacy, resiliency, engagement in sensation-seeking conducts), and the independent variable (academic achievement). The dependent variables were controlled in order to understand their effects on the independent variable. Then, their impact on the independent variable was assessed for a relationship.

Participants and Target Population

The target population was the Hispanic students in Central New Jersey community college who had taken more than three courses. The study used 154 Latino students. For one to be a participant, they had to be over the age of 18, be of Latino origin and enrolled in a community college. Besides, the participants had to be able to read and understand the English language.

Ethical Treatment of the Human Subjects

The participants were issued with a form of informed consent to fill out indicating that they agree to be part of the research. Every participant in the study was a volunteer. The participants were also informed that they could withdraw without giving any reason if they wanted to. The information they provided was also kept private. Their anonymity was completely protected.

Quantitative Data Collection Method

The study utilized a quantitative design that employed the survey method to collect data. It also involved a form of hierarchical regression analysis method to explain the connection between resiliency, self-efficacy, engagement in sensation-seeking conducts as well as academic success (indicated by GPA) among Latino students in community college. Specifically, a self-report survey was used to collect data for the study.

Quantitative Data Analysis Method

The analysis of data was done through a hierarchical regression model. The method was used because the study assessed several predictor variables as well as their impacts on academic success. Importantly, the research was seeking to determine the capability of every predictor variable, that is, self-efficacy, resiliency, demographic variables and engagement in sensation-seeking) to forecast academic success as assessed using GPA. The control achieved using this analysis method was great and surpassed what could potentially be achieved using a step-wise method. The regression analysis accounted for every change in modified R-squared at every phase of the process. The SPSS software was also used in the analysis.

How Proper Design Identification and Implementation to Guarantee Validity was Supported

The design was ideal for the study because of its feasibility, utilization of standardized stimulus and cost-efficiency, which made it easy for respondents to respond to similar questions as well as answer choices. It helped in eradicating observer subjectivity whereas allowing high rates of dependability and validity. The design also allowed many participants to participate in the research at the same time. In order to eradicate volunteer bias which is a threat to external validity, the participants could not be told that they would receive something for participating before they participated. The reduce the possibility of the participants not being a full representation of the target population, the sample had to be stratified by enrollment status, age groups, and employment status.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Quantitative Research

The study had several weaknesses. First, there was no way to know whether the students were dishonest while reporting their enrollment status, GPA, feelings concerning resiliency, self-efficacy as well as sensation-seeking to appear socially desirable or even avoid embarrassment. The other weakness of the study was that the researcher used two community colleges. This is a small population compared to the significant number of Latino students in the United States. Other colleges in the United States could present a more holistic representation of the Latino students community than the chosen colleges. The researcher only selected the two colleges because they were closer to his home. The only strength of this research is that it somehow gave findings that align with other researchers’ findings on the same topic. This means that, to a considerable extent, the researcher examined the issue thoroughly and presented useful information.

Watson, J. (2015). Factors Associated with Graduation among Latino Male High School Students.

Research Problem

The study was initiated to address the drop out problem among Latino male students in XYZ high school. The population of the school was 1858 with a fourteen percent rate of dropout. This rate reflected the number of students who failed to graduate. The students withdrew while in grades 9 to 12 in 2009 to 2010 academic year. Among all the dropouts in the school, 63 percent were Latinos.

Purpose of the Study

The quantitative study aimed to identify factors associated with male student graduation, particularly Hispanic students. Variables involved in the study were race, suspensions, attendance, education levels, income levels of parents, GPA, CAHSEE, CST (California Standards Test) scores, as well as the possible impact on graduation of Hispanic student engagement in school activities and programs like AVID, JROTC, AARC, and XYZ Medical Academy. The ultimate objective was determining if the variables were associated with Latino male students’ graduation.

Research Questions

Several research questions guided the research. They include the extent to which the academic demographic factors (a) attendance, (b) GPA (c) standardized-test scores (d) suspensions predict graduation probability for Latino male students (the research controlled social factors as well as SLCs participation); the extent to which, social demographic factors, that is, (a) English proficiency levels, (b) family income, (c) education of the parents, predict the possibility of Latino male students’ graduation (controlling for suspensions, GPA, expulsion, as well as factors of academic attendance and SLCs participation) ; the extent to which SLCs (a) AARC, (b) AVID (c) Medical Academy, (d) JROTC- predict graduation probability for Latino male students ( controlling for academic and social factors).

Quantitative Design

This study used a non-experimental design. Recognizing and evaluating specific variables, as well as the probable impact they might have on rates of graduation for male Latino students needed statistical analysis. It used linear logistic regression and assembled data from several sources in the school.

Participants and Target Population

The target population for this study was male Hispanic students. 208 male Latino students who could have already graduated from the school in 2011 and 2012 were used as the participants. These students were expected to have graduated from XYZ high school. Those eligible to graduate the mentioned years were excluded.

Ethical Treatment of the Human Subjects

There was no harm to the participants because the research used archival data. Identification numbers were utilized to identify students. Confidentiality of the data collected was strictly observed. The researcher also ensures that he had written authorization from the district and school concerning the utilization of archival data for the research.

Quantitative Data Collection Method

The study used archival data. The researcher collected data, mostly secondary from XYZ high school. These data were obtained from several sources at school and district site. The researcher used the AERIES information system, to access data relating to GPA, attendance, transcripts, and suspensions.

Quantitative Data Analysis Method

The secondary data collected were analyzed with the use of SPSS software. The method utilized was a linear logistic regression model because the dependent graduation variable was dichotomous. Here, graduation took value 1 and no graduation took a value 0.

How Proper Design Identification and Implementation to Guarantee Validity was Supported

The secondary data collected could have presented problems with accuracy and validity. To avoid this, the researcher worked with the school and district to collect only the data that was needed to answer the posed research questions. Every step of obtaining information and organizing it in Excel spreadsheets was followed. The validity of data as well as the research was supported by the use of data relating to all XYZ students of the year 2007 to 2012. Consequently, the data was mainly focused on males from the Latino community as it directly related to social factors, academic and SLCs participation.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Quantitative Research

One of the significant weakness of the study was that it included XYZ high school students only. This means that the data does not reflect other student populations. Comparisons were not made, and the females data was not used in the study. The primary strength of the research is that the data relating to GPA, suspensions, expulsion, and others was accurate because it did not come from the participants; instead it came from the school and district site.

Garcia, Y., Kupczynski, L., & Mundy, M. A. Factors Influencing Enrollment in Higher Education: A Comparison of First and Second Generation Hispanic Students.

Research Problem

The research intends to investigate the factors that influence higher education enrollment in the Hispanic population. Although the Latino population is growing faster than other minorities in the country, they still lag behind in higher education enrollment, degree acquisition, and retention.

Purpose of the Study

The primary goal of the research is to study whether Latino student’s parental support, the perception of post-secondary education, enculturation degree, as well as motivation has a direct correlation to the student’s higher education pursuit. This information may impact enrollment as well as retention in higher learning institutions. The study also aims to compare enrollment between first and second generation Latino students.

Research Questions

The research used several research questions as a guide. They include whether Latino student’s perception of higher education impacts their decision to enroll in higher education; whether the degree of enculturation affects the decision to enroll in higher learning institutions; whether motivation directly correlates to the student’s pursuit of higher education.

Quantitative Design

The study used a quasi-experimental survey. It used post-test with non-equivalent research only. The survey evaluated second and first-generation student’s parental support, perception, enculturation degree, as well as the motivation among Latino university students.

Participants and Target Population

The target population for this research was the Latino student community in South Texas institutions of higher learning. A sample consisted of 61 student surveys. Surveys were then administered to the participants who were second and first-generation higher education students during 2014 fall semester in rural south Texas. The gender of the institution was almost equal with 47 percent females and 53 percent male. The participants included 62 % Latino, 27% white, 5% blacks and 6% international students.

Ethical Treatment of the Human Subjects

All the participants were volunteers. They also signed a consent form before participating in the study. They were allowed to withdraw at any time without any explanation as to why they left.

Quantitative Data Collection Method

A Survey was used to collect data for this study. It was performed with second and first-generation south Texas institution’s college students. The survey focused on second and first-generation student’s parental support, perception, enculturation degree, as well as the motivation among Latino university students

Quantitative Data Analysis Method

One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used to analyze the data. Specifically, it examined the differences between second and first-generation student’s perception of the importance of parental control, education, enculturation degree, as well as the motivation among Latino students.

How Proper Design Identification and Implementation to Guarantee Validity was Supported

The validity of the research design was determined with use of factor analysis and talks with experts. New questions and updates were added to the survey based on the pilot’s results. The survey was then reduced to 5 subgroups with, demographic questions, education perceptions, parental support, motivation, and enculturation to enhance its dependability. A 5 point Likert scale was used to increase the accuracy of the data collected.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Quantitative Research

The main weakness of the research is the use of a small sample size that barely represents the target population. It also failed to examine the third and fourth higher generational degrees. The only strength of this research is that it was able to provide useful information to inform government educational policies.

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References

Garcia, Y., Kupczynski, L., & Mundy, M. A. Factors Influencing Enrollment in Higher Education: A Comparison of First and Second Generation Hispanic Students.

Marcelino, L. (2018). Factors Predicting Academic Achievement Among Hispanic Community College Students.

Watson, J. (2015). Factors Associated with Graduation among Latino Male High School Students.

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Issues Affecting Hispanic American Students in their Academics. (2019, Dec 07). Retrieved from http://paperap.com/week5-best-essay/

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