We would like to express the deepest appreciation to our team Guide, Asst. Professor Mr. Amar Contractor, who has given us the good efforts to make this type of product. He continuously conveyed us for further research regarding to this project.
He inspired us through all the way even in study and other works. He always gives us a true guidance in any of the matter. our team members are very thankful to him to provide us a huge knowledge about everything and we are always eager to know more about our particular topic of any subject.
He always has inspired us to innovate new things and to research about new ideas which are necessary in upcoming days for our country. Because this is the time for START UP INDIA, STAND UP INDIA.
We express our deep gratitude to Head of Automobile Engineering Department, Mr. Tushar Thakkar, for encouraging us to prepare the project on IMROVEMENT IN ELECTRIC VEHCLES RANGE.
We take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to Director of L. J. Institute of Engineering and Technology for his valuable guidance, motivation, co-operation with encouraging attitude at all the stages of the work.
We thank Almighty, our team guide, friends for their constant encouragement but without our teammates support, idea, efforts and encouragement this project would not be possible.
L. J. INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,
This is to certify that the Project report with work entitled Improvement In Electric Vehicles Range has been carried out by the group of students mentioned below under my guidance is approved for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Automobile Engineering 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2019-20.
Prof. Amar Contractor Mr Tushar Thakkar
L. J. INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,
This is to certify that the Project report Improvement In Electric Vehicles Range has been carried out by the group of students mentioned below is approved for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Automobile Engineering 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2019-20.
2.1 AEIOU CANVAS 11
2.2 IDEATION CANVAS 12
2.3 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS 13
2.4 EMPATHY SUMMARY CANVAS 14
3.1.1 EXPLODED SYSTEM 18
1.4 PSAR 9
1.5 DIMENSIONS OF SYSTEM 18
India being a developing country has high population and large number of vehicles which has resulted into increase air pollution over the periods of decades. In India, the implementation of electric vehicle is must necessary to overcome the effect of pollution on environment which is increasing day by day rapidly with increasing the number of conventional I.C. engine vehicle. In electric vehicle, the requirement of charge the battery after travel particular distance is major issue.
So, distance covered by single charged battery is limited because of weight, capacity, cost & space where it fixed are affecting parameters which doesnt allow to increase the battery capacity above certain limitations. Without increasing the battery capacity, our idea is to generate electricity in electric vehicle by rotating wind turbine which is mounted on vehicle while vehicle in motion.
Basically, this idea may decrease the recharging required of electric vehicles battery & gives more range in single charge.
Air pollution in India is quite serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission & traffic issues. That traditional fuel options are emitting pollution by using the conventional vehicle.
The trend of automobile vehicle is moving on electric vehicle which is not emitting mobile pollution as compared to conventional vehicle. But, the electricity required to charge the battery is further produced by burning the coal in power station.
According to, trandingeconomics.com electricity production from coal sources (% of total) in India was reported at 75.08% in 2014, according to the world bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources.
As increases demand of electricity for charge the vehicles battery, electricity generation by power plant through burning of coal is also increases which will lead also pollution issue in nearly future.
So, only depending on electricity generated by power plant we will go in the direction of generating electricity as renewable energy source.
Main aim of the project is to design a wind turbine assembly which generates electricity.
Wind turbine rotates when vehicle is in motion, the impacting wind velocity helps to rotates the wind turbine.
That generated electricity either used to run accessories or charge the battery.
Renewable wind energy source utilized to generates the electricity which helps to improve the vehicles range.
We will try to produce efficient electricity at particular wind velocity.
Objective of our project will be to concentrate on range of electric vehicle.
Our whole assembly should be light weight so extra weight doesnt affect the vehicles dynamics.
Design of blades will be properly designed for starting rotation at minimum velocity.
US20050046195 Mototr vehicle with wind generator device In this patent there is one wind turbine which is used in land vehicle, aquatic vehicle, and air vehicle. According to this patent, it can also used with hybrid vehicle which helps to decrease consumption of electrical power through battery. It consists of at least one set of rotatable blades, a moveable shaft connected thereto and a generator for generating electricity connected to a shaft and a voltage regulator. At the end the electrical load on battery is reduced .
US20030132638 Wind-Powered Automobile The turbines are turned by the wind that passes an automobile when it is running by electrical motor. That turned turbine generates electricity which is stored in battery.
US20120286513 Wind Powered Vehicle Turbine Mainly focused to drive the secondary electric motor in hybrid vehicle which reduce the consumption of the primary fuel. This arrangement will be also fitted in electric vehicle to decrease the requirement of periodically plug-in.
US5920127 Propeller Wind Charging System For Electrical Vehicle The invention relates to a multibladed small diameter propeller as being included in apparatus consisting of the single unenclosed propeller, extention shaft , and generator ; such apparatus to be mounted on top of an electric vehicle to transform wind energy into electrical energy for feeding the battery.
US20130314023 Wind Energy Fan-Turbine Generator For Electrical And Hybrid Vehicles A wind energy generator for electric and hybrid vehicles can expand the limited driving range of vehicles between charges, reduce the need of petroleum-based products, and reduce or eliminates emissions. The placement of turbines are described at frontal grill area of vehicle.
Chapter 2: Analysis, design methodology and implementation
2.1 AEIOU canvas
2.2 Ideation canvas
2.3 Product development canvas
2.4 Empathy Summary Canvas
3.1 Wind Energy
Wind energy which is the one of the most important sources of renewable energy which easily available in nature.
At the end of this decades, most of the countries are moving towards to implement more and more wind turbine around the world, because of the increasing need of electricity without any type of pollution.
Wind energy is also known as green energy because it doesnt produce any type of pollution.
Estimated that roughly 10 million MW of energy are continuously available in earths wind.
According to statistics the electricity consumption is increasing largely due to the introduction of more electric vehicle.
According to CEA (Central Electricity Authority) in India 160 GW power is consumed in 2016-17.
Around 10% of it only is produced by wind, which is the installed capacity, during the year 2016-17 about 46,011 million kWh generated, which is the 3% of overall generation.
The commercial wind turbine is not suitable for small scale application as it requires more area, and cost of installation is large.
Modern society is moving towards electric vehicles, so there needs an advanced technology of power production, here the concept of small portable wind turbine which can easily connected to electric vehicles.
So, total consumption of electric power for electric vehicle is reduced.
For example, a fast-moving electric locomotive such as train or long distance heavy and passenger vehicle that travels in good speed produce enough energy as a source for wind turbine and a moving locomotives to produce electric energy.
Concepts such as the selection of suitable turbine parameters, generator performance in order to improve the energy yield from the induced wind and vehicle application as the location and the design.
Wind turbines are manufactured in different sizes and powers. Wind turbines are divided into 2 classes: small 200m2 or less, and large wind turbines, with a rotor-swept area larger than 200m2.
Two types of axes are important in micro wind turbines: Vertical Axis micro Wind Turbines (VAWT) and Horizontal Axis micro Wind Turbines (HAWT).
However, the efficiency of a VAWT is lower than HAWT because the blades of a HAWT are perpendicular, and the rotation axis is parallel to the direction of wind.
Selection of efficient blades for model is important for better efficiency and output. The blades should have less weight, high lift force , and better capture of kinetic energy of wind.
Aerofoil, forward straight and backward curve blade can be used in the turbine.
In figure, the exploded assembly of the project showed.
We can see various parts of the project which are listed below:
The final shape of assembly is showed at the left side of the figure while the right side shows the exploded parts and the dotted which explain how each part is fixed to each other.
Outlet nozzle directed to the fan (width) 250 mm
Thickness of the blades and structure parts 3 mm
The base is the main part which is carrying all the parts. The fan is consisting of 6 blades welded to the shaft and it connected between the base holder and the pully of the alternator.
The circular cavity is connected at the middle of the base and it covers fan.
The alternator is placed above its rectangular base and connected by 2 screws to the base.
Also, it has pulley connecting to the rotating shaft. The last part is the nozzle. It is a venturi type nozzle which allow to harvest high amount of the air.
An amount of wind mass m and density ? that flows with speed u in the axial direction of the wind have kinetic energy. Mechanical power Pw is derivative of kinetic energy with the time,
Cp is the power co-efficient which is the result of electrical power (output power) Pout over the mechanical power (input power) Pin,
In the nozzle, there is outlet velocity and inlet velocity. The inlet velocity is the air when it is entering the nozzle. It will be less than the outlet velocity which is the air when it is going out of the nozzle directing to the blades of the fan. This will achieve the purpose of the convergent nozzle so the velocity will be increased at the outlet point and give more forces to the blades to rotate. for the required data for calculation, see equation (3.3) for relationships between temperature and the velocity, equation (3.4) for the Mach number formula, (3.5) for the ratio of the stagnation temperature and static temperature, and (3.6) for the ratio of inlet to exit area.
where T01 is the stagnation temperature, Cp is the specific heat, T1 is the static temperature, and C1 is the inlet velocity.
where, is the speed of the sound, and k is the ideal gas constant (for air k = 1.4)
in equations (3.7),(3.8),(3.9), and (3.10) are required to determine the outlet density which is contributed on the wind power equation,
T is the torque of the shaft, F is the resultant force, and r is the radius of the blades (hub) see the following equation (3.10).
We have the speed of the inlet velocity which will be the speed of the air:
C1 = 100 km/h = 27.78 m/s T02 = T01 = 293 K Adiabatic process
A1 = 0.062 m2 C2 =? (the outlet velocity)
Step (1): Using equation 3.3 to find T1 (Cp = 1005 J/kg.K):
Step (2): Now, we use equation 3.4 to find Mach number at the inlet:
Step (3): Using equation 3.6 to find the Mach number at the outlet:
Step (4): Using equation 3.5 to find the static temperature at the outlet
Step (5): Use equation 3.4 to find the outlet velocity of the nozzle:
Step (6): Find the static inlet pressure by using equation 3.8:
Step (7): Find the density at the inlet by using equation 3.7:
Step (8): finally, find the outlet density from the continuity equation (equation 3.9)
1.182 kg/m3 the pressure at the outlet nozzle
Av= 0.026 m2 the outlet area which is directed to the fan
u = 67.33 m/s the outlet velocity of the nozzle when the air speed is 27.78 m/s = 100 km/hr
4.1 Advantages of the project
This project will be of practical size to be accommodated in any vehicle.
Power supply will be easy and there will be low power requirements.
It will reduce the re-charging requirement.
There will be reduction in electricity requirement.
It will produce less noise during its working condition.
4.2 Limitations of project
Problem can occur during water logging conditions
Proper capacity of the product has to be selected for keeping the dimensions to appropriate magnitude
It can get effected due to different weather conditions
Corrosion can occur for some parts due to which some prevention method has to be applied
It cannot be placed in some peculiar place
Weight & placement of mountings may affect the vehicle dynamics.
4.3 Scope of future work
Our project can be designed for small vehicles which also helps to improve the range of vehicle.
It can be taken up by locomotives, aquatic vehicles, air vehicles.
It will be advantageous during highway cruising speed or high speed.
4.4 Expected outcome
It will reduce the demand of electricity produced by power plant.
There can be reduction in charging problem of people.
Renewable energy source utilized perfectly which is going waste.
Further optimization are still possible.
Thus it can be concluded that it will reduce the amount of electricity from power plant which is generated by burning of coal and provide a healthy environment also reducing the charging problems that people face in future with electric vehicle and can be placed at different locations.
It can also design for other purpose vehicle which needs electricity to operate different accessories.