Why is Scout so surprised when Jem says, “It’s time you started bein’ a girl and acting right…?” What is Lee’s purpose for having Jem say this?
She’s surprised because Jem is getting older and thinks she should start acting like a lady, still considers herself a tomboy, offended
Why is Calpurnia so concerned about the children’s appearance when she takes them to First Purchase?
white children don’t usually go to a black church, everyone will be judging them, wants them to look presentable
Why does Lee introduce the character of Lula into the story?
She does not want Scout and Jem at the church, most of the people are fine with it, illustrates racism is more of an individual attitude
Why does Calpurnia speak differently at First Purchase then she does with the children in their home? What is Lee illustrating with this switch and Scout’s questions about it?
so she will fit in, would be out of place, 2 separate societies and communities
How does lee use the children’s experience at first purchase to show the similarities and differences between the African-American and the white religious communities?
African American do not have as much money-no hymn books, few are literate, cannot leave til collection is reached
What is the significance of Calpurnia’s description of learning to read? How does this affect Scout?
discrimination of African American communities, Scout trying to question status quo, Cal taught Zeebo to read from bible and Blackstone Commentaries
Why did Aunt Alexandra come to stay with Atticus, Jem and Scout? What does her arrival tell the reader and the people of Maycomb about her relationship with Atticus?
give children feminine influence, someone to keep them company over summer, not very close to Atticus
What does Atticus mean when he says, “I cannot stay here with you all day, and this summer’s going to be a hot one?”
he will be busy with trial, trial will be full of heat, summer so it is hot
How does lee use humor to show that she does not approve of using family heritage as a way to judge people? How is this significant to the character of Aunt Alexandra?
Alexandra proud she is a Finch, feels she is setting an example, introduces idea of “fine folks”
Briefly describe the impact of Scout’s role as narrator as she describes Aunt Alexandra’s explanation of cousin Lily Brook’s book about Joshua S.
might give a different impression because she does not want to talk about the book and does not like Aunt Alexandra
Why did the children feel so isolated and upset when Atticus asked them to listen to Aunt Alexandra’s explanations of the significance of being a Finch?
Atticus usually would not make them do that, do not like what she has to say, worried she is rubbing off on Atticus,
What does Scout mean when she says, “I know now what he was trying to do, but Atticus was only a man. It takes a woman to do that kind of work.”
Atticus trying to act like a mother but couldn’t, Alexandra trying to fill this role, proud of family heritage-taught better by a woman
Describe how Atticus’ and Aunt Alexandra’s reactions to Scout and Jem visiting Calpurnia’s church reflect their attitudes towards African Americans.
Aunt Alexandra does not like them, Atticus does not discriminate them
What does Scout mean when she says, “I felt the starched walls of a pink penitentiary closing in on me, and for the second time time in my life I thought of running away. Immediately.” How is this statement ironic?
pink penitentiary-dresses Aunt wants her to wear, she is talking about running away meanwhile dill already ran away, they were talking about Cal not scout
Give 2 examples of Jem’s increasing maturity, and explain each example along with Scout’s response.
Tells her Alexandra and Atticus have been fussing and not to make Aunty made, Scout thinks he is bossing her around and gets angry, More responsible-when they find Dill he says they better tell his mother and tells Atticus, Scout and Dill think he is a traitor
Why did Dill really run away? How does Lee use Dill’s explanation to create sympathy for him?
mother and step father did not pay enough attention to him, sympathy because he is not loved
If Dill were the narrator, how might he respond to Aunt Alexandra’s attention? How does his relationship with his mother and stepfather affect his possible response to Aunt Alexandra?
neglected at home, thinks its better to have attention than none at all, never had a parent that pays a lot of attention to him
What can the reader infer from Scout’s question about Boo radley running away and Dill’s response?
situations different, results the same, both interact with Finches
Why does Jem call out to Atticus that the phone was ringing? What is Lee’s purpose in adding this to the story?
throw men off, sense violence and wants father back inside without letting him know he is worried
How does Lee create suspense leading up to the confrontation at the jailhouse?
Aunt Alexandra and atticus fighting, Tom Robinson moved to jail, little events
What is the significance of Lee’s use of light and dark in this chapter? (jailhouse scene)
Light-safe in light of lightbulb with Atticus, don’t understand until they see the light, Dark-unsafe, when children do not understand what is happening at jailhouse, no light outside or inside jail because person inside is not supposed to have hope
What does the man mean when he says that they “…Called ’em off on a snipe hunt…?” How does this affect Atticus?
means the sheriff is gone, Atticus out of luck if he needs help, nervous when kids arrive
What is Lee’s purpose for having Scout jump into the circle of men unexpectedly at the jail?
Scout thinks atticus will be excited to see her, shows sinister nature of gang and scout’s innocence
What does Jem’s refusal to obey Atticus indicate with respect to Jem’s character?
finally understanding what it means to stick with family thru thick and thing like Aunt Alexandra says, knows something bad might happen, cares about Father
What aspects of Scout’s character does Lee draw on to disperse the lynch mob outside the jail?
uses innocence and friendliness, sees Mr. cunningham and starts cutting through the hate and fear
By talking to Walter Cunningham as she did, what lesson does Scout show Atticus that she has learned?
humanity beneath hatred in everyone, finds what is common between two people, people do things in a group they would not do bythemselves, makes him realize he should be ashamed
What is surprising about Mr. underwood’s comments from the dark?
does not like black people, justice more important than race
Explain the significance of Scout comparing Atticus in front of the jail to Atticus, “…standing in the middle of an empty waiting street, pushing up his glasses.”
only one standing up for Tom, only one to take care of the dog in the road
Why does Aunt Alexandra get upset with Atticus for talking about mr. Underwood in front of Calpurnia? What does this show about her character?
thinks it is not proper to talk about it in front of blacks, does not trust blacks and sees them as less
What does Atticus’ comment that Calpurnia “…knows what she means to this family” show about his own prejudices?
stops short in saying she is a part of the family, defining line is race
Why does Lee have Aunt ALexandra confine the children to the yard?
safety, allows reader to read of people walking by to go to trial
Briefly describe the atmosphere in town the day of the trial. What clues does Lee give the reader about the atmosphere?
dressed up, people pass by the house in a leisurely but steady stream, excited, wagons, mules, picnic lunches outside courtroom
What does lee illustrate with jem’s explanation of Mr. Dolphus Raymond’s behavior?
society thinks he is drunk, allows social conduct to continue, appearances can be deceiving, it is really coke in the paper bag
Describe the impression that Tate ives the reader through his recount of the event and Atticus’ cross-examination. What conclusion can the reader draw about Lee’s purpose for Tate’s testimony?
Tate is not very sure, never fully investigated what happened, hesistating
What is the significance of Bob Ewell’s legal name?
Robert E. Lee Ewell-named after general of confederate army
What can the reader infer from Atticus’ emphasis on the location of Mayella’s injuries and Bob Ewell’s dominant hand?
bob ewell beat up Mayella
What is the irony about Bob Ewell’s response to Mr. Gilmer’s question about being ambidextrous?
says he isn’t ambidextrous and he can use one hand as well as the other
Compare Jem and Scout’s attitudes at the end of Chapter 17 regarding the progress of the trial. What do their attitudes tell the reader about their understanding of race relations in Maycomb?
Jem thinks they have him, confident, Scout is not so sure, seems to know TOm won’t be believed
What is Lee’s purpose in having the Ewell family accuse Tom Robinson of rape?
Ewell’s lowest of the low, no matter how low you are, you are still high than blacks
How does Scout’s initial description of Mayella Ewell show Scouts character growth?
described her as a young, fragile girl but when she got into the witness chair, she was thick-bodied and accustomed to strenuous labor, Scout is empathizing and observing more, putting herself in Mayella’s perspective
Identify several elements that Lee uses to create supsense during Mayella’s testimony.
constantly offended by Atticus, takes things personally, long, many questions about everyday life that build tension
How does Lee create sympathy for Mayella?
crying, no friends, lonely, father drinks, does not realize how bad she is living
How does Lee create conflict for the reader with respect to seeing Mayella as a sympathetic character by the end of her testimony?
attacks Tom with lies and racist language, directs comments to jury-yells at them, lashes out at Atticus- screams, afraid of father might do if they lose
How does Scout’s description of Atticus after cross-examining Mayella illustrate his consistent character?
consistent towards everything in his life, polite, respectful, tries to prove his point, tries to see best in everyone
Why does Atticus ask tom to stand up?
everyone can see his left arm is crippled, useless, try to prove it would have been very hard to rape her
Why does Lee begin this chapter (chapter 19) with a description of Tom trying to take the oath in the trial?
difficulty keeping hand on bible-useless
Why does Atticus ask Tom about previously being in trouble with the law?
to show he has nothing to hide
What does Lee illustrate with Scout’s pity for Mayella?
lonely, no friends, took Atticus’ advice to heart, tom is only one ever nice to her, more lonely than Boo
What is the significance of Tom robinson admitting that he felt sorry for Mayella? How does Mr. gilmer further emphasize tom’s error?
black men are not supposed to feel sorry for white women, gilmer thinks he is lying, reduces credibility
What does TOm mean when he says, “…it were not safe for any ****** to be in a -fix like that?”
no one would believe him if he had to defend himself, no one would believe him if he used self defense
What is the implication of Mr. Gilmer calling Tom a boy? Why is Dill the one who gets upset by these references?
to show he is lower, below him, not seen as a man, Dill feels for Tom and knows what it feels like to be talked hateful to
What does Scout mean when she says that Atticus is, “…the same in the courtroom as he is on the public streets?”
same person all the time, consistent, STATIC CHARACTER
Why does Lee have Link Deas interrupt the trial?
let us know that there is at least one other white man besides Atticus that believes tom is innocent
What is the symbolism of the courthouse lights?
light is hope and safety, everything coming together, lights turn on as he bangs gavel
What does Dolphus Raymond’s comment foreshadow at the end of this chapter?
more racial problems, appearances can be deceiving
What is lee’s purpose for inserting Raymond’s conversation with scout and dill in the middle of the drama of the trial?
explain Dill’s stress on the way people talk to blacks, children can be sensitive, white citizens to blame, guilt lies with everyone who is not doing anything
Why does Raymond constantly carry a brown bag with coca-cola in it? What does the bag represent?
represents Mr. Raymond intentionally letting them judge him, free pass to live the life he wants to live, so people think he is drunk and that is why he married a black woman
Why did Atticus remove his coat, loosen his tie, and unbutton his vest?
diffuse tension, lessen formality, appear more relatable, be at their level
What type of literary device does Atticus use when he says, “This case is as simple as black and white?” How is Atticus’ choice of words ironic?
Idiom, jury must choose black or white person, simplicity of case-one side or other
What was Lee’s purpose in having Atticus’ identify the court as the only place that all men are equal?
enforcing reality that men on jury can’t believe Tom with their upbringing and community, not asked to give up culture but to make decision on evidence
What is the significance of Lee’s portrayl of Calpurnia as she comes into the courtroom and as she walks home with the children?
walks dividing line between blacks and whites, different levels in black community
Compare Scout and Jem’s opinions of the length of the jury deliberations. (Chapter 21 when trial is almost over)
Jem is hopeful, thinks Tom will win, Scout senses something foreboding, not as optimistic because racial prejudices
Why does Reverend Sykes make Scout stand up as her father walks by?
blacks respect atticus for giving tom a fair trial, appreciate he proved him innocent even if he did not win
What is the significance of Aunt Alexandra saying, “I’m sorry brother..” to Atticus?
never says that, relationship growing, respects him, sympathy, not heartless monster scout makes her out to be
How does Lee remind the reader of the character of Miss Stephanie, Miss Rachel, and Miss Maudie through their comments to the children after the trial’s over?
Miss Maudie-comforting, consoles them, Miss Stephanie-wants to know details, gossip, Miss Rachel-does not really care
What does Miss Maudie mean when she says, “There are some men in this world who were born to do unpleasant jobs…?
Atticus’ job was not fair, but he was only one to do it, did his best, most would not have tried
Why does Lee use Miss Maudie to explain Atticus’ role in the community?
Miss Maudie sheds light for scout, kids trust her, safe
What does Bob Ewell’s confrontation with Atticus foreshadow?
future interaction/problems with Ewell’s
Describe how Atticus’ response to Ewell’s threat is consistent with his character?
calmly, respectfully, rather have hatred at him instead of children
What does Jem misunderstad about the length of the jury’s deliberations? What is the significance of the deliberations and the effect they have on jem?
took jury so long because cunningham, usually these cases take minutes, good it took longer
Why does Lee select a cunningham to be the juror who cast the non-guilty votes?
one who scout talked to at the jailhouse, Scout had impact on him, kids impacted trial w/o knowing
How does Lee use humor to change the tone of Atticus’ conversation with the children about the jury’s verdict?
says they are double first cousins to the man, scout starts to wonder about that
Describe how aunt alexandra’s response to Scout’s comment about Walter cunningham is consistent with her character
cunninghams are our kind of folks, high standards for finches-uphold name
What evidence of Jem’s increasing maturity does Lee include in this chapter?
feels pity for Aunt Alexandra, decides there are 4 kinds of folks in Maycomb, Boo radley stays in to avoid prejudice, starting to understand racial issues
Explain the satire lee uses in chapter 24 (missionary ladies)
missionary ladies make plans to help poor in africa but unable to see horrible conditions of black people in their city and america, humiliate and demean their african american neighbors
Explain the irony of Mrs. Merriweather’s comments about getting the preacher to help “…her lead a christian life for those children from her on out.”
situational irony, unaware scout knows about Robinson’s wife who goes to church and is a christian
Why does Miss Maudie get so angry at Mrs. merriweather?
criticizing atticus for defending tom while sitting in his house
What is lee alluding to when mrs. merriweather says, “Mrs. Roosevelts lost her mind-just plain lost her mind coming down to birmingham and tryin’ to sit with ’em…”
people would protest in civil rights, roosevelt sat with african americans, police wanted her to move
What does Mrs. merriweather mean when she says, “it’s never entered that wool of hers that the only reason I keep her is because this depression’s on…?
keeps her maid only because it is the depression, claims she is always kind to maid (sophy), comparing servants hair to wool
How does AUnt Alexandra’s reaction to Tom’s death mirror Jem’s distress after the trial?
Alexandra blames them for harming atticus, jem cannot believe it
How do Aunt Alexandra, Miss Maudie, and scout follow atticus’ example by returning to the missionary circle? Why is this so significant for scout?
act like nothing happened, scout acting like lady, courage means continuing to do something difficult when its easy to quit
What is the significance of Jem’s reaction to Scout when she starts to kill the roly-poly?
has more sensitivity for people and creatures who are defenseless, he tells her to set it on back steps-doesn’t want her to kill it
What does lee shows through maycomb’s lack of concern about TOm’s death?
his death justifies racist attitudes, feeds into stereotypes
What can the reader infer about lee’s use of “…the senseless slaughter of songbirds…” in Underwood’s editorial?
Tom was a mockingbird, innocent victim killed by a bigger force
What literary device does Lee use when Scout is describing how she pumped the organ in the chapel at Finch’s landing? What is scout’s purpose for this description?
metaphor, if organ presses key and no air, no sound comes out, Merriweather runs out of air to talk
When describing her thoughts about Underwood’s editorial, how does scout show that she has not lost all of her childhood innocence, but is beginning to understand the implications of racism?
doesn’t like that Tom’s death was senseless, understands power whites have over blacks
How does Lee create suspense at the end of this chapter? What does Ewell’s comment foreshadow?
“one down, two to go”, everything did not come to halt after trial, Mr. Ewell is out to hurt two more people
Briefly describe the examples that Lee uses in this chapter to show Scout’s continuing character development. What does each example illustrate about scout?
regrets way she treated boo, still puzzled by the gifts, Atticus’ reelection-citizens do not blame scout or jem, wonders why they are reelecting atticus, teachers comment about holocaust-why is she concerned about hitler when they are discriminating blacks in their own town
What does Scout mean when she says, “…time was playing tricks on…?” her.
could not remember how long ago it was, trial has had huge impact
What type of literary device does Lee use when she says “like smoke in a closed room”?
simile, summer hanging over them
Why did Jem get so angry at Scout?
jem struggling with anger and betrayal, takes anger out on her, starts remembering how angry he was at the trial
What is Lee’s purpose for re-introducing Boo Radley in this chapter?
they do not see him as horrible monster, he is always there
How does LEe use other Maycomb citizens to build suspense?
Mr. Ewell-fired from WPA, accuses Atticus for being fired, Judge Taylor-house broken into, carries shot gun around, Helen Robinson-has to walk out of her way to avoid being chunked at by the Ewell’s, Ms. Ruth-scared of Ewell, leaves job to tell atticus
What is Lee’s purpose for the allusion to the WPA and the Ladies Law? What do they signify?
WPA-helped find jobs for people in Depression, hard to get fired from, Ladies’ Law-protects women from harmful language, not for colored women
What does Atticus’ reaction to Ewell’s problems with the WPA and Link Deas indicate to the reader about Atticus’ character?
evidence piling up, Atticus continues to be single minded, does not want to acknowledge something bad could happen
Briefly describe Scout’s relationship with Aunt Alexandra at this point in the story (Chapter 27)
tolerates her, does not fight, helps with missionary circle, maturing, concern when she is not feeling well
How does Lee use humor to soften the seriousness of the prank that was played on two vulnerable sisters on the previous Halloween?
Miss Tutti and Miss Frutti-hard of hearing
How does Lee re-create the sense of foreboding at the end of this chapter?
thus began our longest journey together, alexandra feels someone walked over her grave, suspense, foreshadowing something bad
How does Lee use light and darkness to create the tone at the beginning of this chapter?
Light-safety, streetlight casts shadow on Radley House showing it is not a threat, Dark-no flashlight, not safe, Cecil Jacobs scares them, no moon
What is the significance of “…the solitary mocker…in blissful unawareness of whose tree he sat in…?”
referring to mockingbird in Radley’s house, innocence does exist in the story after all this happened
What is Lee’s purpose for having Scout fall asleep backstage while waiting to maker he entrance?
she misses her entrance, after show she wants to wait till everyone was gone and did not want to take costume off…leads to whole chain of events
How does Lee increase the level of suspense as the children are walking home?
darkness-lights in school go out, Scout cannot keep balance, forgets shoes, Jem makes scout stop walking, Scout cannot see what is happening when attack happens
How does Scout’s role as narrator affect the reader’s sense of the attack on the children?
dark, costume inhibits understanding, helpless, disoriented
How does Scout realize that Aunt Alexandra really does love her and accept her for who she is?
she gives Scout overalls for her to wear, calls her darling, makes sure she is okay
How does Atticus show his own innocence when talking to Heck Tate?
has no idea who would do it to his children-wants to believe everyone is good, obvious to reader who it is
What clues does Lee give the reader about Ewell’s death? What conclusions can the reader draw from these clues?
Scout finds body when looking for Jem, countrymen in corner of bedroom-can’t put all pieces together
Why does Aunt Alexandra feel responsible for what happened?
she had a bad feeling, felt like someone walked over her grave, thinks its her fault
What clues does Lee give the reader about how Atticus feels? What do Atticus’ comments tell the reader about his beliefs?
underestimated power of ignorance and hate, Atticus feels guilty-internal conflict, cannot believe Ewell would do that to his children
What clues does lee give scout so she can realize who the countryman really is?
white hands that have never seen the sun, feathery hair, Boo not home when walking past Radley house
What is the symbolism of Scout’s reference to Arthur Radley’s feathery hair?
innocence of Boo could have been emotionally destroyed in trial, he is like a mockingbird
What does scout mean when she says, “…then I understood. The livingroom lights were awfully strong?”
Boo would feel more comfortable in the dark
How does Lee help Scout see Boo Radley as a human being rather than the monster that she and Jem had always considered him?
he is in their house and is not killing anyone, he saved them, Dr. Reynolds recognizes Boo, she takes him by the hand
Why does Heck Tate want to cover up the real cause of Ewell’s death? How does Atticus misinterpret this?
he wants to protect Boo, trial would be bad, Atticus thinks Jem did it, assumes Tate is trying to protect Jem from going to court
What does Atticus’ refusal to avoid a trial for Jem show about his character?
does not want Jem to be treated different, moral integrity
Briefly discuss Scout’s reference to the mockingbird when Atticus asks if she understands Tate’s decision.
She compares Boo to a mockingbird, he would not survive the attentions if truth got out, he is innocent, she understands empathy now
Why is Tate so adamant about protecting Arthur Radley? How does Lee show the reader Tate’s intent?
Arthur is innocent, does not need more attention, protecting Boo from world at large, Tate felt guilty that Tom died
Which character learns the most about human nature in this chapter? (various answers)
Atticus-human nature is not all good (Ewell), Boo, Scout, Heck Tate
What is the significance of Scout’s guiding Arthur Radley through the house and then to his own home?
she will never see him again, realizing he is not a scary monster, showing empathy
What does Scout mean when she says, “Autumn again, and Boo’s children needed him?”
started receiving presents in autumn from Boo, remind us that Scout knows how much Boo cares-watches them grow up, risked life for them
Why does Lee have Atticus read the Gray Ghost to Scout?
review events in Scouts life-thought of Boo as monster, realizes he is kind when she meets him, similar to events in the novel, appearances can be deceiving
What is the significance of Atticus putting Scout to bed after she falls asleep in Jem’s room?
shows she is still innocent, has matured a lot throughout novel, but still needs to be taken care of