The revolution of 1959, which occurred in the middle of the cold war, was perceived, as well in Cuba as in the third world and with a whole part of the western left, as the promise of a new era. Fidel Castro, at the head of his rebel army, triumphantly entered Havana and put an end to the Batista dictatorship, and ruled a small Caribbean island for almost half a century. This has aroused so many expressions of admiration or distrust of the American political class, which suspected it of being an agent of influence of the Communists.
To understand the Cuban revolution of 1959, it is necessary to wonder about the factors policies weighed as much as the social factors which shaped the nature of this revolutionary movement, overthrowing a dictatorship, forged a new one less than a year later.The Political SituationCuba, in the middle of the last century, carried with it all the flaws of colonialism. It is one of the last territories of the Spanish crown to be emancipated after two extremely violent wars.
Of liberation against Madrid, Cuba retains most of the traits inherited from Spanish colonialism: an unequal land structure and social sedimentation which is superimposed on a racial hierarchy of Cuban society. The Americans set up, after 1902, puppet governments which respond more to politics than dictates to them the representation of the interests of American capital on the island And when that is not enough, the United States does not hesitate to intervene militarily under the Platt Amendment which formalizes the right of interference from the great neighbour to the North.
Fulgencio Batista, the guarantor of American interests, established a dictatorship. What made the Cuban economy depended heavily on that of the United States. Politics were marked by corruption. What did Batista’s opponent not like The social situation – Export agricultural production (sugar and tobacco) is dominated by a capitalist structure. Since 1934, a significant number of properties and refineries have been taken over by Cubans, American companies still control a good part of them. The proletariat and the sub-proletariat of cities and fields, therefore, represent by far the main social force. The bourgeoisie was proper puny. On the other hand, there is a relatively large urban bourgeoisie, of teachers, lawyers, commercial and administrative officials.
This bourgeoisie has fueled radical, democratic and anti-imperialist currents. But, on several occasions already, its radicalization has broken down on military power. From 1898 to 1955, through the government of Guiteras and Grau San Martin in 1953, Cuban political history is that of an aborted bourgeois revolution and its dead ends. Born of this radicalism, Castro himself is the last link in a long chain: the failures of the bourgeoisie revolution have matured the need for a socialist revolution, as the only real path of liberation from imperialism. are ripe for it, detaching itself from radical democratism, to join the revolutionary communism of the Mariátegui and the Mella (one of the founders of the Cuban CP) which, long before Che and the conference of the Olas, applied to America Latin the watchword of the permanent revolution: or socialist revolution or caricature of revolution.
Following the revolution, it becomes clear that not only is Castro the interpreter of the revolutionary will, but that he alone has the power to summon and make the Cuban people exist. He is the authorizing officer of a new social institution. The Cuban people and the nation are reshaped by this symbiosis with their leader. The Cuban people and society exist through him, he reshuffles the Castro government concentrates in his person all powers: the executive, he is the Prime Minister; the legislature, having abolished the 1940 Constitution, its government is subject only to its decrees; the judiciary, it makes and defeats court decisions according to ‘its moral conviction’ (Marxism in the modern world page 267). Implementation of a whole series of measures that will immediately benefit the working classes. In the eyes of the international. The revolution, led by Fidel Castro, fused the search for independence with the building of a new society in a region where the United States rules. The Cuban revolution challenged the American giant, nationalized its businesses and stood up to it.
Washington never accepted this slap that a small neighbouring island inflicted on it and which could incite other peoples to revolt. Under Castro’s leadership, Cuba has provided decisive aid to Angola and Namibia in the fight against the forces of apartheid.Cuba has so far been subject to constant interference from the United States and a merciless trade, economic and financial blockade, but the question is only as the Castro government would respond to the demands and demands expressed when the effects the blockade increased tenfold and Cuba plunged into a deep crisis. In conclusion, These are the political and social effects that take place after the revolution. Castro, the guerrilla leader who wanted to reincarnate the hero of Cuban independence and turned six months later into a dictator who will dominate Cuba for half a century. But he was able to transmit a conviction, gather around her. He shared the enthusiasm of the people who embarked on the construction of something new and who believed they could go very far in their communist objectives. He faced the most important power on the planet without bending.