The Growth and Moral Development

The baby trusts the caretaker when comfort, warmth, love, and attention are received. Nurses should observe if the infant is making progress towards achieving developmental crisis. Infant’s physical condition is good when they have an attachment to their caretaker(s). The infants mistrust their caregivers and environment when they receive inadequate basic needs. Psychosexual Development (Freud): Oral. Needs are satisfied through the mouth. Infants obtain pleasure and comfort through sucking and eating.2 When they can’t take fluids or food offer a pacifier or bottle or have mother breastfeed.

Developmental Tasks (Havighurst): Infancy and Early Childhood life period learns to eat solid food, walk, and talk. They are aware of sex differences, and learn to between right and wrong.

Cognitive Development (Piaget): Sensorimotor 1 to 4 months: Enjoys behaviors and repeats them, e.g. smiling, sucking thumbs. Can rotate head 180 degrees to follow objects. Turns head towards voices and sounds.5 6 4 to 8 months: Responds own behavior to environment (e.g. shaking a rattle to hear the sound or manipulating a spoon to eat.

) Examines complex visual images. Observes the course of a falling object. Recognizes own name and responds by looking and smiling. Enjoys playing with small and complex objects .5 6 8-12 month: Coordinates several thought patterns at a time to complete a task (e.g. repeatedly throwing an object on the floor.) Object permanence has not developed yet (plays peek-a-boo).6 8 Imitates sounds words spoken by the caregiver. Understands words such as “no” and “dog”.

There is no theory for children under the age of 4.

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9 Spiritual Development (Fowler): Undifferentiated faith Attachment between infant and caregivers is crucial to infant’s strong faith.10 Trust, hope, and love compete with threats of abandonment and neglect during this phase. Physiological Development: Birth to 1 month: (Physical growth) Head grows by 1.5 cm. (Fine motor) Can hold hand in fist, and cephalocaudal and proximodistal growth. (Gross Motor) Rooting and startle are the main activity. Holds rattle when placed in hand. Looks at and plays with own fingers, and brings hands to mouth. (Gross Motor) Moro reflex strength fades. Can turn from side to back and then return. Decrease in head lag when pulled to sitting position; sits with head held in midline with some bobbing. When prone, holds head and supports weight on forearms.5

Doubles birth weight by 5-6 months. (Fine Motor) Grasps rattles and other objects at will; drops them to pick up another offered objects. Mouths objects. Holds feet and pulls to mouth. Holds bottle. Grasps with whole hand (palmar grasp). Manipulates objects. (Gross Motor) Head held steady when sitting, but head doesn’t lag when pulled to sitting. Turns from abdomen to back by 4 months and then back to abdomen by 6 months. When held by adults to stand, they support much of own weight. Shakes objects in hands by transferring object from one hand to the other. May begin pincer grasp at times. (Gross Motor) Most inborn reflexes have extinguished. Sits alone without support by 8 months. Begins bouncing on legs when held in standing position.

Picks up small objects. Uses pincer grasp well. (Gross Motor) Crawls or pulls whole body along the floor with arms. Creeps by using hands and knees to keep trunk off the floor. Pulls self to stand and sit by 10 months. Recovers balance when sitting. Birth weight triples by 1 year. (Fine Motor) May hold a crayon or a pencil and mark on paper. Places objects into containers with holes. (Gross Motor) Stands alone, and walks holding onto furniture. Sits down from standing.8 Brain grows to about half the adult size. Body temperature stabilizes. Eyes begin to focus and fixate. Heart doubles in weight, heart rate slows, and blood pressure rises.

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