This thesis aims to investigate about the gender generalizations or stereotypes that exist in the animations and cartoons, explicitly, the princess culture that Disney has created influences gendered actions and behavior of adolescent girls in ages amid 3-12 years. Qualitative study was done to understand the influence of animated films; especially influence and part of Disney animated films in the lives of young immature girls from the perspective of mothers.
This research contributes to the previous literature and writings regarding the messages and ideas that cartoon shows are stirring amongst children, and how compelling they are.
As shown by England et al, there are various methods for considering the effects of gender stereotypes on youths (England, et al. 2011). One way is by cultivation theory, which contends, ‘Exposure to TV substance builds opinions for acceptable social behavior’ (Larson 2001). ‘Therefore, whatever is publicized on mass media effects children socialization system and the gendered information a youngster view may straightforwardly influence his or her intellectual perception about gender and impact his or her conduct’ (Gerbner, et al.
2002).In children’s lives, exposure to anime could be one of the daily things.
Previous studies has revealed that kids from the period 18 months begin showing attention in the caricatures and around the time of 3 years an adolescent becomes a constant active watcher (Dietz, William and Gortmaker 1985). In today’s time, gender is a very significant subject issue. Gendered functions are vital to a person as they establish if an individual is masculine or feminine and hence it very well may be said that gender role is conduct and thinking which society accepts and expects (Signorielli 1990).
There are many determinants from the environs through which kids can build up ideas about gendered roles (Cherney, D. and London 2006). One purpose that cartoons fulfill indirectly is instructing adolescents about gendered behavior and identity.In the realm of caricatures, fairy tales has their noteworthy position. Fairy tales are very successful in retaining their spot in the lives of kids. These fictions are the longest presented class in the literature of children and have strong effect on children, especially young girls (Schacker, 2004).
In the present period, these tales are not just the bed time chronicles, in fact they play a very imperative part in the lives of brood and especially girls (Wohlwend 2012). When talking about fairy tales, Disney princesses can never be ignored. Since 1937, Disney cartoon characters are the permanent members of cartoon world (Hubka, Hovdestad, & Tonmyr, 2009). This thesis focuses on the influence of the Disney fairy tales in the lives of girls. Influence will be studied in three ways; personality traits, concepts of beauty among girls, and change in buying patterns. A primary researcher on fiction, Zipes (2012), believes that Disney cartoon films create “gender generalizations…which may include unfavorable impact on youngsters as compared to what their parents believe….Parents believe them to be fundamentally harmless– they’re harmful”.
This gendered strain among Disney movies and feminism is there ever since the first Disney cartoon film in 1937 (Hoerner 1996).Disney is well recognized by the millions of kids, as one of the Disney analysts state: these movies encourage cultural ability and authenticity more for socializing gender roles, morals, and standards than the conventional places of education such as schools and other education sectors, religious foundations, and parents (Giroux, 1995).Mass media area for children, for example, the Disney princess motion pictures, impart explicit characters to youngsters, impacting how they execute gender orientation, particularly through their activities and collaborations with other kids (Robinson, et al. 2007). In an investigation concentrated on five year old and six year old youngsters’ play, it was discovered that the young men and young ladies took on the foreseen characters replicated in the Disney Princess films (Coyne, et al. 2016).
Despite the facts that play can be a limbo-like state where personalities can be developed and recreated dependent on the situation, there was next to no space for the youngsters to investigate jobs that did not accommodate their doled out gender orientation (J. Garabedian 2015). For instance, two young men in the test were fanatics of the Disney princess films, and when they wanted to play with dolls and embellishments in their study hall setting, they adequately confronted the other young men’s and young ladies’ gender desires, as different youngsters were uneasy about the young men assuming the roles of young ladies (Gillam and Wooden 2008). A study early in 1954 estimated that more than third of the world population has seen at least one Disney film (Cinema Father Goose ). Animated films are a site of learning for little children. The mass media, especially when talking about children, Disney world becomes the first best place for them to construct their social reality (Wiersma 2000). One interesting thing about Disney is that it is not the place where only childhood innocence and adventures are produced and experienced (Giroux, 1995) but also is the place from where children’s perception is born and these perceptions are then carried out to their adulthood (Tonn, 2008).
Baudrillard (2000) argues that Disney is more real than just fantasy. Disney develops a culture of happiness and purity for youngsters out of the crossing point of amusement, encouragement, joy, and consumerism (Giroux, 1995). Henke, Umble, and Smith (1996) describe the idea of Disney in kids lives, they argue: Youngsters can watch Disney movies and films before they clean their teeth using Disney character toothbrushes, rest in Beauty and the Beast night wear, sleep on The Little Mermaid bolsters, use Pocahontas clocks and watches for time checking, and sleep while listening to Cinderella’s song, ‘Regardless of how much your heart is sorrowful, have faith and the fantasy that you wish will work out’ on their recording devices”. Disney is one of the most popular globalized cultural institutions. As it is globalized, everyone has seen, or at least familiar with Disney films (Best & Lowney, 2009). For the toddlers, it is these movies from where they get the concepts of being male and female (Castillo, 2006). For girls Walt Disney has set forth the guidelines of how to grow up in order to attain a “happy life ever after” and an ideal Prince (Sawyer, 2011).
Although Disney has dramatically changed its themes, messages, and other multiple elements, but still the traditional touch of stereotypes is always present. For instance, the first ingredient into existence from the first ever Disney film till present is the damsel in distress (Wohlwend 2009), where a feminine is in trouble and like always a typical muscular man comes as her life guard; in Frozen: Kristoff for Anna, in Tangled: Eugene for Rapunzal, in Sleeping Beauty: Prince Philip for Aurora, in Snow White and the seven Dwarfs: Prince Charming for Snow White, in Beauty and the Beast: Beast for Belle, and even in one of the recent released, in Moana: Maui for Moana. This damsel in distress matter in itself render the different personality traits and characteristics that a girl should posses for becoming an ideal woman in the society and also it’s a way to get her dream prince (Blaise, 2009). The characteristics of significance in this study include traditionally feminine (e.g. domestic, nurturing, etc.) traits exhibited by the princesses’ characters through their behaviors and actions.
The development of sexual orientation character for young ladies creates the most disputable issue in Disney’s animated movies (Layng 2007). Disney animated films through its Disney princess gang shapes little minds that how they should strive to look like them by defining zero waist, bulging sugar cookie eyes, pale skin color, delicate lips, skinny limbs, slim neck, sedate shoulders, legs connected to the waist; eradicating the need of hips (McGladrey 2014). This is the beauty standards for feminine created by Disney and is inescapable all through the princess films (Harrison and Hefner 2006). Probably unexpectedly, Disney has generalized and downgraded ladies and body types and used them as object since the very first animated movie in 1937. Disney films define the standards of beauty for girls (Bazzini, et al. 2010). Disney defines a formula, a way to achieve success, which says beauty is equal to happy life. According to the researches, young children are quite concern about their body figures (Northup and Liebler 2010).
They want to be thin and flat like shown on television (Sylvia, et al. 2004).Disney cartoons do not only leave effect on children, but also influence the life style of family (Sandlin and Garlen 2016). Disney cartoons affects buying patterns of family (Hinkins 2007). Watching movies again and again, with also seeing what you desire in hands of another person, this all creates pressure in the brain of little spectators to have what they want by asking their parents (Brunchansky 2010). In this way children are not only the targeted audience of Disney, but family also gets into this consumption circle. In a study done by Zavadilova (2014), it was claimed that parents told that sixty to seventy percent of the time, when children play, they are surrounded by Disney products.The current study is pivot with the subject of sociology and gender studies. The principle of this study is to build up the structure of sociology for the investigation of Disney anime and apply that structure to the inquiry of gender generalizations in the Disney animations.
The primary source of amusement for youngsters is caricatures and therefore also the primary source of constructing role ideals. The problem starts when they do not comprehend the contrast between reel characters and genuine characters, henceforth begins demonstrating the characters. The center of attention of this study is young ladies and the stereotyped jobs marked with them. It will likewise concentrate on some conventional behavioral characteristics of adolescent girls between the ages of three to twelve. It will also focus on the beauty concepts among the girls and influence on the different consumption patterns of the family due to the influence of Disney cartoons. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES To analyze dominating topics in the interview feedback and whether they were reliable with ideas found in previous literature also with the researcher assumptions.
To explore the impact of Disney animated films on the consuming patterns of families of young girls. We find scattered articles from the journals of sociology which offers the analysis about different sociological attributes of cartoons (Dines, 1990). In one of these articles Hines (1933) claim “cartoons as means of social control”, Hines says that cartoons are edited animated pictures, they play significant role in shaping the roles and opinions of viewers. Thus Hines sees cartoons as agent of social control.
Some of the scholars argue that cartoons are the source which forms opinion of people on significant social issues (Kemnitz 1973). Cartoons could be seen as both, molding the opinions and also reflecting the opinions (Caswell, 2004). Coupe (1969)says that similar to all the journalists, animated composers are concerned with manipulating the public views.
One important thing to view in the content of cartoons is their way of gender portrayal. A close look upon cartoons could reveal different aspects of gender representation, especially female representation (Leaper, et al. 2002). The point to ponder is what it has to do with sociology and gender. This discussion has been going on for sometime within the discipline of social sciences (Fonow and Cook 2005).
One of the greatest media aggregate organizations is Disney animations which builds content for youngsters that are exceptionally famous (Best and Lowney 2009). Disney firm has been in existence for a long time. Each platform utilizes different techniques so as to affect distinctive target groups from population, and Disney’s intended interest group is for the most part are youngsters however to a degree young people and grown-ups as well as Disney proposes amusement for a wide scope of crowd (Wohlwend 2012).
Plenty of research has been done on how publicizing and TV influence youngsters (Streiff and Dundes 2017) (Golden and Jacoby 2018). Nonetheless this study will look at to what degree one of the biggest youngsters’ media franchise-Disney influences youthful kids. Also, whether guardians should adopt a strategy towards controlling what Disney films convey. And also, if parents should enlighten their children about the social, verifiable, gender orientation subjects and data further, as Disney is well acknowledged for building dogmas and changing certain character portrayals whether it is physical, social or recorded (Malfroid 2009). This thesis consists of following parts.
This part covers all the significant results pinned out from the analysis dependent on the view of the respondents. It talks about the results and compares the real results of the present investigation with the past writing. This correlation is drawn based on similarities and contrasts in results of present research and previous writing. An end is drawn based on examination, results and discussion. It incorporates the incentive behind the reesrch, and restrictions of the investigation.