The articles about Genetic Polymorphisms and Cancer risk presents researches that are conducting alterations due to Genetic polymorphisms to further help in medical fields such as determining cancer susceptibility. Genes like the glutathione-S-transferases characterizes as elimination to carcinogen and therapeutic biomarkers. From the five articles read, the observations were visible when it came to statistical analysis. The data information utilized, design and its normality was not similar all throughout. There are differences but still follows a pattern.
First, the data transformation of the articles specifically in the statistical analysis part caters most of the similarities from the five articles.
It has theories and calculations that have almost or the same as the other articles. Generally, the normality test is estimating through Odds ratio (ORs) and using the 95% confidence interval is in all of the articles but surprisingly, the HardyWeinberg equilibrium (HWE) theory was in four out of five articles. Therefore, it may have a reason as to why it is frequently used in topics like these.
Upon reading the articles, the primary reason why Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is used is due to its compatibility to the study because it deals with genetic variation. The principle states that the genetic variation of a population will remain constant even upon generations after with no confounding variables (Nature Education, 2014). It measures the changes from the undisturbed state. As follows, two from the articles used Chi square test (Pearson ?2) for the categorical data in the articles. It determined the significant differences in genotypes between cases and controls.
This statistical test is applied because it evaluates observed differences between sets arose by chance. The article about Preeclampsia however, did not specify what other tests were used aside from the usual normality tests. It only stated using the statistical software package SPSS 10.0.
Second, the designing experiment. Cross-sectional study was used in all articles because the conducted research should be done in a way that it should be happening now. The research design is done through analyzing data collected at one time. For example from the study subjects, in one research article about breast cancer risk, the study lasted only from December 2015 up to July 2016.
Results and information about the normality suggest that summary result of the articles suggests that the sampled genetic polymorphisms may not be risk factors for the cancer types in breast cancer risk in the Philippines and in sporadic renal cancer. Unlike in myeloid leukemia in Argentina, preeclampsia in China and lung cancer in North India. The GST genotypes that they had were not all the same. There were similarities but it was not all in the same transferases. Most had a p-value lower than 0.05 which rejects the null that there are not much difference or help within the genetic variations used. In conclusion, there were patterns and some similarities but again, no research from the articles read is exactly the same.