The aim of this essay is to determine whether E-Mobility should be promoted. In this essay, the term “E-Mobility” is used primarily with reference to road transport especially on passenger cars.
1.3 Structure of the essay
In the following chapter I will explain what E-Mobility is. Then I will talk about the historical development of E-Mobility. I will aim to illustrate how the technology has been used in the past. In the following chapter, I will talk about E-Mobility today. Then the pros and cons of electric vehicles will be presented. Finally, there will be a conclusion in which I will summarize everything briefly again, give my own opinion and an outlook into the future.
2. What is E-Mobility?
E-Mobility (electric mobility) refers to the use of electric vehicles. E-Mobility is also considered to be the central building block of a sustainable and climate-friendly transport system based on renewable energies.
3. The history of E-Mobility
3.1 First was E-Mobility
Even if you do not believe it, the first cars were electric cars. Already at the beginning of the 19th century, humans experimented with mobility. The physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered the foundation. In 1821 he presented a rotation which was powered by electromagnetism. Thereupon from 1830 more and more electric motor types became known. In 1839 the Scottish car pioneer Robert Anderson developed the first electric vehicle in Aberdeen. He also built an electric cart 7 years before. But this electric cart showed very slow speed. In 1840 a German,named Johann Philipp Wagner, also designed a small car, including a trailer, with a similar concept to the Scots.
3.2 The first official electric vehicle
It was not until 1881, when the first historically recognized electric vehicle officially came into being. Its creator was the Frenchman Gustave Trouv?. In fact, his vehicle was a bicycle with three wheels. The energy was provided by lead-acid batteries, which his compatriot Gaston Plant? had developed years before. Trouv?’s electric vehicle already managed a speed of twelve kilometres per hour, with a range of 14 and 26 kilometres. Also in 1881, this “Trouv? Tricycle” was on display at the International Electricity Exhibition in Paris. Gasoline as a driving force was not in focus at that time, maybe not even known. Lead-acid batteries were used. A year later, Werner Siemens introduced an electric carriage in Berlin. Its name was “Elektromote”. Ayrton Perry, Jeantaud, Volk, and Andrew L. Riker are the names of those who repeatedly made headlines with their individual electric drive vehicles.
3.3 The cars conquered the streets
Towards the end of the 19th century, the first passenger cars slowly conquered the streets. Exactly, in Germany, for the first time in 1880. It was the first electrically powered car. The vehicle was manufactured by the factory “A. Flakes”. In addition to this factory, the American William Morrison also emerged as a meticulous developer. Starting in 1887, he has built up to twelve vehicles over the next nine years. In the US, many inventors around that time saw great potential in electric-powered vehicles and assumed that there would soon be a broad market with growing demand. Fittingly, competitions took place in which electrically powered cars competed against each other in races. An example of this is the Chicago Times-Herald Contest.
Around 1900, about 34.000 electrically powered cars drove through the country in the United States. In addition, they distinguished themselves with impressive ranges of one hundred kilometres and sometimes more. In 1897, the founding assembly of the “Central European Motor Car Club” took place in Berlin. It was reported by its President D. A. Klose that there were three types of propulsion, and he predicted the future of them: propulsion by steam, powered by electricity and by means of oil engines. While he thought the steam-powered vehicles would be primarily on rails, he judged the roads to be oil and electricity-fueled.
More and more companies discovered the potential of electric mobility. According to historical documents, in the period between 1896 and the beginning of the war in 1939 565 manufacturers of electric vehicles distributed throughout the world could be recorded. In Germany, brands such as Siemens, Hercules, the vehicle factory Eisenach or cooling stone belonged to some of the most important names. In the US, the market also moved. Ford was the most productive manufacturer. With a total of over 78.000 models, the company constructed more electric cars than the other brands put together. Other important countries that also showed a particularly great ingenuity in electric mobility, were Austria and Italy.