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Summative Assignment-1 Paper

Words: 2879, Paragraphs: 26, Pages: 10

Paper type: Assignment , Subject: Diabetes Mellitus

Categories: Diabetes Mellitus

Summative Assignment

Module Code: 4HW031

Module Title: Research Awareness for Healthcare Professional

Attempt: 1

Support Tutor: Marie Hotchkiss

Course Leader: Nkosilathi Moyo1710329

Bachelor Degree in Nursing and Cohort Number: 119

Personal Teacher Name: Pam Smith

Date of Submission: 10/06/2019

Word Count: 2535

Declaration of Originality:

I hereby declare that this work is my own and that no part has been copied from any other author, student or individual. I also state that this work has not formed any other significant part of academic assessment submission. I understand that in submitting this work it may be subject to anti-plagiarism software and that it will enter a University of Wolverhampton quality control system including initial and second marking, internal moderation and external moderation.

Generating a focus of enquiry

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The topic I have chosen for this assignment is “How can change of lifestyle be beneficial in diabetes?”. This refers to the change in lifestyle after someone has been diagnosed with diabetes. This topic that I have chosen speaks on how someone living with diabetes can change their lifestyle to maintain their own health. For a healthy lifestyle to be maintained when living with diabetes, it is essential for people to understand how regulating their behaviour and change of lifestyle can reduce the risk of their condition getting worse(Sebire et al., 2018). The reason why I have chosen this topic is because I have always been curious on how someone who lives with any type of diabetes can live a balanced healthy life. Also, this chosen topic is a personal topic, as type 2 mellitus diabetes runs in my family. My aunty who suffers from this type of diabetes has had two lower body amputations, as the diabetes had affected her blood vessels to constrict and decreasing blood flow to her legs. Type 2 diabetes previously known as noninsulin-dependent is the most recurring kind of disease that mostly affects middle age or elderly people (Williams and Pickup, 2004). I am interested in finding out how change of lifestyle can be beneficial in diabetes in someone’s life. Having a good lifestyle and diet when it comes to diabetes is relevant to my field of nursing it’s an essential way to maintain diabetes and reduces risks of complications. According to NICE Guidance, to maintain a healthy lifestyle entails being active, getting enough exercise, losing weight if overweight, having a wholesome diet, not smoking and controlling alcohol intake if you drink alcohol (Nice.org.uk, 2019). Having a good lifestyle has a huge impact in the nursing field as nurses have to promote and set a good example of a healthy life to their patients.

Retrieve

Databases and search engines were used to retrieve the search articles. Databases are a collection of information put together organized on the internet to access information easily. Typically, databases include information from newspapers, journals and electronic book. Databases are said to be more reliable and credible when it comes to finding out information (Steadyrun, 2019). Search engines are developed and built automatically by software robots; these are known as search bots. Search engines are used to find particular information on the internet. However, as there are so many documents on the internet finding what you’re looking for might be difficult. To make things easier to retrieve, it is important to include Boolean operators and quotations if needed. (Anderson and Kanuka, 2005). Unlike databases, search engines are not as organized. Most information found on the internet are not accurate information as anyone can publish whatsoever they wish to on the web, because of this search engines are said to not be as reliable and credible (Steadyrun, 2019). Boolean also known as ‘search strings’ are used to join, limit or extend the variation of items found by using link terms. The link terms that are used are and, or, Not. Boolean also helps to refine searches on the web (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007).

The search engine that was used to retrieve the article was Google Scholar, Nice Guidance, The Royal College of Nursing also the university library search. For the databases, I had chosen to use Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and the Nursing and Allied Health Databases. For this assignment, different search engines and databases were used to find the chosen two articles. Although these different search engines and databases were looked upon I managed to narrow it down to using just two databases which were Cinahl and the Nursing and Allied health databases. The reason for this was because I found these two easier to find my articles using key words and key phrases. Also, they were very reliable academic sources related to my nursing field as they had been peer reviewed.

The keywords and phrases that were used in finding the articles were based on diabetes and lifestyle, diet and exercise. These key words were used as they were relevant to my search question. When the keywords of “exercise and diabetes” were used with the database CINAHL the result came back with 6175 articles. To narrow the result down different keywords were added, “type 2 diabetes and lifestyle” using Booleans link term “AND”. This helped the result to reduce to 544 articles. As the results were still high after the key words were entered, search limits were added. The search limits were date, age, language, location and type of publication. The date had to be changed to ensure that the article papers were recently published between the last five years which is from 2014-2019. The age limit was set for adults as diabetes are more common in adults (Krentz and Bailey, 2005); also the language was set to English written articles. Changing the location to UK and Ireland reduced the results greatly. The type of publication was used as a search limit choosing academic journals, this then gave a result total of 4. Finally, the chosen article was found by reading the abstracts. An abstract normally refers to academic texts, papers and dissertations. It is identical to an executive summary but usually shortened down to a single paragraph. (Crowther, Lancaster and Lancaster, 2009) .Just like CINAHL the same approach was made into the Nursing & Allied health database. The same keywords was used in this search “diabetes AND exercise” at first this came back with a massive result of 94,302 articles. To reduce this, peer reviewed and scholarly journals was added to my search which gave a result of 67,416 articles. To narrow the search more, search limits were added on like the CINHAL database; date, age, language and type of publication. The result came back as 23,580 articles. This database needed more keywords to narrow the search so I used diet, lifestyle and adults, using Booleans again, giving me a final result of 22.the chosen article was then found by reading articles.

Appraisal

The research articles that were found are both qualitative and primary research papers. This is known as primary research articles could be interview transcripts or diaries, photographs and other data. They are also all peer-reviewed articles and include a method section (Holloway and Galvin, 2017). Qualitative research uses a data source and analysis materials to classify relationships, themes and concept. This explores in experiences, culture or situation in depth (Gerrish and Lathlean, 2015).

The first article from CINAHL is: Sebire, S., Toumpakari, Z., Turner, K., Cooper, A., Page, A., Malpass, A. and Andrews, R. (2018). “I’ve made this my lifestyle now”: a prospective qualitative study of motivation for lifestyle change among people with newly diagnosed type two diabetes mellitus. BMC Public Health, 18(1).This first article states the use of qualitative research to look at how patients who have been diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes can articulate and experience in different types of motivation when attempting changes in their lifestyle. As the researcher was studying people behavior to a lifestyle change, a qualitative study was appropriate. The researcher had added a background giving information about diabetes and had explained clearly of the problem with diabetes. The method was focused on a group of 30 patients aged between 40 and 72 years, 18 females and 12 males, who had participated in an Early ACTID (early activity in diabetes) trial. There was ethical approval from the Bath research Ethics Committee for the ACTID trial and all the patients were provided with consent for the study and interviews. The data analysis was combined by supra and supplementary secondary qualitative analysis. This analysis was primarily logical and pursued to identify patient’s experiences that had reflected the different motivation types. From this research it was found that some of the patients had some motivation to actually change their lifestyle. However some participants weren’t too happy as some of them were reluctant to change their ways as they had neglected themselves and ignored their diabetes (Sebire et al., 2018). This article had obtained enough information to show the issue with how a change of lifestyle could be beneficial in diabetes and provided a structural research.

The second paper article from Nursing and Allied Health Databases is: Ljung, S., Olsson, C., Rask, M. and Lindahl, B. (2012). Patient Experiences of a Theory-Based Lifestyle-Focused Group Treatment in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(3), pp.378-384.

This qualitative study investigated patients in a group-based lifestyle treatment that went through a process of self-development. This article was selected from reading the abstract showing relevance to the focused topic. The interviews were conducted with 19 patients who attended a lifestyle – focused group treatment based on a social cognitive theory. This study took a year to complete. The research study was approved by the research committee of the department of food. The participants were also given all the information informing them that the study was confidential and they’d be kept anonymous. They were also told that this was a voluntary study, meaning at any stage of the study they could withdraw out their participation. The study showed that the patients had deepened their understanding of their own responsibility for their health which also helped them to improve their skills of finding support in other people. Although one patient had a negative impression of the treatment as he thought it was ineffective and a waste of money (Ljung et al., 2012). The researcher had stated clearly the method and the reason of the study, using familiar methods to understand the data being obtained.

Both articles had similar designs to their qualitative studies. In both papers the approach was easy to follow as it didn’t contain any unnecessary jargons. Both articles had not taken any account into any previous or exiting research findings. Ethics was used appropriately on both articles. Ethics is a system of moral values that is concerned with the degree to which research measures obey to professional, legal and social responsibilities when studying participants (Polit and Beck, 2018). The two articles had shared positive experiences when conducting their studies however also shared some negativity in the results.

Do It

The research papers are about how a change of lifestyle can be beneficial in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. According to my first article the point of diagnoses with T2DM is an opportunity for patients to get help from clinicians to start changes in their lifestyle behaviors such as dieting and exercising. While my second article mentions that the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes are related to poor lifestyle choices. 80% of the disease could be reduced and prevented if lifestyle related risks such as poor eating habits, tobacco use, misuse of alcohol etc. were fully removed. It also mentions an increase of physical activity and a lowered energy intake has been shown to induce a multitude of beneficial effects. My first article had agreed with a clinical guideline about how it impacts nursing, which is the National Institute for Health and Care excellence (NICE). This guideline suggests that newly diagnosed patients of T2DM should try to improve their diet for 3 months before starting medication. It also suggests different ways to motivate people to understand the consequences of their health behavior and coping tactics to avoid relapse (Nice.org.uk, 2019). From both of my articles it has shown impact to nursing as they have done studies to show how a change of lifestyle can be help reduce further complications in their diabetes. It impacts by encouraging and motivating patients to change their lifestyle. This is done by providing more information, setting and negotiating physical activity, eating behaviors and weight loss goals. NICE guidelines had mentioned some pointers that could be put into practice such as raising awareness and developing an action plan to help patients.

Evaluation

Evaluation is the skill to make a conclusion about the value of something that has happened. It involves a ‘looking back’. Conclusions are often made with reference to predefined standards, for instance when evaluating the value of research report, when determining whether or not a patient has reached certain goals etc. (Bulman and Schutz, 2008).

I have chosen to use Driscoll’s model of reflection (Driscoll, 2007) to give an evaluation of my experience in this research awareness assignment. This model of reflection has relations to clinical practice and is divided into three defined components: What?, So what?, Now what?

What?

I was required to write a report that explores how I was able to undertake a search of the literature on my chosen topic of Diabetes and Lifestyle.

So what?

During my time of doing this report I faced quite a few challenges. At first creating my search question was a bit difficult as I had to make the question to be relevant to my practice in nursing. Once I had finally come up with a question after so many tries I was content and relieved to be moving onto the next part of this report. The next step was for me to start on the literature search. This was my first experience in doing this so I found it quite difficult to find the right one that was relevant to my nursing practice. Before I had started my search I had read on about the different search engines and databases we could use from the presentations on the research module. I then went on and started my search which I found to be frustrating at first due to me getting high results. Although I found it hard I managed to finally get my articles which I done by speed-reading the abstracts instead of the full texts. Before I could start on the report I had to make sure the articles were either qualitative or quantitative and included a methodology section. To gain more help with the report everyone was split into group tutorials. These group tutorials allow students to participate at the level at which they felt comfortable and to learn from one another. The role of the reflective tutorials is to allow students to explore and develop ideas and to gain feedback (Bulman and Schutz, 2008). While doing this report I felt nervous, frustrated and confused at times as I have had no experience in this kind of report before. Even to get help from my fellow peers doing the same report was hard and confusing as they too were new to all this and had very little experience.

Now What?

From doing this report I have acquired some knowledge that is useful towards my nursing field. It is possible to carry on this knowledge to help me with other assignments throughout my study here at the University of Wolverhampton. I have learnt many skills from doing this report, skills including; working in a group, how to research articles using search engines and databases, appraising my articles and finally to references using Harvard style of reference. I have also learnt the importance of search engines and databases. I’m glad to have acquired these skills and knowledge as these would all be helpful to other research awareness reports.

References

Anderson, T. and Kanuka, H. (2007.). E-research. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

Bulman, C. and Schutz, S. (2008). Reflective practice in nursing.Crowther, D., Lancaster, G. and Lancaster, G. (2009). Research methods. Oxford, Angl.: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Driscoll, J. (2007). Practicing Clinical Supervision: A Reflective Approach for Healthcare Professionals.Gerrish, K. and Lathlean, J. (2015). The research process in nursing.Grove, S., Gray, J. and Burns, N. (n.d.). Understanding Nursing Research – E-Book.Krentz, A. and Bailey, C. (2005). Type 2 diabetes in practice. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press.

Ljung, S., Olsson, C., Rask, M. and Lindahl, B. (2012). Patient Experiences of a Theory-Based Lifestyle-Focused Group Treatment in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(3), pp.378-384.LoBiondo-Wood, G. and Haber, J. (2018). Nursing research.Nice.org.uk. (2019). Diet and lifestyle | Information for the public | Type 2 diabetes in adults: management | Guidance | NICE. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Mar. 2019].

Nice.org.uk. (2019). Recommendations | Type 2 diabetes: prevention in people at high risk | Guidance | NICE. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Jun. 2019].

Polit, D. and Beck, C. (2018). Essentials of nursing research.Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2005.). Research methods for business students.Sebire, S., Toumpakari, Z., Turner, K., Cooper, A., Page, A., Malpass, A. and Andrews, R. (2018). “I’ve made this my lifestyle now”: a prospective qualitative study of motivation for lifestyle change among people with newly diagnosed type two diabetes mellitus. BMC Public Health, 18(1).Steadyrun. (2019). Difference Between Databases and Search Engines | Differences. [online] Available at:

Williams, G. and Pickup, J. (2004). Handbook of diabetes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, pp.2,3.

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