Suffrage could not be taken for granted for all the individuals in society in the early stage of the century. Overruling the citizens by (); therefore, spreading the central authority out to the wider () required in order to gain right to vote with suffrage for both gender. The history of attempting to gain universal suffrage in United Kingdom started from 1215 by Magna Carta. The foundation of the suffrage movement was ignored by the rulers in English parliament, however, the consistent endeavor of granting the voting for all human achieved in the late ()s.
During the period of (), individuals were imprisoned for their action in order to be guaranteed their suffrage as they write speeches and make some violent actions. The reformed action in 1832, the parliament in the countries in England allows all the male to be eligible to gain the property of voting. The final act In 1837 made the all male possible to have right to vote, regardless of value. However, the womens suffrage was ignored by English parliament, even the males succeed to win their rights.
In 1829, the 19th century of United Kingdom, the slavery abolition movement with sole womens power exposed in southern womens . As the movement spread out to a variety of groups of nationality, the perception of sexual slavery was recognized; therefore, the movement in order to gain the womens liberty was spreaded out. The foundation of suffrage movement was formed by the declaration of ones belief at womens right convention, in 1848, the New York City.
Suffragists and suffragettes, two different groups were formed by the women, depends on their own perspective and values, who have the thought that suffrage should be granted for all genders, not only for male. Suffragists, for example, Millicent Fawcett was one of the representative of the Suffragists. The group which set their sights on the non-violent method in order to gain respect was suffragists; thus, they appreciate the method of spreading lefleats, speeches and campaign to convey their messages. On the other hand, unlike suffragists, suffragettes are the group of people who occasionally prefer the direct action to the other method to convey their volition and thought; for example, chaining the body to the railway.
‘Freedom or Death’ by Emmeline Pankhurst (1913) and ‘The basis of the Parliamentary Suffrage, and the present exclusion of Women’ by Millicent Fawcett (year) both are written for gaining rights to have womens suffrage in order to allow all the females to vote as a method of expressing their opinion freely. Two different perspectives are expressed in each essay in different ways, for example, the type of adjectives used. The diverse backgrounds influenced the individuals perspective towards the specific problems to consider in different aspects. How the individuals could opposed against the ruling power, enduring the interference and pressure from the external groups?
The question arises from I, as a reader, was what techniques used in those speeches differs from others and what makes it effective?. The speeches: Freedom or Death and The basis of the Parliamentary Suffrage, and the present exclusion of Women have some similarities and some differences as same gender, as female, activists were fighting for their rights for voting. The specific devices used in every speeches in order to persuade others; therefore, the vocabulary will be explained in the first section. Based on the question that I brought up before, the separation of using different emotional devices and rhetorical techniques would be appeared in the analysis section. Then, the essay will demonstrate the comparison between two different speeches which have same purpose, gaining suffrage for women.
Thus, this essay will answer the question by analysis, comparison and contrasting among three speeches; then, depends on their situation and cultural perception, how the emotional devices and rhetorical techniques are affected by them used in ‘Freedom or Death’, by Emmeline Pankhurst and ‘The basis of the Parliamentary Suffrage, and the present exclusion of Women’, by Millicent Fawcett in order to gain their suffrage.
The title, Freedom or Death indicates the iron will of Emmeline Pankhurst in order to gain womens suffrage as a suffragette. Somewhat extreme decision made between freedom or death, she inspires the women in that era to make certain decision between having freedom or death.
Paragraph one in Freedom or death is consist of warlike language choice. Soldier, the field of battle, civil war, field at battle, all the phrases used in the opening speech is suggestive of the image of war; the strong, cold and indomitable atmosphere is created. Under sentence of penal servitude in a convict prison (…). Her own justice (…). Presenting the speech persons own justice could demonstrates as the use of vocabulary (…).
Use of real-life examples are the main feature of the Emmeline Pankhursts speech. The symbolism used in her speech demonstrates (…).
The male is represented as strong image in the speech whereas the female is expressed relatively poorer than the male. The female is portrayed as A quiet little woman, actress, quietly until the Guard hall porter came out within her speech, which emphasize the thought of Emmeline Pankhurst towards the women; sentimental, weak and unprincipled image of women is standing out. Yet, the description of male represented within the speech is contrary to the image of the female. For instance, the men of pleasure, businessmen, busy, monopolise, entirely reversed, spectacle indicates the male-dominated society was created at that era, around 1920s. Based on the cultural background fostered around that era, the strong authority granted to the male, compared to the female, is presented as it is; therefore, the use of (…) indicates (…). ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?, ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??.
The selection of word is relatively simple within Freedom or Death. The use of low complex vocabulary and sentence structure helps the better understanding for the audience. In addition, the phrases used in her speech create the coherence and cohesion, which makes the speech more powerful and persuasive.
Emmeline Pankhurst release the Freedom or Death after she was imprisoned in the jail with Cat and Mouse Act, which demonstrated in Freedom or Death. The value of the name
She uses the idiom: but you cannot make omelettes without breaking eggs to argue that suffering caused by damaging others is inevitable in order to accomplish the battle to gain what they want. The strong metaphor emphasizes the idea of suffragette towards the suffrage movement. It adds the familiarity and normality to the speeches, the desire to recognize the universal suffrage from the UK parliamentary is exposed. However, frequent use of idioms could create confusion among the audience about the speakers purpose; therefore, the overuse of
No matter what the hardship they might faced during the suffrage movement, Freedom or Death conveys the message that continuing the movement required until the individuals achieve ultimate goal, guaranteeing right to gain suffrage for women.
Similarities and differences
Both Freedom or Death and The Basis of the Parliamentary Suffrage, and the Present Exclusion of Women are focused on logos and pathos. Ethos is the weakest factor that represented in suffragists and suffragettes speech. The expression of ones logic and emotion is the common feature, however, the
Exposing ones emotion with the use of first person is the effective method in order to sympathize with the readers from different background and culture. Orationing speech with personal () could convey the purpose and objectives effectively; it can be achieved, as whatever the speaker wants, through the speech.
Theoretical contents are the features of the speech of suffragists. The evidences and examples provided in The basis of the Parliamentary Suffrage, and the present exclusion of Women are the based on the scientific theory. In contrast, the real-life examples are proposed in Emmeline Pankhurst speech in order to support her opinion(argument) in The basis of the Parliamentary Suffrage, and the present exclusion of Women. For instance, the windows represented in (…)
Both speeches are structured formally; yet, the style of Millicent Fawcetts speech (…). For example, the use of
Linking back to English B theme
However, what influenced the perspective towards the same question arises from same problem, the suffrage for every gender?
We could relate the topic, how the literary devices of Emmeline Pankhursts are differ to the Millicent Fawcetts speech, to the English B theme, variation. The culture varies between the period of 1920s and 1950s in United State and United Kingdom. The different language used based on their unique culture promotes the language variation around the same region. The language variation is an important factor in sociolinguistic; it requires the reference to the social components.
United States in 1920s, the southern regions of US undergoes the severe racial discrimination among the black and white people. Segregation, the constitutional rights to vote, which precludes the black people in order not to exercise their suffrage by fostering ambiguous voting system between 1920 and 1960 in United States adroitly. Apartheid is similar to the Segregation, which is prevalent in Southern America until 1990s.
In 1920s, most of Americans were living around the countryside as farmer. The industrial revolution boom caused by economic growth transits the US citizens to move their residence to urban area, the unfamiliar consumer society. The individuals from different region bring up the same language, music and slangs from their area to the new urban area; therefore, the foundation of mass culture was established.
During the period of the First World War,
Therefore, due to the First World War during that period, the use of violent language is prevalent in Emmeline Pankhursts speech as a suffragette.