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Sociology Exam 2 Paper

Words: 5909, Pages: 20

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Socio Economic Status

Parent topic:

In 2003 the U.S. Army discovered Saddam Hussein hiding in a “spider hole” under a small building in his hometown, Tikrit. The army had tracked him to that location not by looking for him directly, but rather by creating a large “map” that displayed all the members of his family and tribe, showing their links to other people. Starting with just four names, the map allowed army intelligence to zero in on a small number of people whose relationships with Hussein made it more likely that they would know where he was. The search for Saddam Hussein demonstrated the practical applications of:
a. in-groups. b. network analysis. c. out-groups. d. group cohesion.
b. network analysis

What type of group provides most of our emotional satisfaction? ____________ groups.
a. primary b. interest c. out- d. secondary e. reference
a. primary

People who associate with each other on a regular basis for no other reason than to spend time together are usually members of a ______________ group.:
a. reference. b. primary c. social network d. secondary group
b. primary

Which of the following is a characteristic of a bureaucracy?
a. formal organization b. written rules c. a division of labor
d. none of the above e. all of the above
e. all of the above

A high school decides that its band needs to wear uniforms. In order to be more efficient, the school only buys uniforms in three sizes and forces students to pick the size that comes closest to fitting. What process described in Chapter 5 is this an example of?
a. rationalization b. decriminalization c. network theory
d. virtual communities e. group dynamics
a. rationalization

The sociologist Duncan Watts examined the way individuals may change their minds about who to vote for based on the opinions of friends and acquaintances. What concept was Watts studying?
a. social networks b. bureaucracy c. charismatic authority d. rationalization
a. social networks

If an individual belongs to a group whose members are mostly anonymous to one another, then that group is almost certainly a:
a. primary group. b. secondary group. c. triad d. professional group. e. social network.
b. secondary group

A barista at Jose’s local coffee shop always greets him by name and usually notices his mood. Once when he was upset about something at school, he confided in her. She now asks how school is going and seems to care about his answer. How would we characterize her relationship with Jose?
a. She is a member of the bourgeoisie.
b. She is a member of a primary group.
c. She is a “consequential stranger” and bridges the gap between primary and secondary groups.
d. She is a secondary group member trying to work her way into primary group status.
e. She fits neatly into the model of a secondary group.
c. She is a “consequential stranger” and bridges the gap between primary and secondary groups.

Some students at a college form an intramural softball team. They play other teams from their school and from the area every Sunday in a conveniently located park. If a sociologist wanted to determine if the team was a primary or a secondary group, which might she consider? The
a. shared hobbies of the players b. age of the players c. innate skill of the players
d. desire to win of the players e. importance of winning to the players
e. importance of winning to the players

Which of the following are characterized by long-term, intimate, face-to-face relationships?
a. secondary groups b. in-groups c. institutional groups d. primary groups
d. primary groups

John graduates from college with a degree in business administration and gets a job with a large firm that audits small businesses that have contracts with the city. While working there, he becomes friends with Dave, who invites him to attend a weekly poker game, which becomes a meaningful part of John’s social life. Some weeks the game is the only thing he has to look forward to. What does this illustrate?
a. the absolute distinction between primary and secondary groups
b. the goal-oriented nature of primary groups
c. the way primary groups can lead to membership in secondary groups
d. the way secondary groups produce nearly anonymous relationships
e. the way secondary group ties can lead to the close personal ties of primary groups
e. the way secondary group ties can lead to the close personal ties of primary groups

What term did the sociologist George Ritzer use to describe the spread into everyday life of rationalization and bureaucratic ways of operating?
a. the iron cage b. bureaucratic creep c. McDonaldization d. the spirit of capitalism
c. McDonaldization

All left-handed people in the United States would be classified as a(n):
a. organization. b. group. c. crowd. d. category. e. aggregate.
d. category

According to Robin Leidner in Fast Food, Fast Talk, what have fast food restaurants done in order to rationalize the process of providing food to customers?
a. asked employees to customize their attire
b. developed standardized scripts for employees to use when dealing with customers
c. focused on giving each customer a unique eating experience
d. asked employees to always use customers’ first names
e. tailored each work station to an employee’s unique personal qualities
b. developed standardized scripts for employees to use when dealing with customers

The sociologist Joseph Conti studied the World Trade Organization as a social network. According to Conti, how is power measured within this sort of social network? The most powerful members are those
a. who most often win their disputes with other members.
b. who are involved in the fewest disputes with other members.
c. who most often act ethically and morally.
d. with the most connections to other members.
e. who can most often change the minds of other members.
d. with the most connections to other members.

The Japanese management technique kaizen is considered innovative in that it does which of the following?
a. It allows workers to “trade” tasks with each other, limiting worker boredom in the process.
b. It provides mediation for workplace disputes, which create better work place relations.
c. It encourages lower-level workers to suggest innovative ideas, making them feel valued.
d. It encourages workers to continue with their educational pursuits, through economic incentives.
e. It allows workers to set their own hours, which in turn increases productivity.
c. It encourages lower-level workers to suggest innovative ideas, making them feel valued.

Members of which of the following think of themselves as belonging together while also interacting with each other?
a. group b. queue c. category
d. aggregate e. all of the above
e. all of the above

Sociologists would not consider fans of the rock musician Bruce Springsteen to be a group. Why not?
a. They don’t find themselves in the same physical location.
b. They share no meaningful features.
c. They don’t interact in any meaningful way.
d. They have many other interests and values that preclude them from ever becoming a group.
e. They won’t form any lasting relationships with one another.
e. They won’t form any lasting relationships with one another.

In all probability, the sociology professor giving this test would be unable to grade a test given in the chemistry department. What aspect of bureaucracy does this illustrate?
a. impersonality b. hierarchy c. specialization d. written communications
c. specialization

In “The Strength of Weak Ties,” what does Mark Granovetter mean when he claims that weak ties can be strong?
a. We rely on weak ties for much of our emotional support.
b. Weak ties often develop into stronger ones.
c. Weak ties matter more to us than other ties.
d. Weak ties almost always are long-lasting and durable.
e. Even weak ties can provide valuable information.
e. Even weak ties can provide valuable information.

Activists sometimes advocate living “off the grid,” which, in its simplest form, means living without buying electricity and water from utility companies. However, they also admit that living off the grid is harder and harder, because there simply isn’t enough affordable land in places where it would be feasible to do so. This means that most of America has to:
a. live in the suburbs. b. deal with bureaucracies. c. ride bicycles.
d. live in apartments. e. compensate by paying high utility fees.
b. deal with bureaucracies.

Many sociologists have worried that the modern economy demands both geographic and occupational mobility, which in turn means that industrial and bureaucratic organizations have become the norm. What sort of groups might become less common if people have to move many times in their lives for work?
a. crowds b. primary groups c. secondary groups d. categories e. aggregates
b. primary groups

Which of the following is an example of McDonaldization, as George Ritzer used the term?
a. A guest at a bed-and-breakfast said, “It was marvelous, the innkeepers treated us like family. It was so comfortable and friendly, and charming and romantic.”
b. A worker says, “Sometimes I felt just like a robot. You push a button and you go this way. You become a mechanical nut.”
c. An apprentice that makes guitars in a workshop says, “You would never believe the hard work, the discipline, that go into the making of a single guitar, often custom made, for a specific client. It takes hundreds of hours of hard, careful labor, every step deliberated.”
d. The McLibel support campaign, created to support members of a London environmental group being sued by McDonald’s for libel over the contents of a fact sheet they distributed.
e. A small farmer who raises organic free-range chickens says, “Sometimes it’s really hard waking up before dawn and working to keep your flocks healthy, but in the end it’s very rewarding, both emotionally and financially.”
b. A worker says, “Sometimes I felt just like a robot. You push a button and you go this way. You become a mechanical nut.”

How do sociologists distinguish a group from a crowd?
a. A group doesn’t usually feel a sense of shared identity.
b. A group doesn’t have ongoing social relations.
c. Members of a crowd don’t interact with one another.
d. A crowd doesn’t necessarily feel a shared identity.
d. A crowd doesn’t necessarily feel a shared identity.

Sociologists refer to the webs of direct and indirect ties connecting individuals to others who influence them as:
a. cliques b. inner circles c. social networks d. reference groups e. in-groups
c. social networks

A high school decides that its band needs to wear uniforms. In order to be more efficient, the school only buys uniforms in three sizes and forces students to pick the size that comes closest to fitting. What process described in Chapter 5 is this an example of?
a. decriminalization b. rationalization c. virtual communities d. group dynamics
b. rationalization

Which of the following is an example of McDonaldization, as George Ritzer used the term?
a. The McLibel support campaign, created to support members of a London environmental group being sued by McDonald’s for libel over the contents of a fact sheet they distributed.
b. A worker says, “Sometimes I felt just like a robot. You push a button and you go this way. You become a mechanical nut.”
c. A small farmer who raises organic free-range chickens says, “Sometimes it’s really hard waking up before dawn and working to keep your flocks healthy, but in the end it’s very rewarding, both emotionally and financially.”
d. An apprentice that makes guitars in a workshop says, “You would never believe the hard work, the discipline, that go into the making of a single guitar, often custom made, for a specific client. It takes hundreds of hours of hard, careful labor, every step deliberated.”
b. A worker says, “Sometimes I felt just like a robot. You push a button and you go this way. You become a mechanical nut.”

The sociologist Duncan Watts examined the way individuals may change their minds about who to vote for based on the opinions of friends and acquaintances. What concept was Watts studying?
a. social networks b. bureaucracy c. charismatic authority
d. the McDonaldization of society e. rationalization
a. social networks

The sociologist Joseph Conti studied the World Trade Organization as a social network. According to Conti, how is power measured within this sort of social network?
a. The most powerful members are those who most often win their disputes with other members.
b. The most powerful members are those with the most connections to other members.
c. The most powerful members are those who are involved in the fewest disputes with other members.
d. The most powerful members are those who can most often change the minds of other members.
e. The most powerful members are those who most often act ethically and morally.
b. The most powerful members are those with the most connections to other members.

In “The Strength of Weak Ties,” what does Mark Granovetter mean when he claims that weak ties can be strong?
a. Weak ties often develop into stronger ones.
b. We rely on weak ties for much of our emotional support.
c. Weak ties almost always are long-lasting and durable.
d. Even weak ties can provide valuable information.
d. Even weak ties can provide valuable information.

In 2003 the U.S. Army discovered Saddam Hussein hiding in a “spider hole” under a small building in his hometown, Tikrit. The army had tracked him to that location not by looking for him directly, but rather by creating a large “map” that displayed all the members of his family and tribe, showing their links to other people. Starting with just four names, the map allowed army intelligence to zero in on a small number of people whose relationships with Hussein made it more likely that they would know where he was. The search for Saddam Hussein demonstrated the practical applications of:
a. out-groups. b. in-groups. c. groupthink. d. group cohesion. e. network analysis.
e. network analysis.

In a Peruvian campaign to improve public health in rural areas, one key challenge was to convince isolated villagers to boil their drinking water in order to kill parasites. In a pilot study, this effort largely failed. Government caseworkers lectured the villagers about germ theory, but villagers associated hot foods with illness and didn’t like the taste of boiled water. The only families who adopted the practice were not well integrated into the village and had few connections to their neighbors. What does this demonstrate?
a. that reference groups play an important role in building primary group ties
b. that the need for more virtual communities is declining
c. that social ties don’t just connect us to others, they influence our behavior
d. that modernization attempts largely fail without modern technology
e. the McDonaldization of society
c. that social ties don’t just connect us to others, they influence our behavior

Simon Langlois studied government employment in Quebec. He found that even though the government had made efforts to formalize recruitment, over 40 percent of those surveyed found their jobs through personal contacts. In the majority of those cases, the personal contacts were fairly casual, not close friends. What principle is demonstrated here?
a. the strength of weak ties
b. the power of strong triads
c. the way reference groups affect people’s behavior
d. the role group cohesion plays in determining behavior
a. the strength of weak ties

Why would sociologists who study social networks and employment pay attention to the frequency with which an individual has been in contact with each member of his social network?
a. to measure the homogeneity of the network
b. to determine if groupthink is an issue in a particular social network
c. to see if a particular tie is strong or weak
d. because sociologists don’t care about frequency of contact
e. to see just how extensive a network is
c. to see if a particular tie is strong or weak

In terms of job leads and social networks, how are men’s networks different from women’s?
a. Women are more likely to tell other women in their network about job opportunities.
b. Men are always more likely to hear about job opportunities.
c. If a woman’s network has more women than men in it, she is less likely to hear about job openings.
d. If a man’s network has more women than men in it, he is less likely to hear about job openings.
e. If a woman’s network has more men than women in it, she is less likely to hear about job openings.
c. If a woman’s network has more women than men in it, she is less likely to hear about job openings.

Which of the following would sociologists consider the best definition of deviance?
a. actions that are harmful to society b. violations of social norms c. criminal activities
d. immoral or unethical behaviors e. illegal activities
b. violations of social norms

In order for a behavior, trait, or belief to be considered deviant, it must:
a. inspire feelings of revulsion or disgust. b. depart from a norm and generate a negative reaction.
c. be a deeply held belief. d. cause harm or injury to someone. e. violate a law.
b. depart from a norm and generate a negative reaction.

Traditionally, most of the sociological literature on deviance focuses on:
a. crime. b. mental illness. c. political corruption. d. the extremely wealthy.
a. crime.

What is one reason imprisonment was such a rare type of punishment before the nineteenth century? Earlier societies:
a. did not have sufficient resources to operate prisons.
b. believed that physical punishments like branding were more likely to deter future crime.
c. were crueler and therefore more accepting of harsh physical punishment.
d. believed that punishments like shunning and banishment were more humane.
e. had much less crime and so did not require any particular system of punishment.
a. did not have sufficient resources to operate prisons.

According to Chapter 6, in colonial America, corporal punishments like branding or amputation were commonly used. What were these punishments designed to do? They were designed to:
a. cause loss of earnings. b. mark the offender. c. satisfy the victims.
d. make the offender unmarriageable. e. maximize pain and suffering.
b. mark the offender.

Which of the following is true regarding prison as a mechanism for punishing crime?
a. Throughout history, most societies have used prison to punish at least the most serious crimes.
b. Historically, only relatively humane and ethical societies have used prison as a form of punishment.
c. Even today prison is rarely used.
d. Prison was rarely used before the nineteenth century.
e. Prison is commonly used as a punishment because it is extremely cost effective.
d. Prison was rarely used before the nineteenth century.

The Amish have neither the resources nor the desire to use prison as a sanction against members of their community who violate the rules. What sanction do they use instead?
a. Various methods of corporal punishment are used, whereby petty criminals may be branded, have their ears cropped, have their noses slit, or even have their fingers cut off.
b. Offenders are flogged or put in stocks to be publicly humiliated for a short period of time.
c. Monetary fines are used for most norm violations.
d. Meidung, or shunning, is used, a process whereby no one within the community will associate or even talk with a rule breaker for a set period of time.
e. The offender is mandated to provide physical labor for the community.
d. Meidung, or shunning, is used, a process whereby no one within the community will associate or even talk with a rule breaker for a set period of time

Imagine that a powerful and influential person decided to heavily tattoo her own face with symbols and images that told parts of her life story. Would she be treated as a deviant?
a. No, powerful people are often allowed to do things others find strange.
b. Yes, any culture would consider that to be a deviant act.
c. Yes, but there would be no negative reaction for fear of causing offense.
d. No, there are several cultures where this sort of behavior is very common.
e. Yes, it would be in the United States, though there are other cultures that would consider it normal or desirable.
e. Yes, it would be in the United States, though there are other cultures that would consider it normal or desirable

Which of the following describes how deviance can be explained from the functionalist perspective?
a. Deviance breaks down social cohesion and leads to revolution.
b. Deviance makes it easier for the upper class to control the poor.
c. Deviance helps the upper class maintain its power and influence in society.
d. Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms.
e. Functionalist theory has no explanation for deviance because it has no societal function.
d. Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms.

When a politician is caught cheating on his spouse, there are usually serious consequences, and sometimes the politician is forced to resign from his office when his constituents loudly express their unhappiness with such behavior. According to Emile Durkheim, what function does this reaction serve?
a. It helps to deter politicians from cheating in the future.
b. It helps to clarify moral boundaries, reinforcing the idea that marital infidelity is wrong.
c. The anger and public outcry helps to rehabilitate the offender so he won’t give in to the temptation to cheat in the future.
d. Being forced out of office prevents him from ever cheating again.
e. It helps to protect the family of the politician, who need scrutiny and media coverage in order to move on.
b. It helps to clarify moral boundaries, reinforcing the idea that marital infidelity is wrong.

Because laws represent the interests of those in power, crimes committed by the upper classes are typically treated more leniently than crimes committed by the lower classes. This argument is consistent with:
a. differential association theory. b. conflict theory. c. principled deviance.
d. lack of deterrence. e. functionalist theory.
b. conflict theory.

Samantha believes that our criminal law excuses big corporations for polluting the planet, manufacturing unsafe products, and manipulating prices. At the same time, she sees homeless people imprisoned for stealing food, which she believes we should all have access to regardless of wealth. Samantha has taken a ____________ perspective to explain the way deviance is viewed in society.
a. structural functionalist b. symbolic interactionist c. conflict theory
d. pragmatic analytical e. retreatist
c. conflict theory

What theory argues that punishments for rule violators are unequally distributed, with those near the top of society subject to more lenient rules and sanctions than those at the bottom?
a. dramaturgy b. labeling theory c. conflict theory
d. functionalist theory e. symbolic interactionism
c. conflict theory

Stealing avocados, or almost any other agricultural product, is a felony in California if the product is worth more than $100. Supporters of the law believe it is the only way to protect farmers from vagrants and transients who can ruin the viability of small farms. However, if you believe that such laws also target homeless people who are simply trying to eat and that they are punished because they have almost no power within society, then you are probably:
a. a conflict theorist. b. a functionalist. c. a symbolic interactionist.
d. a follower of Robert Merton. e. a deviant.
a. a conflict theorist.

If an upper-middle-class, white college student is sentenced to rehab for the same drug crime that a lower-class, black man is sentenced to jail for committing, what might a conflict theorist conclude about deviance?
a. Differential levels of punishment are functional, as they keep the most productive members of society out of jail.
b. We need to punish criminals from the lower class more harshly, as they are more likely to re-offend.
c. The two criminals probably had very different motives for committing their crimes, and this explains the difference in punishment.
d. The rules are applied unequally, and those with power or influence are punished much less harshly.
e. The system makes occasional errors, but most of the time, everyone is treated equally.
d. The rules are applied unequally, and those with power or influence are punished much less harshly.

The parents of a deviant child often want to find some way to excuse their offspring’s behavior, and it’s common to hear them say, “He just fell in with a bad crowd.” Which symbolic interactionist theory of deviance does this explanation most closely resemble?
a. differential association b. labeling theory c. self-fulfilling prophecy
d. structural strain theory e. in-group orientation
a. differential association

Nowhere to Grow by Les Whitbeck and Dan Hoyt explored the lives of homeless and runaway teens in the Midwest. The authors found that “associating with deviant peers” had a dramatic effect on a wide range of deviant behaviors, including increasing “the likelihood of serious substance abuse almost 32 times.” What theory of deviance considers the way such interpersonal relationships help to predict deviant behavior?
a. self-fulfilling prophecy b. deviance avowal c. retreatism d. differential association
d. differential association

According to labeling theory, why were none of the pseudopatients in David Rosenhan’s “On Being Sane in Insane Places” discovered?
a. They all were really mentally ill, at least to some extent.
b. They were too “clean-cut” to be considered mentally ill.
c. They were well coached in the symptoms real patients would experience.
d. Psychiatry is not a real science.
e. Once a person has been labeled “mentally ill,” it is very hard for anyone to see past the label.
e. Once a person has been labeled “mentally ill,” it is very hard for anyone to see past the label.

Which group of people within the hospital were able to tell that the pseudopatients in David Rosenhan’s “On Being Sane in Insane Places” were not actually mentally ill?
a. the medical interns b. only the older, more experienced doctors
c. the other patients d. the nursing staff e. the orderlies
c. the other patients

Under what circumstances does a deviant label lead from primary to secondary deviance? When the deviant label…:
a. is applied by a large number of people b. is applied by someone very powerful
c. is internalized d. is applied later in life
c. is internalized

“The Saints and the Roughnecks” by William Chambliss followed two groups of boys over the course of several years. Both groups did many deviant things. The Saints, eight young men from “white upper-middle-class families” potentially presented the greater danger to their community by driving drunk and vandalizing stop signs. However, it was the Roughnecks, six “lower-class white boys” who were “constantly in trouble with the police.” Very different backgrounds and very similar actions produced very different expectations. Those expectations, or prophecies, had real consequences. All but one of the Saints went on to college and then to professional positions. Only two of the Roughnecks went on to college, both on athletic scholarships, and several of the rest adopted deviant lifestyles and careers, also known as:
a. differential association. b. positive deviance. c. primary deviance.
d. secondary deviance. e. stigma.
d. secondary deviance.

How do self-fulfilling prophecies work?
a. We respond not only to the objective features of a situation but also to its meaning. Once meaning has been assigned to our behavior, the consequences of that behavior are determined by the meaning.
b. We learn to be deviant through our interactions with others who break the rules.
c. We tend to respond to the physical and social marks that discredit our identities and leave us vulnerable to negative social judgments.
d. Our social locations are a crucial factor in determining how others see us; therefore, social status is the most important determinant of deviance.
e. Our backgrounds do not determine deviance; rather, the in-the-moment emotional experience of a deviant action makes it seem like a good or bad idea.
a. We respond not only to the objective features of a situation but also to its meaning. Once meaning has been assigned to our behavior, the consequences of that behavior are determined by the meaning.

Robert Merton once observed that the self-fulfilling prophecy is a peculiarly sociological concept. Why?
a. It focuses on aspects of behavior that have nothing to do with individual psychology.
b. It is only useful in explaining large-scale social change, not personal or local events.
c. It only helps to explain events where peer pressure was a key factor.
d. The objective features of a situation are almost always more important than the human interpretation of them.
e. Predictions of the return of Haley’s comet do not influence its orbit.
e. Predictions of the return of Haley’s comet do not influence its orbit.

W. I. Thomas famously argued that “if men define situations as real, then:
a. others will label them as deviant.” b. it will lead to tertiary deviance.”
c. they will be forced to provide evidence.” d. those situations will be studied.”
e. they are real in their consequences.”
they are real in their consequences.”

In the early 1950s, many Americans became interested in riding motorcycles as a hobby. At the same time, “bikers” were beginning to develop their modern reputation as antisocial thugs, criminals, and outlaws. One official of a national motorcycle organization argued that a few bad apples shouldn’t be allowed to ruin all motorcyclists’ reputations and that it was only 1 percent of motorcyclists who were really bad. After this interview was published, some bikers started wearing a “one percenter” patch on their leather jackets, a gesture Erving Goffman would call:
a. antisocial behavior. b. passing. c. overt deviance.
d. deviance avowal. e. in-group orientation.
d. deviance avowal.

For alcoholics, deviance avowal may be a very useful step because:
a. it helps them avoid the pressure of having to fit into conventional society.
b. the first step to recovery from alcoholism is admitting you have a problem.
c. it allows them to take pride in their deviant behavior.
d. it helps them find other individuals with similar deviant behaviors so they can drink together.
e. it helps them avoid the shame and stigma of alcoholism.
b. the first step to recovery from alcoholism is admitting you have a problem.

When studying deviance, sociologists often focus on the most obvious and extreme forms of deviant behavior. What are the consequences of this approach?
a. Only deviant individuals who receive media attention will be studied.
b. Only those deviant individuals who embrace their deviant labels will be studied.
c. Only the deviant behaviors of the rich and powerful will be studied.
d. The values and norms of the powerful are left unexamined, while the deviance of the poor is scrutinized.
e. Few, if any, of the most serious problems in a given society can be identified.
d. The values and norms of the powerful are left unexamined, while the deviance of the poor is scrutinized.

Sociologists who study deviance tend to focus only on the most extreme and obvious forms of deviance. What is this approach sometimes called?
a. the outsider’s approach b. the Marxist approach
c. the structural functionalist approach d. the nuts and sluts approach
d. the nuts and sluts approach

In Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn, Karen McCarthy Brown studied practitioners of the Vodou religion living in the United States. However, she went far beyond the usual role of scientific observer and became a member of the religious group she was studying. She also gave her key informant, Mama Lola, veto power over certain elements of her work. Why would this be helpful?
a. It helped her learn all the dirty secrets that practitioners of Vodou wouldn’t tell outsiders.
b. It gave her better insight into how to convert practitioners away from Vodou.
c. It helped her set aside her preconceived notions about Vodou in order to understand it on its own terms.
d. It wouldn’t be; without doubt, it crippled her ability to make objective judgments.
e. It made it much easier for her publisher to sell the book to chain bookstores.
c. It helped her set aside her preconceived notions about Vodou in order to understand it on its own terms.

What sort of social mobility is possible in a caste system?
a. Social mobility is common with hard work.
b. A great deal of social mobility occurs.
c. A small but significant percentage of each generation will experience upward social mobility.
d. There is little or no chance of social mobility.
e. Social mobility is punishable by death.
d. There is little or no chance of social mobility.

Apartheid is a specific example of what system of social stratification?
a. colonial b. caste c. class d. slavery e. racial
b. caste

What system of stratification is commonly used in capitalist societies?
a. gender b. social class c. social caste d. slavery e. wage slavery
b. social class

What criteria does a social class system use to stratify its members?
a. heredity and employment status b. race c. income
d. wealth, property, power, and prestige e. occupational attainment and gender
d. wealth, property, power, and prestige

What social class do “white collar” workers (workers employed in technical and lower-management positions) belong to? The
a. working class b. lower class c. middle class d. upper class e. upper-middle class
c. middle class

What sorts of jobs are usually available to members of the lower-middle class?
a. technical or professional jobs b. executive or managerial positions
c. blue collar jobs, or manual labor d. lower-management jobs
e. They tend to be underemployed and often receive public assistance.
c. blue collar jobs, or manual labor

Karl Marx spent much of his life attempting to describe and understand how capitalism works. In one particularly vivid passage, he described in this way the turbulence he saw as inherent in capitalism: “All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind.” What sort of relationships did he think his readers had with other people?
a. relationships of community and religion b. relationships based on social bonds and solidarity
c. economic relationships d. cultural relationships e. feudal relationships
c. economic relationships

Which of the following demonstrates Karl Marx’s conviction that social inequality would continue to grow?
a. “No one knows who will live in this cage in the future, or whether at the end of this tremendous development entirely new prophets will arise, or there will be a great rebirth of ideas and ideals, or, if neither, mechanized petrification, embellished with a sort of convulsive self-importance.”
b. “The modern laborer . . . instead of rising with the process of industry, sinks deeper and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class. He becomes a pauper, and pauperism develops more rapidly than population and wealth.”
c. “A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, i.e., things set apart and forbidden—beliefs and practices which unite in one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them.”
d. “For of the last stage of this cultural development, it might well be truly said: ‘Specialists without spirit, sensualists without heart; this nullity imagines that it has attained a level of civilization never before achieved.'”
e. “For the metropolis presents the peculiar conditions which are revealed to us as the opportunities and the stimuli for the development of both these ways of allocating roles to men.”
“The modern laborer . . . instead of rising with the process of industry, sinks deeper and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class. He becomes a pauper, and pauperism develops more rapidly than population and wealth.”

How is Max Weber’s idea of social class different from Karl Marx’s? Weber ….
a. did not believe that owning the means of production mattered in any way.
b. believed that class status was inherited and was an extension of the old feudal system.
c. believed that wealth was the only factor that mattered, regardless of how that wealth was acquired.
d. believed that wealth, power, and prestige could all affect a person’s social class.
e. did not have a theory of social class.
d. believed that wealth, power, and prestige could all affect a person’s social class.

Although they make very little money, priests, ministers, rabbis, imams, and clergy are often very prestigious members of their communities. Which social theorist first suggested that this is an important element of class status?
a. Karl Marx
b. Emile Durkheim
C. Pierre Bourdieu
d. Erving Goffman
e. Max Weber
e. Max Weber

About the author

This paper is written by Sebastian He is a student at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; his major is Business. All the content of this paper is his perspective on Sociology Exam 2 and should be used only as a possible source of ideas.

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