Smart energy meter is one type of advance prepaid energy meter. Smart energy meter is also controlling the load. For controlling load purpose we used arduino and GSM module. Due to this component we controlled a any load with smart phone and commuters. Also we controlled home appliance like Lights, fans, bulbs, motors, etc.Smart energy meter will also improved using a futurist smart grid project in this project we just do simple programming ,we improve this meter and make it advanced which will also works on smart grid project.
We used main component which detail as below:
1). 8051 microcontroller
8051 microcontroller is designed by Intel in 1981.
the system bus connects all the support devices to the CPU. All other devices like program memory, ports, data memory, serial interface, interrupt control, timers, and the CPU are all interfaced together through the system bus.
It can display alphanumeric as well as special characters unlike seven segment display which can display numbers only.
16*2 can be interfaced either in 4-bit or 8-bit mode. However, 8-bit interfacing is recommended for the beginners to understand it’s operation.
In 4-bit mode , it requires 6 gpio pins (RS, EN, D4-D7) for it’s operation.
No protocol is used to display to display data on LCD. we send values to LCD, these values act as a command to LCD or data to be displayed on LCD based on selection of either of two internal LCD registers.
This system was designed in Europe with a vision to provide good voice and speech quality, support international roaming enabling one to use their mobile phone across countries without having to change his original number and support a range of products and value added services.
It digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band.
GSM, together with other technologies, is part of the evolution of wireless mobile telecommunications that includes High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HCSD), General Packet Radio System (GPRS), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), and Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS).
Relays are switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically. Relays control one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit. As relay diagrams show, when a relay contact is normally open (NO), there is an open contact when the relay is not energized. When a relay contact is Normally Closed (NC), there is a closed contact when the relay is not energized. In either case, applying electrical current to the contacts will change their state.
Relays are generally used to switch smaller currents in a control circuit and do not usually control power consuming devices except for small motors and Solenoids that draw low amps. Nonetheless, relays can “control” larger voltages and amperes by having an amplifying effect because a small voltage applied to a relays coil can result in a large voltage being switched by the contacts.
Protective relays can prevent equipment damage by detecting electrical abnormalities, including overcurrent, undercurrent, overloads and reverse currents. In addition, relays are also widely used to switch starting coils, heating elements, pilot lights and audible alarms.
Arduino is a open source platform that can be used to design various electronic projects.
Arduino uno is hardware which is based on microcontroller ATmega 328P. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.
Arduino is a very popular and easy to use programmable board for creating your own projects. Consisting of a simple hardware platform and a free source code editor with an easy one-click compile/upload feature, its designed to be really easy to use without being an expert programmer.
Arduino is also the most popular microcontroller board for advanced users and all kinds of more ambitious projects. Its been used to make robots, home automation gadgets, automotive projects, for sensing and controlling lights, motors, locks and servos, sound and video, interactive objects like animated sculptures, toys and games, radio links and just about anything else you can dream up. It can even be a web server and connect your projects to the Internet. A huge number of example projects (including both hardware designs and software source code) are available to help beginners get started.
Plug-in expansion boards called shields add extra functionality, and we also stock a handy range of modules to make it easy for you to incorporate sensors, actuators, sound input and output, and visual feedback into your projects.
The current version of the Arduino hardware reference design is called the Uno (or One in Italian) and is published by the Arduino team. It provides four basic functional elements:
An Atmel ATmega328P AVR microcontroller
A simple 5V power supply
A USB-to-serial converter for loading new programs onto the board
I/O headers for connecting sensors, actuators, expansion boards, etc