Sensory neurons(nociceptors) located in skin are responsible for sending information regarding pain from Amy’s finger to her peripheral nervous system. A thermal nociceptor transducer is TRPV1, responsible for sensing pain caused by high temperatures.
This neuron is an afferent neuron because it carries information towards the central nervous system.
The sensory neurons conduct the information to the spinal cord, from where it is transmitted to the barain and then through the motor neurons, conducted to the muscles.
3 neurons are involved in this process- primary, secondary and tertiary neurons for the somatosensory part and sensory neuron, interneuron and motor neuron for the entire conduction procedure.
Evolutionarily, this system is crucial because withot the very fast response, a lot of damage to the human body would have resulted. this quick process leads to protection from undue damage due to longer time for processing information.
Parkinson’s Disease is caused by loss of cells responsible for production of dopamine in the brain. This disease usually develops in people over the age of 60. hence when syptoms of this disease appear in anyone below the age of 50, it is known as Early Onset Parkinson’s Disease.
In Parkinson’s disease, cells responsible for the production of dopamine , located in a region of the brain known as substantia nigra is affected.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical compound responsible for relaying information in different parts of the brain and nervous system.
Dopamine plays multiple roles, the major ones being in reward seeking behaviour, cognition, learning memory, sleep,mood, behaviour and movement.
Synapses are gap junctions or connections between two adjacent neurons. Chemical information is relayed via these synapses by neurotransmitters released from the axon of one neuron and picked up by the dendrite of the next neuron. Electrical synapses, on the other hand are formed between two dendrites and electrical informatiuon is transmitted across them. Since, Parkinson’s Disease is caused by the destruction of dopamine producing cells, a dopamine agonist, which will enhance the effect of dopamine, is used for the treatment of the disease.
SNCA is one of the six genes which have been linked to heritable monogenic Parkinson’s Disease, and since the mutation is autosomal dominant, which means very high chances of expressivity, his children have a very high probability of developing the disease and should undergo genetic testing.