First of all I would like to thank the God since everything is done with his help of him. Next, goes to my advisor Bulti M. for his guidance in the completion of this senior seminar I would like to thank the entire individual who helped me from the starting to the end of this seminar finally, my heartfelt gratitude extends to our family for their financial and material support.
Crop product is the basis of all subsistence forming in most of Ethiopia on rain-fed system and count for more than 95% of the land area cultivated annually.
In general, farming is mixed both animal and crop productions are important. A typical farming household in the semiarid area occnssust a small portion of land (Pingali, 2006). Agriculture is the dominant sector of the Ethiopian economy which makes a lion snare contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Employment and foreign exchange earning of the country.
Agriculture is still believed to remain a determinant sector that can play a dominant role in stimulating the overall economic development of the country. The sound performance of agriculture warrants is the availability of food crops. This accomplishment in agriculture doesn’t only signify the adequate of a food crop to attain security but also heralds a positive aspect of the economy this would be related if and on if strenuous efforts are made by the government increasing aria cultural production (CSA, 2014).
Ethiopia is one of the largest African countries with Eritrea to north Kenya to south Somalia to east Soudan to west according to (Morris et al.
, 2007) Ethiopia the majority 83,8% of Ethiopian reside in the rural area hence sub stance and rain-fed agricultural is the economics-based and means of lily holed of the majority of the people the contribution of agriculture to goop in Ethiopian above the average contribution of sub-Saharan Africa some crop production frown in the rainy season are subjected to low with spores of the vegetation stage respective of their duration shrouding at vegetation stage has little effect on areal performance of the plant (Kindness & Gordon, 2001).
Ethiopian crop agriculture complex involves substantial variation in crop grown across the counters different regions and ecologies five major cereal crops such as teff, wheat, maize, sorghum and barley are the core of Ethiopian agriculture are and food economy accounting for about three quarter of total area GDP and 29%of cultural GDP in 2005/06/ of total GDP and 64% of color consumed(IFPRI,2011) according to (IFPRI,2011) there has been substantial growth in terms of area (Gudeta, 2009).
The major was purpose of this senior seminar was to review about factor affecting crop production in Ethiopia
Company, industry or includes cereal, crop pulses, oil seeds, vegetables, root crops, fruits, coffee, inset, chat, sugar cane, cotton, tobacco, etc…Produced for food making drinks stimulation and making fabrics or cloth in (CSA, 2014). Crop production; the process of growing and harvesting of the above crops for own consumption and sale .Meher /main/ season crop: any temporary crop harvested between the months of meskerem (September) and yekatit (February) is considered as meher season crop ( CSA,2014)Belg season crop: Any temporary crop harvested between the months of megabit (March) and pagume (August) is considered to be Belg season crop (CSA, 2014).
production function:- the production function is the technical relationship between inputs and out puts indicating the maximum amount of out puts indicting the maximum amount of out puts that can be produced with alternate amounts of variable inputs used in combination with one or more fixed in puts under a given state of technology. Production function allows to explain the output value generated by either the whole economy based on divers combination of factors determining the existing technology (Kuhn, A, 2010).Factors of production; refers to an aggregate of nature (Such as water minerals and forests) human capacity (both mental and physical) and all sort of manmade aids to further production (such as tools, machines and buildings).They are otherwise called resource or inputs. Factors of production can be classified into land, labor and management(Crow tord, et al , 2003).
The challenges for global agriculture in the 21centuryare to produce 70 percent more food by 2050 to feed a projected increased population while implementing more sustainable methods and responding to climate change on the environment front climate change and its impact on production clearly suggest the need to address problems like variations in the availability of water (lack or excess thereof), the reduction in agricultural productivity and the need for low –impact technologies to reduces the emission of greenhouse gases. in addition, the mix of foods demanded by the population is expected to change from cereals to meat and dairy. Much concern about feeding the world in 2050 related to the slower increase inside of the major cereal crops over the past three decades (Kindness, H & Gordon, A, 2009) yields is considered as the major route to meeting future global food demand, through increased potential field (maximum yield with best varieties).
Ethiopia is basically on agricultural and pastoral country. Agricultural dominates the Ethiopian to the extent that little progress can be mode unless agriculture is affected directly. By large, agriculture in Ethiopia is subsistence. This particularly due to the major food crops grown in the country. The major food crops are produced in almost all regions of the country in spite of the variation in volume of production across the regions. The variation may be attributed to the extent of area devoted to each crop type. Weather change and a shift in preference for the crops grown (CSA, 2014) . Ethiopia recognizes two dominant agricultural systems which are the mixed agriculture of the high land. A here both crops and livestock production are integrated and pastoralist in the law land. The mixed agriculture exhibits several sub system. Commercial agriculture using the river basins, such as the awash basin is recent phenomena. Most agriculture production takes place in high land of Ethiopia. Where five major cereals teff, wheat, maize, sorghum, and inset are major stables and play dominants roles in cropping systems depending on elevations rain fall market access (IFPRI,2011).According to(CSA, 2014).Crop yield in Ethiopia are inevitable affected by many factors. these are another in put price, changing in farming practice, amount of fertilizer used quality of seed others and use of irrigation. Cereal crops are the major food crops both in terms of area they are planted and volume of production obtained there are produced in larger volume compared with other crops because there are the principle staple crops cereals are grown in all regions with voting quantity (Guvenc, & Yildirim, 2006).
Researchers in Ethiopia agriculture agree that production has increased in Ethiopia mainly as a result of crop area sown. According to(karlidege.H.&Yildrim.E, 2009) . growth in the number of child rich households with higher consumption requirements and young labor foreseeing land for employment creation are the driving forces a behind area expansion grinding in Rwanda by (Derew Arajer J.L ,2004) reveals that land holding site is directly related with banana production and wheat unitizing a 1% expansion in land size will result in0.32% increase in agriculture output.
The form households in rural areas of developing countries usually allocated their time among own form work and off farm (market) activity. Form labor is a major source of employment opportunity for the labor force in rural Ethiopia.
As in the cost of most developing countries the structure of labor force employment in Ethiopia is mainly composed of stable amount of unpaid family work and self employment (CSA, 2005)
Storage of form labor supply may lead to low form productivity a situation which has been considered major problem especially in same developing countries. Labour productivity in important source of long term growth and its impostures of what farmers and workers get in return for their efforts (time and management skills) the growth rout of the labor productivity level however, has shown a dramatic increase. According to (CSA ,1995/96- 2006/07).
Different literature provide evidence that because insurance credit and saving markets are typically poorly developed, people in rural areas of developing countries most rely on their own resources (e.g. saving, natural capital assets, labor and land combined with social capital to more investment and manage risks Yesuf and Bluffstone, 2009, Nyongena, 2011, Fotchomps and Gubert, 2007, Derecon and Rrishean, 2000, Chetty and Looney, 2006, Grooteert and Narayon, 2004, Fog chomps and land 2003). As a resource factor livestock owner ship mieht affect crop production positively and negativity. In Ethiopia (Shumet ,2011) inferred that since crop production is expected to be supplemented by animal production livestock endowment has dual influence on crop production in such may that HHs who possessed livestock.
The farmers is supposed to produce everything that requires for himself and others (Mesfin,1984) However it should be borne in mind that farmers long and deep-rooted religious and cultural practices by the bulk of Ethiopian farmers are one of the serious factors for low agricultural productivity. These central and religious practices and institution negatively affected the overall subsistence production system. The some perception has enabled the people to accepted suffering and death with peace and quantity (Mesfin, 2002).
Yield crop is losses due to the weed vary with many factors such as system crop culture variety, plant population, fertilizer applied, duration and time, infestation, weed species amount of weed growth for incetanse rice due to this factors the yield is losses. The comparison between weed control and uncontrolled weed plot overstate the additional benefit of weed control more elastics approach is to compare the added benefit from additional limited available data show that production loss can reach 30-40% for field that are poorly weeded (Pingali, P ,2006).
The concept of irrigated nutrient practice involves use of varies inorganic, organic and biological sources and mobiliser of plant nutrient the major component are fertilizers, organic manure, green manure, crop residue and biofertilizers exhaustive study and different aspects of green manuring in crop such as rice, wheat and maize, wheat system indicated comparable efficiency of green manure N2 with that of area N 2 in crop benefit through green manure are higher in crop system, such rice, wheat and maize wheat system. (Hussai, I. And Hanjira, M.A ,2004) among several approaches for (heduling irrigation to crop, soil moisture, deficit and climatological approaches are the two communal used approaches for irrigating the wheat crop if irrigation water is limited factors irrigation may be scheduled at 50% depletion in available soil moisture (DASM)at the 3 critical stage and 75% DASM at other stage when densitometers are used for scheduling irrigation soil suction of 0.4 to 0.6 bors appear to the optimum (Reedy. S.R, 2000).
Deep ploughing is the advantage for perennial weed control and conservation of moisture under dry land condition. Result of the experiment (Batie Sondra S ,1988) clearly indicated the beneficial effect of deep phloughing (30-40cm) over shallow (10-12cm)phloughing for rain fed parliament.
A number of high yielding cultivates have been developed for cultivation different agricultural zone of the country some important varieties are: Drought tolerant later soon situation will resistant, Ascochyta blight toreont, etc. (agronomy of field crop).
The processing of harvesting period to the marketing processes are harvesting seed separation storage of seed and finally marketing. Harvesting period is the process of crop matured and harvested by different mechanisms such as, combine machilieted separation seed is separate from straw to crop seed finally to store in the suck and marking going to the market in the such by the animal or human.
In agricultural crop production technologies include biological and chemical technology specifically. These technologies includes chemical fertilizers , selected seed high yield varieties irrigation and soil quality enhancing technologies farmers use these technology in order to enhance the production and productivity of the land. It is also indicated that for poor farmers adoption of technology place new demand on their limited resources base (kamruzaman, m. and Takeya. H ,2008).
African government have promoted the increasing use of agriculture in put in their own countries inspired by the Asian green revolution which was brought about by using high yield seed and fertilizer technologies (Crow tord, et al ,2003).Argued that entry point for intensification is the wage of organic and in organic fertilizer in the because if soil fertility is not improved the use of organic and inorganic fertilizer in sac because, if soil fertility is not improve the use of other technology such as high yielding varities will not have a significant impact the financial aspect of the input promotion strategy is to increase net income of farmers traders or other participants in agricultural economy( Crow tord, et al ,2003).
African agricultural resigns a critical development challenge because the fertilizers application in a hectares of land in set is below standard (Crow ford, et al ,2003) the insufficient use of fertilizer in Africa has resulted in the area productivity below the average( Morris et al ,2007)and( kuhn, 2010). The major reasons for low fertilizers use could be because of demand and supply factors (Corw ford et al., 2003) on the demand side form house hold not accept the it as profitable but toorisay in financial terms there are also views that the dependency on chemical fertilizers only for agricultural production might not be sustainable as it result in the depletion of organic soil content there by reducing content there by reducing the potential benefit of fertilizer utiliton (Ghosh, 2004). Most of the application fertilities is not based on soil test which leads to the of fertility either above below their requirements (Ogoke. IJ. et al, 2007).
In combination with chemical fertilizer and improved varies of seed are critical agricultural impact that help farmer obtain improved agricultural yields. The productivity and value of crops is improved through the genetic manipulated of selective breeding (kintomo.A.A, et al ,2008). More over farmer sector supplied improved seed should fulfill certain quality standrodsset by the national regulation (Bishaw, strcik and Von Gustel, 2012) seed that fulfill the quality requirement’s have positive impact on the productivity of land foreinstame (Castro and Hearin ,2010) found that 30% of the growth rate of agriculture production was due to new seed varities.
The poorest people who mainly depended on rain fed agriculture for their livelihoods’ reside in sub southern Africa (Burniy and Naylov 2011) stated that crop yield in sub Saharan Africa low land influenced by the variability of weather condition in the area. The crop land which is irrigated accounted for only 3% compared to 39% in south Asia and China (Morris, M.Kelly, V.A, Kopicki, R.J. & Byerlee, DC. ,2007). Water as one of the major instrument of poverty alleviation, Plays as significant role in food production food security, hygiene, sanitation and environment (karlidege.H.&Yildrim.E. ,2009). The proper utilization and the reduction of wastages of water resource is critical. This is because of the level of consumption in agriculture is influenced by the efficiency of irrigation system and cultivation methods used by farmer (Castro and Heerink 2010).
As declining soil fertility is a major challenge for sub Saharan Africa use of shifting cultivation as a mean of sustainable agriculture (Kintom, et al, 2008). Crop rotation is a regularly recurrent secession of different crop on a given plot of land (Tulu, 2011). It helps to ensure the required fertility and control weeds insects and plant disease through the appropriate application of crop older (Knok, et al, 2011). Shifting cultivation are in contrast to continuous mono culture in which a single crop species repeatedly grows following methods of improving soil quality are not indicated in situation, where there is rapid population growth (Rouw and Rajor, 2004).Rice and wheat rotation was practiced for many years and expected during the green revolution in South Asia (Yadaw, 2002).
Inter cropping is another practice of cultivation used by farmers to improve soil quality and productivity. The aim of intercropping is to enhance the yield of farm land by using resources that cannot be used by a single crop (Ramuzzaman and Takeya 2008). Intercropping is practiced by a large proportion of farmers in developing countries (Guvenc, Yildirim, 2006) Intercropping with leguminous plant and follow rotation has been applied to increase the fertility of soil (Waithatal et al, 2007) Intercropping is becoming crucial for Increasing productivity and fertilizing and food requirement of the worlds growing population (karliding and Yildirim, 2009).
The most promising technological option for increasing global food, feed and fiber production is to combine the best of the old and the best of the new by integrating the best conventional technology and the best biotechnology application including molecular, breeding and the incorporation of transgenic novel traits. The improved crop product resulting from the synergy of combining the best of old with the best of the new including population control and improved food, feed and fiber distribution (Jomes, 2010-1996). Technology in agriculture more, ahead at stead at stead’s pace the long term. Technical progress also occurs with respect to society’s ability to detect possible consequences to the environmental of specific production practices and farming system in agriculture (Batik, 1988).
Ethiopian agriculture has been suffering from various external and internal problems. It has been stagnant due to poor performance as a result of factors such as: low resources utilization (e.g. the proportion of cultivated land compared to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture and the amount of water availability for irrigation is for below the capacity and this completes the sector to be rain fed). Low technology farming technique (e.g. wooden plough by oxen and sockles) over reliance unfertilizers and underutilized techniques for soil and water conservation. In appropriate agrian policy, in appropriate land tenure policy, economical degradation of potential or able lands. Increase in the unemployment rate due to increasing in the population (Haile Kibret 1988). Yonas Ketsela (2006) has also summarized the main structural constraints for Ethiopian agriculture.
Arch ace mode of production and low uptake of the technological innovation which in turn yield low levels of productivity degradation of land and other natural resources due to intense cultivation and over grazing recurrent drought civil strife and political unrest. Lack of effective policies governing such issues as and ownership land tagles land fragmentation, credit system or are very limited and neglected and lack of agricultural investment.
Land and production was recognized during the course of this work that crop production increase has been realized. So for mainly due to more expansion in terms of land area cultivated instead of increase the productivity of the land by applying intensive management and technology. Labor and crop production: – was found out that farm labor is a major source of employment opportunity for the labor force in rural Ethiopia. However it was notice that labor productivity in rural Ethiopia has remained on the some in grain output. Capital and production:-is the level of capital in crop production is another yet unfrached issue in Ethiopia and few works have been dedicated to analyze the role it is proying to increase the overall production. However, it was recognized by different researcher to be an important factor that affects crop production. Technology and crop production is limited use of modern inputs in crop production in Ethiopia. This can be explained by the following points to be noticed.
Above all, to improve agricultural productivity and to empower farmers in Ethiopia, the following key points should be taken in to account.