DESIGNING DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF SARAL FUEL MAKING MACHINE
(User Defined Project)
1 160110120017 VRUTVIK JANI
2 160110120019 HARDIK JOGANI
3 160110120031 RAJESH MODHVADIYA
4 160110120032 NIVID PATEL
(Faculty Guide) (Faculty Guide)
(Head of the Department)
1.1 Problem Summary
1.2 Aim & Objective
1.3 Working Principle
1.4 Materials / Tools required
2 DESIGN: ANALYSIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
2.1 AEIOU Framework
2.2 Empathy Canvas
2.3 Product Development Canvas
2.4 Ideation Canvas
3.1 General Designing
3.2 Basic Components
3.3 Conceptual Geometry
4 SUMMARY & FUTURE SCOPE
We appreciate the GTU for giving us a platform, which can transform our idea into a design or any product, which can help people in their day-to-day life.
The success of any task depends on the efforts made by team members but it cannot be achieved without the cooperation of other people who are supportive.
So, we would like to thank G. H. Patel College Of Engineering & Technology for giving us the opportunity of doing this project.
Firstly, we are very much thankful to Dr. Yogesh Chauhan & Dr. Smita Joshi, our project guides for their leading guidance and sincere efforts throughout project work. They took significant interest in simplifying the difficulties. In addition, they have been a consistent source of guidance for us.
We are grateful to our HOD Dr. Sanket Bhavsar and Principal Dr.
Himanshu Soni for providing us necessary resources.
We are also thankful to our workshop teachers and Non-teaching staff for their valuable time and help for completion of the project.
Once again, we are grateful to all those without whom this work would not have been completed successfully.
This is to certify that the project entitled DESIGNING DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF SARAL FUEL MAKING MACHINE has been carried out by Vrutvik Jani(160110120017),Hardik Jogani(160110120019) ,Rajesh Modhvadiya (160110120031) and Nivid Patel(160110120032) under our guidance in fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering(7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2019-20.
Every year millions of tons of agriculture waste are generated which are either destroyed or burnt inefficiently in loose form causing air pollution. The use of agriculture and agro-industrial waste as biomass fuel for power generation the briquettes can be an alternative solution to the problems related at their disposal & pollution. Briquettes produced from biomass waste, through a simple process and low cost are an excellent source of energy and environmentally friendly ideal for replacing fossil fuels in this day.
1 INTRODUCTIONBiomass briquetting is the process of converting low bulk density biomass into high density and energy concentrated fuel briquettes. Biomass Briquetting plants are of various sizes which converts biomass into solid fuels. Briquettes are ready substitute of Coal/wood in industrial boiler and brick kiln for thermal application. Biomass briquettes are Non-Conventional Source of energy, Renewable in nature, Eco friendly, non-polluting and economical. Process of converting biomass to solid fuel is also non-polluting. Application of technology on rural electrification through biomass Gasifier is facing lot of difficulties during climate change and seasonal changes. Using rural biomass materials either wood chips or any other materials poses lot of difficulties during rainy and winter season in the bio mass gasifier. Briquetting of saw dust with rurally available cheap binding material will be best for rural gasification and power generation . Manually operated blending and briquetting machines are compatible and reliable for rural biomass briquetting. Blending of cow dung with saw dust have been carried out by manual mixing and briquetting of cow dung and saw dust is done with the help of manually operated press. The cylindrical shaped briquettes are formed for easy and complete combustion. It will increase the thermal efficiency and reduces air pollution Briquetting biomass materials having different ratio of saw dust and cow dung with net calorific values between 15000 kJ/kg and 19500 kJ/kg is used for this experimental analysis,. Since the biomass component of the briquette ignites at low temperature compare to the coal, this ensures that the volatile matter in the coal which would have otherwise be liberated as smoke at low combustion temperature combusts completely. The complete combustion of the volatiles reduces smoke and as well, contributes to the total heat released by the fuel. The ash of bio-coal has been shown to be effective for soil treatment and enrichment 
35-60 73-90 60-72 0.31-0.5 0.15-0.3 0.1-0.15
Table 1. Criteria used for the quality of fire bricks 
To design an precious machine that produced a briquettes without any men-power which is used for urban area as well as rural area in replacement of coal, wood and so on.
WORKING PRINCIPLEPROCESS OF BRIQUETTINGRaw MaterialCrusherMixturePressingDryingFinished ProductBinder
STARTINPUT DRY LEAVESCRUSHINGADD BINDERMIXINGSERVO MOTOR ON FOR DECIDED PERIOD AND DROP MIXTUREPRESSING MECHANISMRACK AND PINION MECHANISMFINISHPRODUCT MIXTURECONTAIN >5%YESNOEND
Machine power consumption = 1.47 kwCost of electricity =4.41 rupees per hour
Time for production of 1 Briquettes =2-min(approx.)
1 kg of raw material can produced briquettes =1000/15=66
Dry leaves :- In our project we take a dry leaves as raw material and the reasons why the leaves being select are as under.
Calorific Value kcal/kg:- The higher heating value of material was determined by using of bomb calorimeter (ASTME-711), where the combustion was carried out in environment with 25 atmospheric pressure of oxygen to ensure complete combustion. Water equivalent of the apparatus was determined by burning a known weight preferably about (1gm) of pure and dry benzoic acid in powdered form in the bomb under identical condition .The standard calorific value of benzoic acid was taken 6324 calories per gram, Water equivalent was calculated to be 455 gm. The higher calorific value of solid fuel using the bomb calorimeter experiment was determined as
Calorific value (kcal/kg) = (w-W)*(T2-T1)XWhere,
W = Mass of water placed in the calorimeter (2000g),
w = Water equivalent of the apparatus (455g),
T1 = Initial temperature of water in the calorimeter (?C),
T2 = Final temperature of water in the calorimeter (?C),
X = Mass of fuel sample taken in the crucible (g)
Rice Husk 3446-3680 18.0
Saw dust + Cotton Sticks 4300 8.0
Moisture Content The moisture content of biomass was measured by oven dry method. Initially the sample with the known weight was kept in oven at 105 ?C for one hour. Then the oven dry sample weighed (ASTM D-3173). The moisture content of sample calculated by using following formula:
Cow-dung:- we take cow-dung as binder material. The binder material used for strengthening the briquettes.Two types of binders may be employed, combustible and non-combustible. Combustible binders prepared from natural or synthetic resins, animal manures or treated, dewatered sewage sludge. Noncombustible binders include clay, cement and other adhesive minerals. Although, combustible binders are preferable, noncombustible binders may be suitable if used in sufficiently low concentrations.
There are several reason for selecting the cow-dung as binder:-
The use of biomass briquettes has been steadily increasing as industries realize the benefits of decreasing pollution through the use of biomass briquettes. Briquettes provide higher calorific value per rupee than coal when used for firing industrial boilers. Along with higher calorific value, biomass briquettes on average saved 3040% of boiler fuel cost. But other sources suggest that cofiring is more expensive due to the widespread availability of coal and its low cost. However, in the long run, briquettes can only limit the use of coal to a small extent, but it is increasingly being pursued by industries and factories all over the world. Both raw materials can be produced or mined domestically in the United States, creating a fuel source that is free from foreign dependence and less polluting than raw fossil fuel incineration.
Environmentally, the use of biomass briquettes produces much fewer greenhouse gases, specifically, 13.8% to 41.7% CO2 and NOX. There was also a reduction from 11.1% to 38.5% in SO2 emissions when compared to coal from three different leading producers, EKCC Coal, Decanter Coal, and Alden Coal. Biomass briquettes are also fairly resistant to water degradation, an improvement over the difficulties encountered with the burning of wet coal. However, the briquettes are best used only as a supplement to coal. The use of cofiring creates an energy that is not as high as pure coal, but emits fewer pollutants and cuts down on the release of previously sequestered carbon. The continuous release of carbon and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere leads to an increase in global temperatures. The use of cofiring does not stop this process but decreases the relative emissions of coal power plants.
1 hp ac motor
2 DESIGN: ANALYSIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
AEIOU is an investigative tool to help interpret observations gathered by ethnographic practices in the field. It is an Observation tool.
AEIOU stands for 5 elements to be coded:
The canvas shows the empathy part included behind the creation of the project.
2.3PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS
Based on the observation in the previous AEIOU summary an Ideation can be derived which results into the Ideation Canvas above. This canvas shows the initial idea about the formation of the product and shows that how a product should be designed. The factors that will be affecting the development of the product are also included in this canvas.
After understanding the ideal stage of the product and going through the empathy part of the product it is time to design the final product definition, users, features, functions and components. This canvas will let us know exactly the amount of efforts and the clear idea that is to be put into this project. After that, the Customer revalidation part shows us how true we were in idealizing and creating a solution for the user. After that according to the Validations it is up to us that we reject, redesign and retain the function and features according to the feedback from the customer.
The main points to be considered while designing are:
1. To maintain a build volume of 440mm x 460mm x 1160mm.
2. To have a strong, robust and sturdy design to handle various forces that act while manufacturing.
Hooper, 2 Crusher, 3.Mixture unit, 4.Pressing unit 5.Brick removing mechanism, 6. Binder input, 7.Drying chamber, 8.Motor for crusher and mixture, 9. Support
SARAL machine is suitable for making briquettes without any damage. The difficulties that come across the small manufacturing units and farmers can be overcome by this machine. The machines available in market are either too bulky or too costly compared to our machine. The briquettes can be made with adding 20-30% binder. The leaf briquettes made by our machine is long lasting, burn for longer time with minimum pollution.
 Effectiveness of Briquetting Bio Mass Materials with Different Ratios in 10 Kw Down Draft Gasifier,K. Sivakumar,B. Sivaramanand N. Krishna Mohan, IJEST,2011
 Paulo R. Wanders, Carlos,R. Altafini, Ronaldo M Barreto,Assessment of A Small Sawdust Gasification Unit. Biomass and Bioenergy27, 467-476, 2004.
[3 &4] H.V. Sridhar, G. Sridhar Experience of Using Various Biomass Briquettes in IBG (IISC BIORESIDUE GASIFIER), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Studies On Development of Fuel Briquettes for Household and Industrial Purpose, Ch. A. I. Raju, K. RamyaJyothi, M. Satya, U. PraveenaDevelopment of Fire Bricks from Organic Waste: An Eco-Friendly Energy Solution,Khurshid, Ahmad, S. Nawaz, R. Arshad, M. Dar, M. E. U. I. Imran, M. Aslam, F. Nasir, R. Shah, G. M. Ahmad, N. Naeem, Applied Ecology and Environmental Research,2018
[7&8] Physical and Thermal Properties of Biomass Briquetted Fuel,V. R. Birwatkar, Y. P. Khandetod, A. G. Mohod, K. G. Dhande,Indjsrt,2014