Ror modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines
2.3 Electronic Learning
Electronic learning is a term that describes the process of acquiring knowledge via the use of a computer and the Internet, intranet, or extranet. E-learning, a tool that emerged from information technology, has been integrated in many university education programs, shifting from traditional way of education to electronic environment. It has not emerged in one night but can be considered as a revolutionary process that starts with generation of computers.
Looking at the history of computer technologies, it shows that the first generations of computers were very huge and too expensive to be used by public; the phenomenon of personal computing that was popularized by Apple Computer in 1977 made computers more affordable for people to buy and easy to use for businesses and personal use.
Information technology (IT) is considered as one of the most fundamental forces for change in the all sectors of our lives (Alshurideh & Alkurdi, 2012; AL-Syaidh et al, 2015; Hajir et al.
, 2015; Shannak et al., 2012). Today many students want to learn online and in turn get degrees from worldwide colleges and universities, but still cannot go anywhere as they live in isolated areas without proper communication systems (Tarhini et al., 2014; Darawsheh et al., 2016). Consequently, many researchers encourage learning courses under the e-learning system as it saves time and energy of those students staying at any far off distant regions from the universities or colleges they have enrolled (Hubackova and Golkova, 2014; Alenezi et al.
, 2015). Indeed, e-learning adoption is increasing in most universities and institutions of higher learning all around the world. E-learning which is also known as web-based learning, is defined as the delivery of education in a flexible and easy way through the use of internet to support individual learning or organizational performance goals (Clarkand Mayer, 2011, Maqableh et al., 2015).
Despite the enormous growth of e-learning in education and its perceived benefits, the efficiency of such tools will not be fully utilized if the users inclined to not accept and use the system. Therefore, the successful implementation of e-learning tools depends on whether or not the students are willing to adopt and accept the technology. Thus, it has become imperative for practitioners and policy makers to understand the factors affecting the user acceptance of web-based learning systems in order to enhance the students learning experience. However, recent studies have shown that e-learning implementation is not simply a technological solution, but also a process of many different factors such as social factors (Schepers and Wetzels, 2007; Tarhini et al., 2014b; 2015), and individual factors (Liaw and Huang, 2011), organizational such as facilitating conditions in addition to behavioral and cultural factors. Such major factors play an important role on how an information technology is developed and used (Kim and Moore, 2005).
Fischer et al. (2015) studied how proceedings of scientific conferences can be used for trend studies in the field of e-learning. They examined the abstracts of 427 scientific articles of leading German-speaking e-learning conferences Gesellschaftf?rMedien in der Wissenschaft and E-Learning-Fachtagungen der Gesellschaftf?rInformatik e. V. (GMW and DeLFI) published from 2007 to 2013. The study was conducted at German-speaking conferences and, thus, reflects the situation in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Fischer et al. (2015) made an important contribution to the diffusion of digital media in higher education. The researchers found that the detailed analysis of the frequency distribution over the seven years reflects the intensity of scientific discussion towards e-learning trends, and conclusions about the didactical or technical potentials of innovations can be introduced. Specifically, they found the development potential of learning management, mobile learning, virtual worlds, e-portfolio, social media and Massive Open Online Courses are crucial for e-learning in German higher education.
Moravec et al. (2015) showed how e-learning tools impact students achievement. According to Moravec et al. (2015), the study compares the results of questions from the area of law where the tool was provided in a pilot version with the results of questions, where the e-learning tool was not provided. The researchers found that the e-learning tools have affected the students results. Nevertheless, the belief of the e-learning tool may possibly have a negative effect on students who will depend on given materials was disproved.
By using the Cohens model and based on data collected from 15 documents from relevant research studies conducted on the effect of ICT based e-learning on academic achievement during 2010-2012, Mothibi (2015) examined the relationship between e-learning and students academic achievement in higher education. The researcher found that ICT had a statistically significant positive influence on e-learning based students academic achievements. The results also indicated that ICT had a significant positive influence on students educational overall academic achievements.
2.4 Related Learning Environment
In formal education, a curriculum defines instructional content, materials, resources and means with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes. Following the emergence of the Internet many portals, tools and Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) have been developed with the aim of supporting learning and teaching activities across the Internet. However, Moodle and Blackboard are the most popular online learning platforms with which educators can develop complete online course that can include multimedia content.
Moodle: is this free, open-source, learning management system wherein educators can create online learning environments for their students. It is what high schools and colleges use to offer online classes. Educators use the program to distribute notes and resources, implement quizzes, set up forums and chats, and build an online community around their subject matter. Moodle is a free and open-source software learning management system. Moodle is used for blended learning, distance education, flipped classroom and other e-learning projects in schools. No context and semantic delivery mechanisms is implemented. It allows participants to do a Google like search.
Blackboard: Inc. provides powerful and easy-to-use systems for educational instruction. The Blackboard Learning System allows the instructor to accomplish effective online teaching principles. The Blackboard Learning System provides the course management system for classroom and online educational assistance. Blackboard Learning System in distance learning, hybrid courses, and as didactic supplements to other electronic environment enhancement systems. It is a virtual interactive learning environment. It does not recommend the learner with related learning material.
GeoGebra: is an open source; it is multi-platform mathematics software. GeoGebra is available with its desktop applications and with its tablet apps for Android, iPod and Windows. It is interactive mathematics software for learning and teaching mathematics and science from primary school up to university level.
Wolfram Alpha: Is an internet service, which allows the use of the services on smart phones or tablets to solve mathematical problems. It offers the possibility of step-by-step presentation of solutions. By using Wolfram Alpha, students can get some other ideas, by examining the set of solutions that the service provides.
A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can be easily accessed, managed and updated.
Data is organized into rows, columns and tables, and it is indexed to make it easier to find relevant information. Data gets updated, expanded and deleted as new information is added. Databases process workloads to create and update themselves, querying the data they contain and running applications against it. Computer databases typically contain aggregations of data records or files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles. Typically, a database manager provides users with the ability to control read/write access, specify report generation and analyze usage. Some databases offer ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability) compliance to guarantee that data is consistent and that transactions are complete.Databases are prevalent in large mainframe systems, but are also present in smaller distributed workstations and midrange systems, such as IBM’s AS/400 and personal computers.
2.5.1 Evolution of databases
Databases have evolved since their inception in the 1960s, beginning with hierarchical and network databases, through the 1980s with object-oriented databases, and today with SQL and NoSQL databases and cloud databases. In one view, databases can be classified according to content type: bibliographic, full text, numeric and images. In computing, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approach. There are many different kinds of databases, ranging from the most prevalent approach, the relational database, to a distributed database, cloud database or NoSQL database.
A relational database, invented by E.F. Codd at IBM in 1970, is a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in a number of different ways.
Relational databases are made up of a set of tables with data that fits into a predefined category. Each table has at least one data category in a column, and each row has a certain data instance for the categories which are defined in the columns. The Structured Query Language (SQL) is the standard user and application program interface for a relational database. Relational databases are easy to extend, and a new data category can be added after the original database creation without requiring that you modify all the existing applications.
A distributed database is a database in which portions of the database are stored in multiple physical locations, and in which processing is dispersed or replicated among different points in a network. Distributed databases can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. All the physical locations in a homogeneous distributed database system have the same underlying hardware and run the same operating systems and database applications. The hardware, operating systems or database applications in a heterogeneous distributed database may be different at each of the locations.
A cloud database is a database that has been optimized or built for a virtualized environment, either in a hybrid cloud, public cloud or private cloud. Cloud databases provide benefits such as the ability to pay for storage capacity and bandwidth on a per-use basis, and they provide scalability on demand, along with high availability. A cloud database also gives enterprises the opportunity to support business applications in a software-as-a-service deployment.
NoSQL databases are useful for large sets of distributed data. NoSQL databases are effective for big data performance issues that relational databases aren’t built to solve. They are most effective when an organization must analyze large chunks of unstructured data or data that’s stored across multiple virtual servers in the cloud.
Items created using object-oriented programming languages are often stored in relational databases, but object-oriented databases are well-suited for those items. An object-oriented database is organized around objects rather than actions, and data rather than logic. For example, a multimedia record in a relational database can be a definable data object, as opposed to an alphanumeric value.
A graph-oriented database, or graph database, is a type of NoSQL database that uses graph theory to store, map and query relationships. Graph databases are basically collections of nodes and edges, where each node represents an entity, and each edge represents a connection between nodes. Graph databases are growing in popularity for analyzing interconnections. For example, companies might use a graph database to mine data about customers from social media
This chapter encompasses a review of the research process.
3.2 System Functionalities
3.2.1 Import and Organize media elements:
This software should be able to import video files, image files, HTML files and presentation slides specified by the user. Then the user should be able to organize these imported files over the time line and associate them with time and create cue points. It should then convert these media elements into compatible format.
3.2.2 Synchronize the media elements:
These converted files should then be synchronized. The various files are synchronized with one another and also with the time line for generating a single output.
This software should allow the user to preview the presentation at any point when the presentation is being developed. It should have a preview tab selecting which would open the preview screen. The user can preview the presentation in this screen.
The E-Learning tool should generate a HTML page which would host the multimedia presentation. It should make the HTML page and all the associated contents into a single compressed folder. The generated HTML page must be viewable in all web browsers.
3.3.1 Hardware Interface:
1) E-learning software will give a multimedia presentation and so a speaker is needed on the hardware side for listening to the audio output.
2) Screen resolution of at least 800*600 or above will be preferable for viewing the multimedia presentation.
3.3.2 Software Interface:
It should be possible for the web portal E-learning to be implemented in both Windows and Linux Operating System environments.
3.4 Work Flow
1. The web portal E-learning imports the files, either .docx, .ppt or any multimedia file from your device.
2. These files would be converted to compatible format and it would also be able to make a multimedia presentation.
3. The presentation can be previewed and published
4. The multimedia presentation and other text document can be given as the output.