Risk Assessment Using Bow-Tie Tool in Cement Industry


P.Pradeep kannan1, R.Maniakandan2, T.Rajpradeesh3

1 PG Student (M. Tech-ISE) Department of mechanical engineering

2,3 Associate Professor Department of mechanical engineering

Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil-626128

E-Mail id: [email protected]



To analysis a hazard from the plant according to the bow-tie tool analysis in the cement industry.

To analysis, the causes and effects in cement industry by using the bow-tie tool and study the cement industry by using the causes and effects of the cement industry. The cement industry, to visit covers the section of Raw material, blending, pre-heater, kiln, grinding, packing & shipping process. As well as hazard is possible were listed. Possible hazard and severity injuries were analyzed. After analyzed the worker’s hazard and safety hazard table list were prepared, and possible are separate the hazard types. In the risk assessment, the most dangerous hazard is come out from the raw material process. Hazards are found in mostly kiln processes are dust, noise, and vibration.

Keyword: Hazard, Risk assessment, Ergonomics, Noise, Dust, Vibration.


Bow-Tie analysis has become a public heath priority in industry in country. Cement manufacturing is one of these industries (Rachid ET, al 2005). Cement is the most used for the construct the new or old building (except some countries). Because, the cement is the one of the strongest and lifetime for buildings. And safety is important to the workers and environmental protection (T-W Jang 2011). During the cement industry various hazards are affected the workers especially dust particle are easily affected the cement workers.

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It causes lung, stomach, and etc., in the cement industry different types of production such as Limestone, Raw mill, Kiln, Packing. (Meo SA 2004)


3.1 Cement Manufacturing Process:

Cement is that the fine powder mixture of cement in hydraulic compound atomic number 20 silicate, aluminium and alumina ferrites. Quite thirty raw mill, that area unit divided into four basic classes calcium, silica, aluminium, iron area unit acknowledged employed in cement trade (EPA 1994).

Cement producing method scrutiny on crushing, grinding material, oven burning and cement production essentially.

Figure 1: Flow Chart for Typical Manufacturing Process in Cement Industry

609600-57150Lime Stone

647700124460Crusher 676275152400Grinder -68580-109220Raw Material 645795128905Klin -73660-29845Clinker 520065-61595Additives 557530104775Grinder 595630133985Cement Cement producing may be a complicated method that starts with the mining and so raw mill that embrace rock and calcined clay, and to a fine powder, like sand, quartz powder and fume known as raw meal. In the materials are heats with high temperature at 14500 C in very cement oven. During this type of method, the chemical bonds formation of atom, ions and molecules and the ionic bonds are sharing through the electrons in covalent bonds of the raw mill area unit de-escalated and they are recombined the new compounds in cement process. The result’s known as clinker, that area unit rounded molecules between 1000m and 2500m across. The pulverized cement is mixed with the water and construction aggregates to create concrete that will employ in the construction.

3.2 Problem Identification:

The major drawback of the cement business is principally dirt particle. Within the cement business is principally through the method of the known the matter. There area unit following the hazards are:

Limestone Quarrying

Crushing plant

Clinker production

Raw Milling processes at raw mill building

Material transport

Filter process

Storage process

Loading the trucks

Fuel storage process

Use of hazardous material process

Generating units

In the pair of, main hazard business related to the cement producing method is in cement business. As shown within the Table a pair of. Primarily venturous area unit dirt has an effect on the employees. Noise venturous is together with edge, crusher’s motor (Zhang 2012).

Cement Process Hazard Identification’s

Limestone Dust particle, Noise pollution

Raw material process Dust Particle, Toxic gas like CO, CO2, NOX, SO2, Noise pollution, Heat pollution.

Clinker burning process Dust Particle, Toxic gas, High temperature ration, Maximum workload.

Packing storage and delivery Dust, High workload

Table 2: Main hazard in cement industry manufacturing process (AJ 2011)

Dust particles area unit the one in all the foremost venturous impact of cement business and related to the handle and the storage of raw mill like crushing and grinding of raw material, and the solid fuels, transportation of materials to the loading process oven system, clinker process, and mills, embody clinker process and lime stone burning and packing / cloth activities (IFC 2015). Packing within the most tried method for cement industries (AJ 2011).

Nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions area unit emitted by the from the heat method in oven method. Carbon Di-oxide outlined as greenhouse emission primarily related to the each fuel combustion method and Decarbonation method of stone (IFC 2007).

Typical injuries causes in the cement business area unit outlined as slips, and etc., (29%): falling or moving objects (19%) and lifting overload(18%) as shown in Fig.2 (Injuries by Causes) area unit the foremost ventures will happened within the cement business. seventy nine of fatalities area unit arise from three main causes are:

Traffic and Mobile Plant (43%),

Falls from Heights (21%)

Caught in the Moving / beginning instrumentation (15%).

It was the report from the contractors employs in cement business. (WBCSD 2004).

Figure 2: Injuries by Causes (WBCSD 2004)

Figure 3: Fatalities area unit

3.3 Risk Assessment:

The Major risk assessment is following as shown in Table 3.

Hazard’s Preventive

Slip, Trips and Falls Tight work place

Fix the fall hazards, such as slippery surfaces, damage etc.,

Confined areas To avoid the entry to confined spaces

Permission to work

Clearing before the entry

Provision for ventilation

Electric Process Each panel must be labelled

Appropriate PPE

Falling / Moving Objects Tidy workplace

PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)

Fire Proper waste disposal

Heat detectors usage

Fire extinguisher

Hot / Cold Surfaces Usage of appropriate PPE

Noise and Vibration Pollution Technological of noise attenuation

Wearing the hearing protection

Vehicles Avoid overloading

Make sure back-up alarms to all the vehicles are functioning

Safe guards of machines Usage of appropriate guards

Maintaining the conveyor belt systems

Manual Handle Process Must be looked out the sharp edges, etc.,

When lifting the heavy objects, then leg must be used

Dust Usage of automated packing machines

Storage of crushed raw materials in closed barrel

Cement dust Usage of soap and water to avoid the skin damage

Avoid the exposure to cement dust particle to prevent the bronchitis and silicosis

Table 3: Hazardous (preventive) action in cement manufacturing plant


The cement manufacturing process is workers intensive and large scale industry or small scale industry on hazardous process (Mansfield 2002).Bow-Tie analysis for cement industry for the workers or labours, contractors, etc., to the operations (Tomar 2014).


The successful analysed the Bow-Tie tool for cement industry process. They are identifying the hazards and risk assessment the cement industry. And finally analysed the hazardous and the safety precaution or safety action.


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EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 1994, ‘Emission factor documentation for AP-42, section 11.6: Portland cement Manufacturing, Final report, EPA Contract 68-D2-0159, MRI Project No. 4601-01.

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WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development) 2004, ‘Health and safety in the cement industry: Examples of good practice’, Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI), Version 1.0.

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Risk Assessment Using Bow-Tie Tool in Cement Industry. (2019, Nov 16). Retrieved from http://paperap.com/risk-assessment-using-bow-tie-tool-in-cement-industry-best-essay/

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