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Microhistory Paper

Words: 1805, Paragraphs: 48, Pages: 7

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Preschool Education

CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Microhistory

Microhistory is a study of a smaller historical event, community, or an individual CITATION Gin93 l 1033 (Ginzburg, Tedeschi, & Tedeschi, 1993). Ginzburg et al. CITATION Gin93 n t l 1033 (1993) also emphasized that the study of microhistory may help organize the narration of the larger history. Also, it is determined to unravel new connections and meaning in the already “wider totality” of history through studying the lives of the people within its sum CITATION Ren14 l 1033 (Renders, De Haan, & Hamilton, 2014). Microhistory patches holes in social history. Thus, not only enables understanding of how individuals interact with one another, but also affect the broader economic, demographic, and social structures (and vice versa) CITATION App19 l 1033 (Appuhn, 2019) .

Culture and behavior

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According to CITATION Duf19 l 1033 (Dufour, 2019) culture is defined as shared ideas, norms, and values across the same society. Ideas encompasses the beliefs, customs, and art; while norms, on the other hand, are the behaviors society expect from us individuals – some examples are: eating with your mouth closed or pagmamano(a show of respect to the elderly); And finally, the country’s history, cuisine, literature, language, religion, and educational system are grouped as the values of a specific culture.

Moreover, our culture constitutes how we behave. And according to Donald CITATION Don02 n t l 1033 (2002), It shows that “cultures own a direct path into our brains”, affecting how we behave and interact with other people.

For the same reason, we can enforce that our past behavior or experiences establish how we act (may it be expression or inhibition of specific actions) in the future. These behaviors, according to Ouellette CITATION Oue98 n t l 1033 (1998), are classified as unconscious and conscious behaviors. Unconscious behavior or she calls “habitual behavior,” creates actions that become ‘automatic,’ which can be performed with other activities allocating “minimal focal attention.” Ouellette also cited examples such as: Unconsciously choose which hand to receive the telephone, or which greeting to use for the person on the other side of the receiver. Although, unconscious behavior might be less important in the creation of experiences that a person would recall in the sum of his life’s history since most learned behavior requires little to no thought.

In contrast, conscious behavior is ‘acted’ and requires “controlled processing” or a long time to think CITATION Oue98 l 1033 (Ouellette, 1998) when interacting with other people. It implies that our conscious behavior is adjusted upon other people’s behavior and thought, and our own actions are affected by other people’s experience (and vice versa).

Thus, our past experiences are formed through past behavior or experiences that are acted consciously. In turn, it can either be shared for the benefit of other people or inhibited from them, which specifically affects the researcher’s gathered data.

Memory and recollection of past experiences

Memory, in psychological definition is described as “the encoding, storage, and retrieval in the human mind of past experiences” CITATION Aug19 l 1033 (Encyclopedia Brittanica, 2019) or as defined by Atkinson CITATION Atk11 n t l 1033 (1911), it is “[t]he mental process which involves the remembrance, recollection, or representation of a sensation, perception, mental image, thought, or idea previously experienced.”

There are three (3) processes of memory according to Brian Becker: sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory CITATION Les19 l 1033 (Lesley University, 2019). First, is sensory register “the brain gathers information passively through visual and auditory cues” in the environment; second, is the short-term memory that enables individuals to retain information temporarily for repetition; third, is the long-term memory, where memory is indefinitely stored for future use and recollection CITATION Les19 l 1033 (Lesley University, 2019). That being said, when we talk about memory, long-term memory is the one solely emphasized.

However, not all the time the long-term memory is reliable. Some memories are forgotten, distorted, or recollections are difficult to forget CITATION Sha99 l 1033 (Shachter, 1999). He also emphasized that some memories are forgotten over time, or absentminded in a specific task “entails inattentive or shallow processing that contributes to weak memories”, or stressful situations come by and memories are blocked. On the other hand, the memories that are not forgotten might become distorted through misattribution, or suggestions from new events or questions might tamper with the old memory, or memories are modified to satisfy our current knowledge and beliefs. The farther end, however, we might want to forget memories but we can not.

Consequently, these are the cases that the researcher must acknowledge in gathering his data and writing from it.

Education and access to information

Our experiences in life are determined by our knowledge of the environment and society. It is emphasized, that early onset in education and learning has a long-term influence on a child’s cognitive abilities, personality, emotions, and social relationships CITATION Pei01 l 1033 (Peisner?Feinberg, et al., 2001).

According to Economic and Social Research Council CITATION Eco14 n t l 1033 (2014), higher educational attainment provides range of positive outcome including “better health and wellbeing, higher social trust, greater political interest, lower political cynicism, and less hostile to [people with different cultures]” Furthermore, people with higher education are healthier providing benefits for the health of the children CITATION Cle14 l 1033 (Cleveland, 2014). Education also shapes our ‘social identity’, associating and creating relationships with other people CITATION Eco14 l 1033 (Economic and Social Research Council, 2014). And education promotes cultural awareness to reflect not only on our culture but also to others as well.

Stages of Development

The stages of psychosocial development according to Erickson CITATION Eri97 n t l 1033 (1997) are: I. Infancy (under 2 years), II. Toddlerhood (2-4 years), III. Early Childhood (5–8 years), IV. Middle Childhood (9-12 years), V. Adolescence (13-19 years), VI. Early Adulthood (20-39 years), VII. Adulthood (40-59 years), and VIII. Late Adulthood (60 years and above).

Infancy (under 2 years) calls for hope as a virtue and having a significant relationship with the mother. There is also a conflict of trust and mistrust from the parents. Nurturing the basic needs of an infant creates trust and learns who they can depend on. While neglecting the child’s need creates mistrust in the people and the environment.

Toddlerhood (2-4 years) has the virtue of will. It creates a significant relationship with the parents and can do simple tasks such as clothing and going to the bathroom with little to no help with other people.

Early Childhood (5–8 years) has the virtue of purpose. It creates a significant relationship with the family. At this stage, children want to begin and finish their purpose. They create their own sense of desire and judgment. If these judgments are encouraged, children create an initiative. If not, they create guilt from what they have done.

Middle Childhood (9-12 years) has the virtue of competence. Children become more competitive. They become aware of themselves as an individual. Thus, they are able to master reading, writing, telling time.

Adolescence (13-19 years) has the virtue of fidelity. The child develops a sense of sexual identity. Teenagers battle identity and role confusion, thinking they must achieve identity in occupation, gender roles, politics, and, in some cultures, religion.

Early Adulthood (20-39 years) is the search for an intimate relationship or isolation from it. We begin to have a long-term commitment to others or isolate ourselves.

Adulthood (40-59 years) is the time where individuals give back contributions to society. Raising a family and a sense of productivity and results.

Late Adulthood (60 years and above) is where we form assessments of our past work. Thinking whether we have accomplished what we wanted or not.

These stages will be essential for the researcher in the analysis and the discussion of his data.

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN

The researcher will be studying the life history of Lucia V. Cose. It is a type of microhistory that will try to reveal the experiences and life of the subject.

This study utilizes qualitative research which according to Nieswiadomy CITATION Nie04 n t l 1033 (2004) is a naturalistic method of inquiry of research, which deals with the issue of human complexity by exploring it directly. This study utilizes the historical study method of inquiry. It is concerned with the “identification, location, evaluation, and synthesis of data from past events” CITATION Cri17 l 1033 (Cristobal & De la Cruz-Cristobal, 2017).

DATA COLLECTION

An in-depth interview will be used which according to Family Health International CITATION Fam n t l 1033 (n.d.) “are optimal for collecting data on individuals’ personal histories, perspectives, and experiences, particularly when sensitive topics are being explored.” The subject will be read and asked to fill up a form that will allow the researcher to start the interview. It will be conducted not less than 30 minutes, and interviews can be repeated if desired in accordance with the written permission.

Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY Appuhn, K. (2019, October 28). Microhistory. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com:

Atkinson, W. W. (1911). Your Mind and How to Use It: A Manual of Practical Psychology. Holyoke, Mass.: The Elizabeth Towne Corporation.

Cleveland, H. (2014, August 11). The Positive Effects of Education. Retrieved from Borgen Magazine:

Cristobal, A. P., & De la Cruz-Cristobal, M. C. (2017). Practical Research for Senior High School 1. C & E Publishing Inc.

Donald, M. (2002). A Mind So Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness pdf download. W. W. Norton & Company.

Dufour, F. (2019). Understanding What Makes a Person Unique: A Multi-pronged Approach.

Economic and Social Research Council. (2014, July). The wellbeing effect of education. Retrieved from Economic and Social Research Council:

Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2019, April 18). Memory. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Brittanica:

Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2019). Psychological development. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Brittanica:

Erikson, E. H., & Erikson, J. M. (1997). The Life Cycle Completed. W. W. Norton & Company.

Family Health International. (n.d.). Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide.

Ginzburg, C., Tedeschi, J., & Tedeschi, A. (1993). Microhistory: Two or Three Things That I Know About It. Critical Inquiry, 10-35. doi:20. 10.1086/448699

Lesley University. (2019). Retrieved from How Memories Are Made: Stages of Memory Formation:

Magnusson, S. (2003). The Singularization of History: Social History and Microhistory within the Postmodern State of Knowledge. Journal of Social History. Journal of Social History, 701-735.

Nieswiadomy, R. M. (2004). Foundations of nursing research. New York: Prentel Hall, Inc.

Ouellette, J. A. (1998). Habit and Intention in Everyday Life: The Multiple Processes by Which Past Behavior Predicts Future Behavior. American Psychological Association, 54-74.

Peisner?Feinberg, E. S., Burchinal, M. R., Clifford, R. M., Culkin, M. L., Howes, C., Kagan, S. L., & Yazejian, N. (2001). The relation of preschool child-care quality to children’s cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade. National Institute for Early Education Research, 1534-1553.

Perry, M. L. (n.d.). How Education Affects Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from livestrong.com:

Reference.com. (n.d.). How Does Education Affect Your Life? Retrieved from Reference.com:

Renders, H., De Haan, B., & Hamilton, N. (2014). Theoretical Discussions of Biography: Approaches from History, Microhistory, and Life Writing. Brill Academic Publishers.

Shachter, D. L. (1999). The Seven Sins of Memory. Harvard University.

About the author

This sample paper is done by Joseph, whose major is Psychology at Arizona State University. All the content of this work is his research and thoughts on Microhistory and can be used only as a source of ideas for a similar topic.

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