human potential and achievement
another term for “worldly” and refers to the focus on here and now not the afterlife
belief that human potential is important not Christian Humility
Where the Renaissance occurred mostly
Northern Italy in Urban areas
Greeks and Romans
What groups influenced the Renaissance humanists the most?
the use of a common or native language instead of a classical language
a political strategist who believed that the ends always justified the means
a book written as a political handbook on how rulers can gain and keep power
an invention that allowed for greater spread of literacy and literature
Praise and Folly
a Renaissance literature called for a return to simple values and virtues
writer of the Praise and Folly
War of Roses
a civil war that occurred over the issue of succession to the English throne
Human Roman Empire
where the Habsburgs were a powerful dynasty
a city that was considered a 3rd Rome
sovereignty, territory, and legitimacy
the Renaissance ideas concerning the state
Peace of Augsburg
ended German civil war and divided land according to religion, allowed German princes to practice the religion of choice in their own provinces
Edict of Nantes
guaranteed conditional religions freedom to Calvinists in France
Act of Supremacy
made Henry VIII the head of the church, resulted in people taking an oath to recognize Henry VIII’s divorce and accepting the king as the head of England’s church
a German monk and priest who started the Renaissance by writing his 95 theses
a list of Martin Luther’s beliefs
the church sold these for money
the controversy concerning 3 different popes fighting for power
the idea that God has chosen very few people to save called the “elect”
when a government is controlled by religious leaders, ex: Geneva
French Protestants who followed John Calvin and were prosecuted during Bartholemew’s Day Massacre
Bartholemew’s Day Massacre
when huguenots were prosecuted
this order was known as the “Society of Jesus” instrumental for creating institutions of learning
Council of Trent
a meeting of Catholic leaders resulting in the decision to not change the Catholic church’s ideas in the light of Protestantism
Why did the Renaissance first begin in Italy?
because city-states grew urban due to Crusade trade. The merchant class rose to dominate politics, art, and business.
Why was Florence at the heart of the Italian Renaissance?
The Medici family showed a special interest for arts and literature and they financed significant art creations and gatherings for the benefit of their city. The result was that the city of Florence became a cultural center for seminars, meetings, discussions about art and classical texts and the city of Florence was decorated with the major art creations of all centuries.
What role did the Medici family play in Renaissance Florence?
They had a political, economic, artistic, and social influence on the Renaissance. They were the cause of the merchant class rising to dominate politics, art, and business. They conducted trade throughout Europe, helped the merchant class grow in power, and patronized the arts.
What is humanism?
Humanism was a study first done in the renaissance. instead of learning only about god and religion, people, for the first time, started to just think about ourselves as people. Instead of being focused on the church, humanism focused more on the people. They celebrated life, human potential, and achievement.
What are the characteristics of humanism?
Characteristics of humanism include anatomy, classicism, nature, realism, reason and learning, religion, individualism, youth, and perspective.
How did the Italian Renaissance differ from the Renaissance of the 12c?
The 14th-17th century Renaissance was a cultural movement. The 12th century Renaissance was more of a political and economic movement.
Qualities of a Renaissance man?
A person who is skilled in multiple fields or multiple disciplines, and who has a broad base of knowledge. A good example is Leonardo De Vinci. He was an inventor, painter, philosopher, poet, and architect .
What were the distinctive characteristics of Renaissance art and architecture?
Renaissance architecture demonstrated a revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts.
How were the distinctive characteristics of Renaissance art and architecture different from medieval art and Gothic architecture?
Gothic art was characterized by religious art with a focus on architecture. The Renaissance period greatly expanded the scope and subject matter of art.
Who were the major artists of the Quattrocento and High Renaissance periods?
The major artists of the Quattrocento were Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Bellini, Botticelli are a few of the most famous. The High Renaissance was dominated by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael.
How were Renaissance artists trained?
They were trained as apprentices, under a master painter.
What Renaissance artists’ status in Renaissance society?
Their status was pretty high. They got paid well for their work, and were able to afford and move in a higher social class than most others of the time
Who was their audience?
Their audience was contemporary audiences of the period in the context of religious rituals. Today, they are viewed as great works of art, but at the time they were seen and used mostly as devotional objects. Many Renaissance works were painted as altarpieces for incorporation into rituals associated with Catholic Mass and donated by patrons who sponsored the Mass itself.
In what ways did Renaissance art and philosophy reinforce each other?
The Renaissance, which started in Italy, was about bringing back the values of the classical era, which included both Classical Roman and Greek culture. The philosophy of the Renaissance was one that placed importance to glory and perfection and beauty. The art of the Renaissance would reflect all of these things and and would also bring back the Greco-Roman style and knowledge of art, sculpture and architecture
How did Renaissance art reflect the political and social events of the period?
Politically, cities would be ruled by the richest families such as signoris or oligarchies. For example, the Medici ruled Florence in Italy. Socially, people would be divided into groups; those who pray, those who fight and those who work.
Those who pray were the priests which were considered the top of the social monarchy, those who fight were the knights who were considered middle classed and those who work were the peasants.
How do you account for the fact that people in northern Europe seemed to be more concerned about daily devotion and the state of their relationship with God than those in the south?
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
What were the characteristics of the art of the Northern Renaissance?
During this time, there was an emphasis on daily life, the lives of peasants. A greater emphasis was put on living a simple life.
How did it reflect the societies of Northern Europe?
It let people express themselves through their art. The art showed comedy and tragedy.
How was the Northern Renaissance different from that in Renaissance Italy?
The italian renaissance had a lot to do with the city-state and its own individual art and its relation to the church. The northern renaissance had more astronomy, science, and other studies.
How do Shakespeare’s works reflect Renaissance ideals?
He created characters that see themselves as individuals and compete with one another and fall in love, which is humanism.
How did the development of the printing press contribute to the Renaissance?
The press was able to translate any book into different languages so anyone could learn it. It increased literacy and made reading not just for scholars, but also for the common people.
How did the Renaissance affect the status of women?
Women were expected to run household expertly. Upper class women’s position declined. Middle class women had greater responsibility, nearly equal role. Wives of artisans, merchants were often partners in business. Working class women still in male-dominated society.
What was the role that Witchcraft played in the Renaissance period?
There was a reemergence of witchcraft in the Renaissance. Women were seen as weaker and more susceptible to the evils of the devil. So, women were executed and accused of being witches. If you committed a sin, then you were a witch. Many people started reading more about witched.
Describe the typical Family life during the Renaissance?
Men still married late. Women married much younger. There were large families, especially among the wealthy. Women were expected to run household expertly. Upper class women’s position declined. Middle class women had a greater responsibility, nearly equal role. Women were wives of artisans, merchants often partners in business. Working class women still in male-dominated society.Women’s work was spinning, weaving, care of livestock. They did same jobs as men.
rebirth, revival of art and learning, return to classical heritage of Greece and Rome, starts in northern Italy and spreads to Europe
Individualism- fate not such a factor- celebrate uniqueness
don’t seek wealth, put neighbor before themselves, education for life, all humans are equal, live by reason vs. passion, corrupt society is to blame instead of individual sinner
plea for simple virtues, inner nature of Christianity, forerunner of Protestant Reformation
State was political organism independent of the ruler, if the ruler dies the state will continue with a new leader. State has 3 essential attributes: legitimacy, sovereignty, and territory. Royalty was only the servant, protector of the state. New style of monarchy with only one goal.
an importance Renaissance writer who focused on how leaders should conduct themselves in this time period.
the period denoting the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. The High Renaissance period is traditionally taken to begin in the 1490s, with Leonardo’s fresco of the Last Supper in Milan and the death of Lorenzo de’ Medici in Florence.
Leonardo da Vinci
Influenced by nature, uncle, and master. Many powerful people supported him including the Medici family and Pope Leo X. Better known for The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa. He was passionate about all of his works.
Came from a family of artists. Beloved by the Pope and he painted many things for the Pope. Thought he was going to be the greatest painter of all time. Had a huge ego. He invented a new style of art. Put realistic emotions in his art and influenced other artists to do the same thing.
The Medici family gave him money. he was extremely popular during the Renaissance, especially with the church. Also a painter and engineer. He was proud of his work and didn’t let anyone help him with it. He expressed himself through art.
early humanist, father of humanism, vernacular poet, sonnet- 14 line poem
King John of England & The Magna Carta
the danger of despotism became severe in England under the rule of King John. On June 15, 1215 the English nobility forced him to recognize Magna Carta, which reaffirmed traditional rights and personal liberties that are still enshrined in English law. The 4 themes are rule of the law, fairness of the law, due process of the law, and economic rights.
Who was Martin Luther?
A pious German monk who lived in a monastery in Wittenberg and taught in the university there. Thought that the church claimed too much power over individual conscience. His Ninety-five Theses objected to indulgences, doctrine of papal supremacy. What aspects of Luther’s personality and experience contributed to his reforming zeal? He could easily stand up for what he believed in. Since he strongly disagreed with some of the church’s beliefs, he easily rejected them and started his own, separate section of the church.
What was Luther’s core theological premise?
He mainly disagreed with the selling of indulgences in the church and then later on added ideas of “salvation by faith alone” and how to live as our savior Christ did.
list his major ideas/beliefs
priests were not needed to mediate between humans and God
only God had the power to absolve people of their sins
Church shouldn’t have as much power of the individual conscience
doubted if sacraments were important
there shouldn’t be indulgences
How did the church initially react to the printing and dissemination of Luther’s 95 Theses in Wittenberg?
Pope Leo X excommunicated him from the church.
Why did they have such a strong appeal in Germany?
They did not want the people to start doubting the church and going along with Luther’s beliefs.
Although there had been heretics and reformers in the Catholic Church before Martin Luther, none had threatened the unity of the church. What were the social, economic, and political conditions in Germany that contributed to the enormous success of Lutheranism?
Luther acquired a following among those disgusted by rampant church corruption and unfulfilled by mechanistic religious services. Also the printing press helped spread the new message
What were the religious and political implications of Luther’s reforms?
According to Luther, German rulers should be the reformers of the Church because the Church was weak to do it by itself. He also attacked the Church about indulgences and other corruptions that were going on.
Describe the counter-reformation that took place during this time
Pope Paul III moved to counter some of the problems. He established a commission, examined doctrines and practices, and focused on the education of young and all Christians. Jesuit Order organized to win back believers. Society of Jesus started by Ignatious Loyola. Win back the hearts and minds of the people through education.
What were the causes of the Peasants’ Revolt of 1525-1526?
It began as a petition made to the Holy Roman Emperor on behalf of some German peasants in 1524.
What was Luther’s position in this upheaval?
he did not support it
Why did he take that position?
Luther was an educated man and had a low opinion of the peasants.
Where was Lutheranism most successful in the 16c?
Lutheranism was most successful in Prussia, present-day Germany, and Flanders, present-day Belgium.
What were the provisions of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555?
Lutheranism as recognized as an official religion in theHoly Roman Empire
How was it a religious compromise?
It was a compromise in that a permanent religious division of the Holy Roman empire was agreed as an alternative to ongoing religious wars.
What issues were left unresolved?
The main unresolved issue was that although Lutheranism was officially recognized,other Protestant groups such as Calvinists and Anabaptists were not.This left them open to persecution by both Catholic and Lutheran rulers, and was a major cause of the outbreak of the Thirty Years War in 1618.
What were the basic beliefs of the Anabaptists?
The believed in adult baptism, sharing of worldly goods. Put down violently. Re-emerged much later as Amish, Mennonites.
Why do you think that they were labeled the “radicals” of the Protestant Reformation movement?
The early Anabaptists taught that Christians, as much as possible, should keep themselves separate from the world. They admitted that in this present life some kind of government is necessary, but they taught that believers should have no part in it. Consequently, according to them, a Christian should not hold government office because this involved “the use of the sword,” should not be soldier, should not take an oath, and should not sue in the courts.
Who was John Calvin?
John Calvin spoke of justification by faith alone and of the supremecy of individual conscience.
List the major beliefs of John Calvin.
denied the authority of the church
argued that God grants his grace to whomever he chooses, regardless of individual behavior
rejected alliances with the government
How were they similar to Luther’s beliefs?
They were similar because he also denied the authority of the church and thought that anyone can go to heaven.
How were they different?
They were different because Luther believed faith was the only prerequisite to heaven and Calvin demanded works as well. Luther believed in definite hierarchy of authority within a state church. Calvin insisted on moral independence of the church from state. Lutheranism in German-speaking countries; Calvinism became an international religion.
What was life like in Calvin’s Geneva under his Ecclesiastical Ordinances?
The city government retained the power to summon persons before the court and the Consistory could judge only ecclesiastical matters having no civil jurisdiction
To where did Calvinism spread throughout the 16c?
Calvinism spread widely in Western and central Europe, and in New England, without the patronage of any political authority.
How did Henry VIII’s marital difficulties lead to a break with Rome and the creation of an independent Church of England?
Henry wanted a divorce and the pope would not let him. Henry was desperate for a male heir and removed the pope as head of the church in england and declared himself Head of the Church in England.
What did Henry VIII do to the property of the Catholic Church once he was excommunicated by the Pope?
He stripped the Church of all its property, land, Churches, monasteries, and schools.
When and how did the Church of England become more Protestant?
In the reign of Elizabeth the first , she was a protestant and wanted everybody to be protestant instead of roman catholic like the queen before her.
Why did Henry VIII’s break with Rome have so much support from the English people?
Princes in Germany were supportive because they wanted to separate from the church so that they could gain power. They gave him the idea of separating from the church. Luther was planning on just changing the beliefs of the church, not separating. Also the church had a high tax on land in Germany and the princes were sick of it. So they thought that if Luther separated from the church they would not have to pay that tax anymore.
How did the power of the British monarchy increase during the reign of the Tudors?
The Tudors extended their power beyond modern England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542, and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland.
What were the differences in interpretation of the two terms–Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation?
The Counter Reformation is generally seen as the Roman Catholic reaction to the Protestant reformation; primarily via the Council of Trent. The Catholic Reformation was the intellectual counter-force to Protestantism.
What were the primary goals of the Council of Trent?
Its main object was the definitive determination of the doctrines of the Church in answer to the heresies of the Protestants; a further object was the execution of a thorough reform of the inner life of the Church by removing the numerous abuses that had developed in it.
List the major positions taken by the Council of Trent on dogma and church reform.
examined doctrines, goals of the church and defined what Catholics believed
Church’s interpretation of the bible was final
other interpretations are hersey
bible and church tradition will guide your Christian life
indulgences =valid expression of faith
How did Ignatius Loyola organize the Jesuit order?
Society of Jesus as founded by St Ignatius Loyola and the constitutions as designed by Juan de Polanco had, as its main purpose, the goal to share the Gospel of the Church of Rome with the world.
What was its purpose?
It was governed by a General Congregation with satellite congregations. Missionaries belonging to the Jesuit Order were able to travel the world with the blessing of the Pope.
How were they different from previous Catholic religious orders?
The Jesuit Order was formed to evangelize as part of the Counter Reformation of the Catholic Church. The idea was to bring missionary work to other nations and to evangelize the Protestant Reformers back to the Catholic Church. The Jesuits were very successful, but they were not the only Religious Order that was created for this task. With the hard work of the Jesuits and other Religious Orders the Thirty Years War ended.
What were the political, economic, and social/cultural legacies of the “Two Reformations?
The two most important developments in the European economy during the Reformation were the rise in prices and the shift from trade centered on the Mediterranean to one centered on the Atlantic. Also significant was the creation of money markets and in general an increasing sophistication in business practices.
the place in between heaven and hell. People would pay to get their family or friends out of purgatory and into heaven.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin’s seminal work on Protestant systematic theology, part of Calvinism.
Martin Luther’s disputation on the power and efficacy of indulgences. It said that repentance is for everyone, not just a few people. Also said that selling indulgences was wrong. Thought that people should not talk about indulgences in a good way. Said that the gospel was what saves you. Said that if you make God mad, the pope cannot get you out of it. Said that bishops cannot pay for offices.
a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to “fight against heretics”
Inherits the throne at age 18, Well educated and Renaissance man Marries his sister-in-law Catherine of Aragon (daughter of King and Queen of Spain), Wants divorce and splits from the Church
Edict of Worms
addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation. It was conducted from 28 January to 25 May 1521, with Emperor Charles V presiding.
St. Ignatius of Loyola
started the Jesuit order to win back the hearts and minds of the people through education
Elizabeth I of England
half sister of mary, protestant, never married despite many suitors, compromised between Roman and Protestant doctrines, church of england, kept theology, got rid of pope
ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Started by Ignatious Loyola. Win back hearts and minds of the people through education.
Catherine of Aragon
daughter of King and Queen of Spain, marries Henry VII but gets a divorce.
Peasants’ War (1524-1525)- a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, 1524-1525. It failed because of the intense opposition of the aristocracy, who slaughtered up to 100,000 of the 300,000 poorly armed and poorly led peasants and farmers. The survivors were fined and achieved few if any of their goals.
a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music.
Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. Henry’s marriage to Anne made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation.
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years’ War (1648), which is sometimes considered a response to the Protestant Reformation.
Pope Paul III
moved to counter some of the problems. Established a commission, examined doctrines and practices, focused on education of young and all Christians
Council of Trent
examined doctrines, goals of the church and defined what Catholics believed, Church’s interpretation of the bible was final, other interpretations are hersey, faith + good works = salvation, bible and church tradition will guide your Christian life, indulgences = valid expression of faith
Peace of Augsburg- a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre- in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, during the French Wars of Religion.