Q1. (a) The kind of CPU used and its speed.
The CPUs used inside the class are made by Hewlett-Packard company. The CPUs model is HP Z240. The processor used is 6th Generation Intel (R) Core (TM) i7-6700 CPU and its speed is 3.40 GHz.
(b) The amount of RAM.
RAM stands for the Random Access Memory and it is the temporary storage of the computer. The amount of RAM of the computers in room 242 is 16GB. Generally, 16GB comes in two chips each if 8GB.
(C) The number and size of local disk drives, excluding network drives.
There are two local disk drives in the computers of room D242 and the sizes of those drives are 499GB and 1GB.
(d) The name of the device driver used for the video display.
NVIDIA NVS 315 video driver is used to connect NVIDIA video card with the motherboard of the computer located in room D242.
(e)The name of the device driver used for the network.
The computers in the room D242 uses the Intel® Ethernet connection (2) I219-LM driver of version 126.96.36.199 for the network usage.
Chapter 1 (First look at Computer Parts and Tools)
(Review Th Basics)
This is a D shaped female port which have 15 pins in 3 rows. VGA only transmits analog video signals. This port has other names too i.e. DB15, DE15 and HD15 video port. This port can be found in various devices like computer, laptop and projector.
This is 4 or 7 pin analog video interface most popularly used in connecting to T.V set of late 90s and early 2000s. The 4-pin connector can be easily plugged in 7-pin connector but not vice-versa.
iii. DVI (Digital Video Interface) port-
This port is able to support both analog and digital transmissions. DVI port is further divided into types i.e. DVI-I, DVI-D, DVI-A.
iv. HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) port-
This port can transmit high quality digital video and audio for modern AV equipment. HDMI is by far the best port for transmission of signals said by the experts but does not support analog transmission.
This port is also able to transmit digital video and audio but no analog transmission available. In laptops and computers, display port is slowly taking place of VGA and DVI ports. This port can deliver 4K video over a length up to 2 metre using a passive cable.
This port is mainly found in apple devices (IMAC) and can carry power along with video and audio digital signals. Due to the similar size of Thunderbolt port and display port, this port is compatible with display port devices.
Source- (www.techadvisor.co.uk/differentports )
Q10. What device might require extra power so that it uses the 12V 6-pin connector? In what two locations might you find the connector?
The max power in the chassis is drawn by PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect express) X16 video card. Extra 12 volt of external power is provided to the video card 04 ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) version 2.2. The PCIe V1 uses the 12V 6-pin connector to locate the card is connected on the motherboard through the edge connecter on the side of the card that fits in the slot of the board and the slot have a clip to stabilize the heavy video card. The other location where connector can be found is at the back of the card.
Source- (A+ Guide to IT Technician Support) Page – 13
Q12. What is the purpose of a 4-pin Molex connector?
Molex connector is a 4-pin connector which helps give 5V and 12V of power to the internal part of chassis i.e. older IDE (parallel ATA) drives and give power to the new SATA drives. This connector is responsible to supply power to optical drive, HDD drive and other storage devices. As the name suggested it contains 4-pins from which 2 are black, 1 is yellow and other one is red which is enclosed in white covering
Q18.Which tool can a computer hardware technician use when taking apart computer to best protect computer components against ESD?
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a swift discharge of electric current 6 W two electrically charged objects. A computer technician should be aware of the effect of Electrostatic discharge which can end up damaging important computer parts that can sometimes give a minor shock. The best tool to protect the computer parts from ESD is Electrostatic discharge bracelet or Ground bracelet or anti-static wrist wrap. The technician wears the bracelet on his wrist and connect one net to the metallic part of the chassis. By doing this ESD gets discharged or dissipated to the ground.
Source- (A+ Guide to IT Technician Support) Page – 35
Q20. What are the three purposes accomplished by motherboard BIOS?
The three main purposes accomplished by a motherboard BIOS are:
1. System BIOS- The fn of system BIOS to manage the hardware components of the computer like the keyboard, mouse, hard drive, monitor before the computer is powered ON.
2. Startup BIOS- It is the next step which is used for the purpose to start the computer. It is the main firmware of the computer. Startup BIOS helps to begin the firmware.
3. BIOS setup- The last step that the BIOS performs is the BIOS setup start. In this step BIOS helps to modify the configuration and setting of the computer.
Source (A+ Guide to IT technical support) Pg 37
Q1. You purchase a new desktop computer that does not have wireless capability, and then you decide that you want to use a wireless connection to the Internet. What are the least expensive ways (chose two)?
a. Trade in the computer for another computer that has wireless installed.
b. Purchase a second computer that has wireless capability.
c. Purchase a wireless expansion card and install it in your system.
d. Purchase a USB wireless adapter and connect it to the computer by way of a USB port.
The two most economical ways are as follow-
c. Purchasing a wireless expansion card and installing it in your system because in todays world everyone can search anything through the means of internet and Wireless expansion cards are available online at very low price. For example, (Obit Wireless PCIe Network card, N600 Expansion card desktop built-in dual frequency 300M wireless wifi network card 2.4/5 g support AP launch at CAD 2799 (no tax included) Mini wifi Wan 802.99n PCIe to PCIe wireless expansion card Adaptor converter at CAD 1658 (without tax) [Source -amazon.ca/wireless expansion card]. Thus anyone can easily install the card on the mother board and system will be upgraded to wireless.
d. Purchasing a USB wireless adapter and connect it to the computer by way of a USB port is the best and least budget friendly way to enhance your computer. One can get the USB dongle through any electronic stores and also available on the internet. For ex. (Maxesla Wi-Fi dongle high speed internet dual band 2.4 ghz/5 ghz 600 mbps wireless USB wifi adapter for PC/desktop/laptop and support window 10/7/vista/XP, Mac and the price is CAD 1599 (without tax). One can easily install the dongle through the USB port and get access to Internet.
Q3. A friend asks you for help in determining the best product to buy: a laptop, tablet, or smart phone. She is paralegal and spends a lot of time at the courthouse researching real estate titles. She wants a device to take notes with as she works. List three questions you would ask her to help her make her decision.
Three questions I will propose are as follow-
1. Firstly, I will ask her that how much money she wants to spend because laptops are way far expensive and difficult to carry around as tablets and smart phones are more affordable and handy at the same time. As she spends most of her time on researching, making notes on tablets will be easier than laptop.
2. Secondly, are there any features that she is particularly looking for? Like storage, RAM, processor, battery backup that she wants on her device. Thus as her needs I will suggest her device which will be beneficial for her work.
3. Last thing, does she want a full keyboard or a touch screen keyboard for typing. If she wants a full body keyboard for more comfortability, then I can abolish the phone or tablets.
Q4. When troubleshooting a computer hardware problem, which tool might help with each of the following problems?
a. You suspect the network port on a computer is not functioning.
b. The system fails at the beginning of the boot and nothing appears on the screen.
c. A hard drive is not working and you suspect the Molex power connector from the power supply might be the source of the problem.
a. If there is any problem with the parts of the computer or laptop, a hardware technician will use loopback plug to check whether the port is functioning and also to check the speed of the port. This plug works by checking whether outgoing data signals are transferred to the system, which ensures system data transmission capability
b. POST (Power On Selftest) diagnostic card is used when a system fails at the beginning of the boot and nothing appears on the screen. A hardware technician will install the POST card on the motherboard and then look for post codes which will conflict any hardware error through postcodes for hardwares like memory, hard drive, keyboard etc.
(Source- www. Lifewire.com/postcard)
c. If we suspect that molex power connector from the power supply is the source of error thus, to check the power supply complications power supply tester is used. A hardware technician will plug the power supply tester to the molex connector cable and then start the test and look for any error on the CCD screen of power supply tester.
Source (A+ Guide to IT Technical Support) pg.35-38
Chapter 2 (Working inside Desktop Computers and Laptops)
(Reviewing the basics)
Q5. When inserting the front panel wires to the motherboard front panel header, how do you know which pins to use for each wire if the pins on the header are not labeled?
One should have a motherboard manual handy with them. If the user guide is not. However, sometimes the manufacturer for the motherboard and the case is different so one should always pay close attention at the time of pulling apart the case or you can make a diagram or take a picture through your smart phone before pulling apart the case. Sometimes guess work can also be done. Although it is not a good attempt but it will not harm the wires.
Source-(A+ Guide to IT technical support) pg. 62
Q9. When a laptop internal device fails, what three options can use to deal with a problem?
Some options that can be used to deal with this problem are as follow-
1. Warranty Issue- Every laptop manufacturing company provides a free one-year warranty on their device but if you want to be extra secure you can also extend your device warranty fir another one year by paying for it. If there is any problem with the internal parts of laptop we can simply take the device to the retailer and can get it fixed at no cost.
2. Service manuals and other sources of information- Whenever anyone buys any electronic device they are also provided with their service manuals. A service manual covers the servicing, maintenance and repair of the product. Generally, every laptop is setup differently and has its own way of opening the case and the internal parts are also aligned differently. Therefore, we should take help from the service manual if we are repairing any internal parts or otherwise we can damage the whole laptop.
Source-( www.wikipedia.org/servicemanual )
3. Diagnostic tools provided by the manufacturer Some manufacturers also provide diagnostic software for self-troubleshooting for any internal or software issue of the laptop. If you dont have the diagnostic tool of the laptop, you can also visit their online site where they have also put this content there and you can just download it and troubleshoot any hardware problems.
Q1. You disassemble and reassemble a desktop computer. When you first turn it on, you see no lights and hear no sounds. Nothing appears on the monitor screen. What is the most likely cause of the problem?
a. A memory module is not seated properly in a memory slot.
b. You forgot to plug up the monitors external power cord.
c. A wire in the case is obstructing a fan.
d. Power cords to the motherboard are not connected.
After dismantling and fabricating if the computer is not working at all, I think that from the above given statements option d (power cords to the motherboard are not connected) would be the cause of the issue. If the memory module is nit positioned properly then only the memory module will not work but the other part of the desktop computer will show light. On the chip side if we didnt plug the monitors external power chords then the keyboard and mouse will light up. However, if the wire in the case is obstructing the fan then that will make too much noise but that has nothing to do with the computers light not turning up.
Q2. You are looking to buy a laptop on a budget and want to save money by not purchasing an extended service agreement with the manufacturer beyond the first year. What should you consider when choosing manufacturers to limit your search? Which manufacturers would you choose and why?
To purchase a laptop under low-cost and also not getting an extended service agreement, we will advise to get the Dell latitude e6430 with intel i7 processor with 500 Gigabyte (GB) internal storage and with 4GB RAM. This is an old laptop but I prefer this because it contains all the video and audio ports, have in-built wifi facility such that you dont have to spend your money on dongles. These great features are provided by Dell at just 300 CA dollars with extra accessories for laptop which is best and convenient for a student.
Q3. A four-year-old laptop will not boot and presents error messages on screen. You have verified with the laptop technical support that these error messages indicate the motherboard has failed and needs replacing. What is the first question you should ask yourself before performing the repair?
a. Will replacing the motherboard be costlier than purchasing a new laptop?
b. Can you find a replacement motherboard?
c. Can you find the service manual to show you how to replace the motherboard?
d. Is the laptop still under warranty?
If I get to know that there is some technical error with my device, then first I will take a look at the warranty card and check if my device still has its warranty or not. If it is in the warranty period, then I will send it to the manufacturer and he will replace the motherboard at no cost. But if its warranty is over then I will check online or ask any retailer about that specific motherboard for my laptop. Thus, I will have to repair it all by myself and have to spend my money and time on it and there are chances that if I dont do it properly I will end up damaging other parts too.
a. What is the ASCII code in binary and in decimal for the symbol @?
ASCII code for the symbol @ in binary is 01000000 and in decimal is 64 which is provided in appendix B and is at the number 65.
b. What are the ASCII codes in binary and in decimal for Z and z respectively?
For the alphabet Z, whose ASCII value is 90 in ASCII in character chart in Appendix B. The binary number representation is 01011010 while decimal representation is 90.
For the alphabet z, the binary representation is 01111010 and decimal representation is 122 respectively.
c. Write down the 1st 20 binary numbers starting from 1.
1 0001 11 1011
2 0010 12 1100
3 0011 13 1101
4 0100 14 1110
5 0101 15 1111
6 0110 16 10000
7 0111 17 10001
8 1000 18 10010
9 1001 19 10011
10 1010 20 10100
d. Write down the 1st 20 hexadecimal numbers starting from 1.
e. What is the largest decimal number that can be stored using 8 bits, or 1 byte?
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
Binary representation of largest decimal will be
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
27 x 1 = 128 x 1 = 128
26 x 1 = 64 x 1 = 64
25 x 1 = 32 x 1 = 32
24 x 1 = 16 x 1 = 16
23 x 1 = 8 x 1 = 8
22 x 1 = 4 x 1 = 4
21 x 1 = 2 x 1 = 2
20 x 1 = 1 x 1 = 1
1+2+4+8+16+32+64+128 = 225
Theoretical explanation-For the largest decimal number each byte (1byte=8bits) would be accompanied by 1 thus making 11111111. After adding every single bit, it will be 255.
f. Convert 73 decimal to binary. Then convert 73 to hex.
For conversion of 73 decimals into binary-
(R stands for Remainder)
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20