Parenting Styles

Chelsie Rivera

Professor Kelsey Anderson

PSYCH 2200 Lifespan Development

Brooklyn College


In a lifetime of a million attributing factors, one may unconsciously ruin or give an advantage to a life that has not flourished yet. Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development understands the effect of parents, external factors and society on identity development. As indicated by Erikson’s Theory, each individual must go through a progression of eight stages throughout their lifetime. He emphasized that personality evolves in a fixed order through eight phases of psychosocial development, from infancy to adulthood.

Throughout each stage, the individual encounters a psychosocial disaster which could have a positive or negative result for personality development.

Parents are key factors that contribute to that process as a child ages. Caregivers are apart of the microsystem which means they directly affect the child. The way a parent raises their child can determine their fate to an extent. It’s almost as though a child absorbs the parenting style and then releases it throughout the years as their guide/experience.

Meaning if a parent is distant or unaffectionate the child will absorb that information and further respond to situations dealing with people or feelings in a similar matter. Stages 1-3 focus heavily on the child’s development as an outcome of parenting styles.

The first stage in Erikson’s Theory is from birth-18 months old. Throughout the first two years of life, there is a huge emphasis on the mother and father’s ability to nurture a child especially when it comes to visual or skin to skin contact.

Get quality help now
Prof. Finch

Proficient in: Childhood

4.7 (346)

“ This writer never make an mistake for me always deliver long before due date. Am telling you man this writer is absolutely the best. ”

+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

If the parents are successful at assuring the child they are safe the child will develop optimism, trust, and assurance. However, if the child needs are not met then he or she may develop insecurity, worthlessness and an overall mistrust attitude towards the world. This stage is the trust vs mistrust stage. It’s insane how the first two years of life can impact the person you haven’t even discovered within yourself yet.

The second stage varies from 18 months to 3 years. During this stage, the child has a chance to fabricate confidence and autonomy as the individual gains consciousness on what’s right from wrong while learning new skills. A child that is well taken care of is certain about him or herself and is full of pride instead of being dragged down by shame. At this point, they have approached the “terrible twos” where they throw tantrums, have a bad temper and stubbornness is presented. Children are more likely to feel vulnerable at this stage, especially when a child is struggling or cannot learn certain skills and they begin to feel ashamed as their confidence diminishes. A parents role than becomes their “weight lifter” because they have to assure the child that making mistakes or not comprehending certain things in life is okay. If addressed by a parent with a negative approach the child is more likely to continue feeling shame and low- self-esteem.

During the third stage, children are approaching preschool which means they are about 3-6 years of age. If a parent has helped their child positively through the first two stages the child should then have a sense of trustworthiness in the world. This feeling then leads to a child feeling independent. Additionally, it is significant for parental figures to encourage exploration and to help kids make suitable decisions. Parents who are discouraging will most likely make a child feel embarrassed about themselves and to turn out to be excessively needy/dependent upon the assistance of others. For example, “[c]children’s early shyness has also been linked to parents’ lack of encouragement for their children’s independence” (Kaisa, 2014). In this case, these parental figures neglected to assure their child with the love and nurturing needed in order to have confidence within themselves. This then negatively affects them in future tense because the child has already started their approach to social environments in an untrustworthy and distant manner. Throughout this stage, children are expanding their sense of control over their world through social interaction and play. It is now important for children to learn and understand that they can initiate power over themselves and the world. By exploring on their own and figuring out new abilities they begin to develop ambition as well as a sense of direction. There was a study conducted to determine “ [s]ocial withdrawal in early childhood is a risk factor for later socioemotional difficulties”(Kaisa, 2014). This study inspected the collective impacts of kids’ social withdrawal as a result of a mother and fathers parenting styles. Children who demonstrated or hinted at signs of withdrawal were vulnerable against the negative impacts of low maternal affection as far as externalizing conduct. For instance, a “… child characteristic that has been shown to make children particularly susceptible to parental influence is temperamental fearfulness or negative reactivity to novelty” (Kaisa, 2014). Thus, parenting styles correlation to child development can have a negative or positive effect that can impact the child’s approach to others and the world.


Zarra, N. M., Kiuru, N., Aunola, K., Zarra, N. M., Ahonen, T., Poikkeus, A., … Nurmi, J. (2014). Social withdrawal in children moderates the association between parenting styles and the children’s own socioemotional development. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 55(11), 1260–1269.

Cite this page

Psy Paper. (2019, Dec 20). Retrieved from

Let’s chat?  We're online 24/7