Project1_PC3_Anastasia_Rouchota (1)

center4500480695My field of studies11540067000My field of studiescenterbottomnetwork 


center790008446770an analytical approach

anastasia ROUCHOTA

1154000an analytical approach

anastasia ROUCHOTA



Table of Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u Definition PAGEREF _Toc533014642 h 2Historical background – important people in genetics PAGEREF _Toc533014643 h 2Reasons why I chose to study genetics PAGEREF _Toc533014644 h 4Sciences related to genetics PAGEREF _Toc533014645 h 5Microbial genetics PAGEREF _Toc533014646 h 5Genetic engineering PAGEREF _Toc533014647 h 5Neurogenetics PAGEREF _Toc533014648 h 5Nanogenetics PAGEREF _Toc533014649 h 5Molecular genetics PAGEREF _Toc533014650 h 5Unemployment rates of Genetics PAGEREF _Toc533014651 h 6Future prospects of Genetics PAGEREF _Toc533014652 h 7“Baby order” PAGEREF _Toc533014653 h 7Replacement of faulty genes PAGEREF _Toc533014654 h 7Artificially created sperm and eggs PAGEREF _Toc533014655 h 7References PAGEREF _Toc533014656 h 8Index PAGEREF _Toc533014657 h 9

List of figures

TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: Chromosomes, DNA & Genes PAGEREF _Toc532982666 h 2Figure 2: Illustrated DNA Structure PAGEREF _Toc532982667 h 3Figure 3: IBM Blue Gene Supercomputer PAGEREF _Toc532982668 h 3Figure 4: Photo of a Research Lab PAGEREF _Toc532982669 h 4Figure 5: Word Cloud PAGEREF _Toc532982670 h 5Figure 6: Unemployment Rates Pie Chart PAGEREF _Toc532982671 h 6

List of Tables

TOC h z c “Table” Table 1: Unemployment Rates PAGEREF _Toc532981078 h 6


DefinitionThe field I have chosen to follow is that of genetics XE “genetics” i , the science of heredity XE “heredity” i .

In other words, genetics could be characterised as the study of genes XE “genes” i at all levels, that try to understand the human’s origin and future as well as the importance of human races.

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This field helps people understand both evolution XE “evolution” i and speciation. It has to do with genes, genetic variation, gene mutation and trait inheritance XE “inheritance” i . Genetics try to understand the reason why differences between individuals and species emerge. Modern genetics science has to do with chemistry of the genes as well as dealing with DNA codes. It is the science that studies the human and incorporates modern technics and technological advances to his benefit. Genetics is the blueprint of life.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Chromosomes, DNA & GenesHistorical background – important people in genetics XE “genetics” i

People started to show interest in heredity XE “heredity” i long before the dawn of modern civilization. This curiosity was born due to resemblance between the family members. It is worth mentioning the fact that the first colonies, where people’s main occupation was farming, seemed to have carefully chosen crop plants with favourable quality. Ancient tomb paintings depict horses breeding genealogy, including depictions of several physical traits’ inheritance XE “inheritance” i .

Concept of genetics XE “genetics” i were expressed as early as 460-375 BC, when Hippocrates XE “Hippocrates” i , the father of medicine, formed a hypothesis known as pangenesis XE “pangenesis” i . In this hypothesis he supported that every single organ in parents XE “parents” i ’ body sent invisible “seeds”. According to Hippocrates these invisible “seeds” were looking like extremely minimized building parts transmitted to the embryo during sexual intercourse.

After Hippocrates XE “Hippocrates” i , several ideas were expressed; among them was that scientists of the time believed that with the usage of an electronic microscope they would be able to see extremely small reproduction of human beings into the sperm XE “sperm” i heads.

Aristotle (384-322 BC), highlighted the fact that blood played an important role in heredity XE “heredity” i . According to him, blood, provided generative material responsible for building every single part of the human body. Moreover, he supported that generative power is passed to other generations through blood. In other words, what Aristotle supported was that male’s sperm XE “sperm” i was purified blood, whereas the woman’s menstruation was the tantamount of sperm. These male and female participation combined in the women’s uterus in order to form the embryo. To sum up, what Aristotle believed is that the embryo would only develop under the influence of blood’s hereditary substances.

Modern genetics XE “genetics” i became the subject of systematic research XE “research” i and development in the second half of the 19th century. In 1859, Charles Darwin publishes “On the Origin of Species” where he described his explanation of population evolution XE “evolution” i through a process of natural selection. Few years later, Augustinian monk Gregory Mendel XE “Gregory Mendel” i publishes his work on patterns of inheritance XE “inheritance” i in pea plants. Mendel’s study marks the birth of modern genetics.

The previously described Greek model of inheritance XE “inheritance” i , highly differed from that of the Mendelian model. According to Mendel, differences between individuals, exist due to differences that exist due to heredity XE “heredity” i . These hereditary factors are known as genes XE “genes” i . Replicas of genes are dispatched through semen and egg for the offspring to be developed.

In modern times, scientists like James Watson XE “James Watson” i and Francis Crick XE “Francis Crick” i who helped in the discovery of the structure of the DNA inaugurated a new era in genetics XE “genetics” i -317505080000. Most developments in genetics are driven by research XE “research” i work done in major U.S. Academic Institutes.

Another famous scientist, who also triggered the debate on ethics in genetics XE “genetics” i was Keith Campbell XE “Keith Campbell” i who had a key role in the creation of Dolly XE “Dolly” i , the first mammal which was cloned from an adult sheep.

-31750561975Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Illustrated DNA Structure0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Illustrated DNA StructureThe dilemma on how deep into life genetics XE “genetics” i can “intrude” and the reason for doing so, is still active without clear answers. To my opinion, giving the option to new parents XE “parents” i to select the sex of their child simply because of their preference is not ethical, on the other hand applying genetics to eliminate a disease which could be passed to children is something scientists have to work on.

23539452245443Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: IBM Blue Gene Supercomputer00Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: IBM Blue Gene Supercomputer23495001714500The Genetics science was significantly boosted in modern times by the application of modern technologies and computational power. Experiments and studies can be simulated and / or accelerated by using fast processing computer arrays. A typical example is the Blue Gene project launched by IBM back in 1999 to study biomolecular phenomena such as protein folding. It is not a coincidence that among the driving forces of the supercomputer development in recent years is the need to decode, simulate and understand fields of the genetics XE “genetics” i science. In 2012 the third supercomputer in the Blue Gene series was launched with operating speed 20 times that of the first series. This is a proof of the major developments in the computing field which closely follows or it is closely followed be the developments in genetics.

Reasons why I chose to study genetics XE “genetics” i

When I realised it was high time I chose my field of studies, I was a little bit confused wondering if I should follow something similar to my parents XE “parents” i ’ profession or whether I should stand out and follow my own dreams.

At first, I was in a dilemma whether I should choose to study medicine, or it would be preferable for me to study genetics XE “genetics” i . I considered both the positive and the negative sides of both fields and after careful thinking and consideration of future possibilities and options, I finally concluded that what I really wanted to do was to study genetics.

The point that genetics XE “genetics” i offers a wide range of opportunities regarding my further specialised studies, made me thought that dealing with genetics is the perfect option for me and for people who love learning new things. Moreover, an upside in choosing a science like genetics is that it gives the opportunity to work in a variety of fields such as nanotechnology and neuropsychology (please refer to: REF _Ref533003453 h * MERGEFORMAT Future prospects of Genetics).

Another aspect of my choice in pursuing my career in genetics XE “genetics” i is that it is a field that is not saturated, which means that people who chose to study so, are more likely to find a job easier. Equally important is that people working on this field are well paid, something that every single teen should consider before he or she chooses what he or she is going to do for a living.

03003550Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Photo of a Research Lab0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Photo of a Research Lab056515000 It is worth mentioning that I have always loved planning my future career. Since I was a kid, I have always found myself wondering a life in which I worked as a researcher in huge research XE “research” i centres, wearing the white researcher’s uniform and combining many different chemical substances in order to invent something that could change the world. I have always found extremely interesting being inside a laboratory XE “laboratory” i trying to invent something totally new that could help people overcome serious health problems that cannot be cured so far. Furthermore, genetics XE “genetics” i give scientists the opportunity to invade in the secret side of life. Being involved in research can be very demanding but the rewards of successfully completing research tasks which eventually find application to the real life are above all.

Last but not least, a sad experience I had with a family member of mine, strengthened my will to follow a career through which I could contribute to the to human development adding a small piece in the puzzle of increasing life expectancy and finding treatments to diseases.

As a pupil I have been attracted to biology, physics and related subjects as opposed to theoretical subjects such as literature.

When selecting my field of studies, my decision was based on my dreams to follow a course which fascinates me and can satisfy my will to develop and progress wrapped in a well-paid, with low unemployment rate, job.

Taking all these into consideration, combining with the fact that biology has always been my favourite subject, I reached the conclusion that genetics XE “genetics” i could be the perfect science for me.

Sciences related to genetics XE “genetics” i

Among the important factors that attracts me in genetics XE “genetics” i , is its wide range of application in various scientific areas, some of which are listed below:

Microbial genetics XE “genetics” i

The field that combine genetics XE “genetics” i with microbiology is called microbial genetics. XE “microbial genetics.” i Microbial genetics, pores over microorganisms. It provides tools for decoding the regulation as well as the functional organisation of processes that happen within the cells XE “cells” i . In order to achieve this, the regulatory genes XE “genes” i are being discovered and then determined which ones are coregulated.

Genetic engineeringGenetic engineering is a branch of genetics XE “genetics” i that deals with the procedure of changing the DNA in an organism’s genome. This can be achieved either by altering one nitrogenous base pair, or by introducing an extra replica of a gene.

NeurogeneticsNeurogenetics aims to the better comprehension of the genetic bases of the normal and the abnormal function of the nervous system.

NanogeneticsNanogenetics is the conflation of nanotechnology and genetics XE “genetics” i . It focuses in the molecular mechanisms of diseases that affect human genes XE “genes” i as well as in the nanoparticle-based treatment.

Molecular genetics XE “genetics” i

7785103515360Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Word CloudFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Word Cloud77851044797900Molecular genetics XE “genetics” i is the study of the procedure by means of which biological information is stowed, copied, repaired and deciphered, in order to create a protein or even other molecules within the cells XE “cells” i .

Unemployment rates of GeneticsUndoubtedly, genetics XE “genetics” i is a modern, innovative field of studies with a wide range of professional placements. As indicated both in the table and in the chart below (data taken from the US market), Genetics has among the lowest unemployment rates (1.40%). People who choose to study genetics are more likely therefore to have a job than people who choose to study something more common. This low percentage of the unemployed is due to the fact that in the future, both doctors and scientists aim to use our genetic information in order to diagnose, cure and avert many diseases and illnesses. Although data have been extracted from the U.S. market, it is clear that low rates of unemployment apply in the same way in other countries as well.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Unemployment RatesField of studies Unemployment Rate

Genetics 1.40%

Physics 4.49%

General Agriculture 1.20%

Art & music education 2.10%

Mass media 7.40%

Petroleum Engineering 7.90%

Communication technologies 5.10%

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Unemployment Rates Pie ChartIt is becoming more and more evident, that genes XE “genes” i are the ones that guide the body in order to make all proteins needed for the body to survive and develop. If scientists manage to identify each of these proteins, then they are more likely to understand how the body works and the results we get when body does not work properly and as a result more effective medicines and treatments could be introduced, leading to increased life expectancy.

Last but not least, genetics XE “genetics” i is a science that can easily be applied in various industries.

Future prospects of GeneticsGenetics is a field of studies that is now starting to flourish. In other words, many innovations in this branch of biology are about to happen within some years’ time. Below there are some of the most important potential revolutionary achievements.

“Baby order”Jamie Metzl, a NYC Member has been carrying a research XE “research” i on the opportunities and dangers of genetic modifications XE “genetic modifications” i such as predefining baby’s genal characteristics. Scientists XE “Scientists” i believe that they are on the verge of controlling embryos XE “embryos” i during vitro fertilization for single gene mutations XE “gene mutations” i that cause diseases and they aim to combat them, as well as predefine embryos characteristics. In other words, scientists try to enable parents XE “parents” i to choose both the outer (e.g. eye and hair colour) and the inner characteristic of their child (e.g. intelligence).

What really surprised me is the fact that in some years from now, genetists, just by watching the sequence of genes XE “genes” i will be able to predict certain human characteristics related to DNA such as high and probably IQ.

Replacement of faulty genes XE “genes” i

The existence of some diseases that abound due to the presence of faulty genes XE “genes” i , made scientists want to find ways in order to cure them. One possible way that could be effective as well, is the gene therapy XE “gene therapy” i . This cure method XE “cure method” i aims to spot all the faulty genes XE “faulty genes” i and replace them with other, healthy ones of the same function. This kind of treatment will cure patients who suffer from cancer, haemophilia, Parkinson disease and others like these.

Scientists XE “Scientists” i support that the difficult part of this cure method XE “cure method” i is not to manage to make a healthy gene in the laboratory XE “laboratory” i , but to transplant the healthy gene to the affected cells XE “cells” i without causing any damage.

Artificially created sperm XE “sperm” i and eggs XE “eggs” i

In the future there are a lot of chances that scientists will find a way to create artificial eggs XE “eggs” i and sperms, by an innovative technology known as “in vitro gametogenesis XE “in vitro gametogenesis” i ”. This aims the reproduction of people by using only their genetic material.

Scientists XE “Scientists” i have already started investigating how they can reencode adult human cells XE “cells” i in order to produce eggs XE “eggs” i and sperms which are able to join and form an embryo.

References BIBLIOGRAPHY (n.d.). Retrieved from About Bioscience: XE “genetics” i /

(n.d.). Retrieved from Science museum:

(n.d.). Retrieved from Harvard Medical School: XE “genetics” i

(n.d.). Retrieved from

(n.d.). Retrieved from XE “genetics” i /index.aspx

G.M. Weinstock. (2001). Retrieved from XE “genetics” i -and-molecular-biology/microbial-genetics

Metzl, J. (15, 09 04). Retrieved from

Winchester, A. (2018, 10 22). Retrieved from Britanica: XE “genetics” i #ref261526

Index INDEX h “A” c “2” z “2057”


cells, 7, 10

cure method, 10


Dolly, 3


eggs, 1, 10

embryos, 10

evolution, 2, 3


faulty genes, 10

Francis Crick, 3


gene mutations, 10

gene therapy, 10

genes, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 10

genetic modifications, 10

genetics, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11

Gregory Mendel, 3


heredity, 2, 3

Hippocrates, 2


in vitro gametogenesis, 10

inheritance, 2, 3


James Watson, 3


Keith Campbell, 3


laboratory, 5, 10


microbial genetics., 7


pangenesis, 2

parents, 2, 3, 5, 10


research, 3, 5, 10


Scientists, 10

sperm, 1, 2, 3, 10

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Project1_PC3_Anastasia_Rouchota (1). (2019, Dec 02). Retrieved from

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