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PROJECT REPORT 2019 Paper

Words: 2528, Paragraphs: 273, Pages: 9

Paper type: Report , Subject: Project Management

Categories: Project Management

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L.J. INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

TECHNOLOGY

“RASPBERERY PI BASED

QUALITY DETECTION”

TEAM Id – 72470

B.E. SEMESTER – 7

(INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL

ENGINEERING)

TEAM INFORMATION

? SMIT SHAH – 160320117043

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? MONIK KIRI – 160320117018

? YASH PATEL – 160320117033

? BHARGAV JOTVA – 160320117004

? AKSHAT TRIPATHI – 160320117050

Internal Guide

M r. KETAN BHAVSAR

L.J.I.E.T.

Head of Department

Mr. MOSAM PANDYA

L.J.I.E.T.

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CERTIFICATE

DATE:

Th is is t o cert ify that the dissertat ion entit led “RASPBERERY PI BASED

FRUIT QUALI TY DETECTION ” carried out by the group of students

ment ioned below under my guidance is approved for the Degree of Bachelor of

En gin eerin g in IC Engineering (Semest er – 7) of Gujarat Techn ological

Un ive rsity, Ah medabad du ring t he academic year 2019 -20

List of St u dents:

1. SMIT SHAH (160320117043)

2. MONIK KIRI (160320117018)

3. YASH PATEL (160320117033)

4. AKSHAT TRIPATHI (160320117050)

5. BHARGAV JOTVA (160320117004)

Internal Guide

M r. KETAN BHAVSAR

L.J.I.E.T.

Head of Department

Mr. MOSAM PANDYA

L.J.I.E.T.

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PMMS COMPLETION CERTIFICATE

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

“RASPBERERY PI BASED QUALITY DETECTION”

Submitted by

1. SMIT SHAH (160320117043)

2. MONIK KIRI (160320117018)

3. YASH PATEL (160320117033)

4. AKSHAT TRIPATHI (160320117050)

5. BHARGAV JOTVA (160320117004)

As a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEEERING

In t h e field of

INSTRUMENTATION & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Is h ere by approved.

Internal Examiner External Examiner

Dat e

Place:

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CONTENTS

Tit le page I

Cert ificate from college(As per su ggested format) II

Com pletion certificate gen erated from pmms gt u portal III

Cert ificate of approval IV

Plagrism cert ificate V

Con t ents VI

List of figu res VII

Ackn owledgement VIII

Chapter 1 Introduction PAGE

NO

1.1 Problem su mmary 7

1.2 A im an d object ivbe 7

1.3 Project specification 7

1.4 lit erat ure 8

1.5 Plan of work 9

1.6 com ponents 10

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Chapter 4 Summary PAGE

NO

4.1 Expected outcomes 20

4.2 Advantages 20

4.3 Future scope 20

4.4 Features of the project 21

4.5 A pplication of project 21

4.6 co nclusion 21

Chapter 2 Design Analysis, Design Methodology and

Implementation strategy

FIG NO

2.1 AEIOU CANVAS 14

2.2 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS 16

2.3 IDEATION CANVAS 17

2.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS 16

Chapter 3 Implementation 19

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

.

It is my sincere obligation to thank Mr. MOSAM PANDYA

Head of Instrumentation and Control Department, who has

extended positive support and precious suggestions to make

the project work a success.

I am very thankful to our project guide Mr KETAN

BHAVSAR , w ho has been inspiring guide and committed

caretaker for his unflinching devotion. The encouragement

support by her, especially in carrying out this project

motivated me to complete this project. I would like to express

deep sense of gratitude to our staff members of

Instrumentation and Control Department for their co –

operation, this has been congruency to build up this Project.

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.1 Problem summary

• In Agriculture f ield, Fruit based I ndustries are f acing trouble for analysis of rotten or low

quali ty f ruits f rom the bulk number f ruits. Fruits based Insdustries are mainly depends on

hand labo urs to detect quality of fruits .It is dif ficult f or industry to achieve a 100 percent

ef f iciency to detect f rui ts quality through hand labours

1.2 Aim and objective of the project

• Our project objective is to make a machine with enhanced f ruit quality detection

technique to achieve good quality detection ef ficiency using image processing and

reduces the hand labours work in industries.

1.3 problem specification

• Th e m ost common problem for an yone u sing a Raspberry Pi is t h e effect of

a corru pt ed SD card. Now, t h is sh ouldn’t be an issu e if you h ave u sed an SD

card t h at is design ed t o be writ t en t o regu larly, bu t older SD Cards can

becom e corru pted qu ite easily, leading t o t he operat ing system being u nable

t o boot

• Dc m ot ors requ ire m ore m aintenance an d care t h an t he AC m otors. It is

qu iet im portant t o m aintain t hese m otors frequ ently t o achieve m aximum

resu lt s. Som e of t h e m ost im portant m aintenance t ips in clude alt ering t he

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bru sh es; m achine t he commutators in place, ch eck win ding in sulation wit h

m et ers.

• Som e of t h e m ost common problems wit h t he dc m ot ors in clude it s

in efficiency t o st art im mediately. Th ere are m an y reasons for it s in capability

t o st art su ch as low volt age su pply, wron g connection, excessive load,

frozen bearin g, ground fau lt an d so fort h.

• Sparks in the brushes is another problem associated with the dc motors. Sparks may be

caused due to insufficient contact and inappropriate size of the brushes. The dirt on the

commutators can also cause rel evant problems in the dc motors

• When it comes to conveyor belts, too little or too much tension can cause a direct impact

to the perf ormance of your operations. If your head pulley wears down, there is no

longer an adequate amount of traction to grip the belt causing excessive stretching,

audible squeals, and conveyance slippage to occur.

1.4 Literature

Raspberry -pi kits are suitable for the addressed application since they potentially provide

a high compu Commonly, in the citrus industry in Mexico, f ruit grading is perf ormed by

humans through visual inspection. Manual inspection implies several problems in

maintaining grading consistency and sorting unif ormity. Post -harvest treatment has

become an essential stage in the marketing of f resh fruits in order to maintain the

f reshness of the product and reach the consumer in the best conditions. Commonly,

citrus quality grading is perf ormed by humans manually by visual inspection of external

visible criteria, suc h as size, shape and color. Manual inspection implies several

problems to maintain consistency in grading and unif ormity in sorting due to observer

subjectivity. Thus an embedded automatic vision system for citrus classification in the

industry is highly d esirable. Image preprocessing operations can be performed using a

dedicated hardware implementation, which might exhibit a f aster processing, by

perf orming several tasks in parallel with the additional advantages of low power

consumption and small size. Ne vertheless, the embedded implementation of any of these

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techniques using an Raspberry -Pi kit has no tationa l power to achieve high perf ormance

with reduced design cycles.

1.5 Plan of work

In India, 70% of the agricultural labor and common man de pends on the agriculture. It is

backbone of our country; as it is major source of national income. Inspection of f ruits and

vegetables is an important procedure for marketing, storing and processing, as their

appearance af fects the consumer acceptance. An Agricultural Produce Market Committee

(APMC) is a marketing board established by a state government in India. Manual

inspection implies several problems in maintaining grading consistency and sorting

unif ormity. Post -harvest treatment has become an essenti al stage in the marketing of f resh

f ruits in order to maintain the f reshness of the product and reach the consumer in the best

conditions. Commonly, citrus (a f ruit) quality grading is perf ormed by humans manually

by visual inspection of external visible c riteria, such as size, shape and color. Manual

inspection implies several problems to maintain consistency in grading and uniformity in

sorting due to observer subjectivity and also f or large quantity.

• To classif y citrus, based on color and size.

• To determine quality of citrus, based on classification of pixels (colour).

• To device methodology which is usef ul in costing the quality of citrus at

APMC and providing right price to the f armers as well as consumers.

• To implement the proposed method on Raspberry Pi hardware

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1.6 Component required

1. Conveyer Belt

• Conveyor belts are typically constructed of rubber or f lexible plastic materials with a f lexible

f abric or f iber backing. The surfaces of such conveyor belts are typically smooth and

nonporous. Thin, f lexible sheets of materials such as vinyl will tend to cling to the smooth

nonporous surface of the conveyor belt by electrostatic attraction. The static cling

ch aracteristics of various materials such as vinyl, polyester, polypropylene, and polyethylene

terephthalate are well known. Advertising materials may be imprinted on such sheets of static

cling material which are then adhered to the surf ace of the conveyor belt by electrostatic

attraction. The advertising material is then easily visible to customers waiting to be checked

out at the checkout counter. Since the static cling material is releasable, it may be removed and

replaced with new advertising materials a s of ten as desired.

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2.DC Motor

The DC motor is a machine that transf orms electric energy into mechanical energy in f orm of

rotation. Its movement is produced by the physical behavior of electromagnetism .

DC motors have inductors inside, which produce the magnetic f ield used to generate

movement.

A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current power. In any electric motor,

operation is dependent upon simple electromagnetism. A current carrying conductor

generates a magnetic f ield, when this is then placed in an external magnetic f ield, it will

encounter a force proportional to the current in the conductor and to the strength of the

external magnetic f ield.It is a device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.

It works on the fact that a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic f ield experiences a

f orce which causes it to rotate with respect to its original position.

Practical DC Motor consists of f ield windings to provide the magnetic f lux and armature

wh ich acts as the conductor .

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3.Raspberry pi

• The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit -card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or

TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of

all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python.

• The Raspberry Pi hardware has evolved through several versions that f eature variations

in memory capacity and peripheral -device support

4.Camera for image processing

• A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which

are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic f ilm.

A camera consists of a lens which f ocuses light f rom the scene, and a camera body which

holds the image capture mechanism.

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5.Flapper

• Flappers are basically used to separate the rotten f ruits and the f resh f ruits moving on a

conveyer belt.

• They are made of materials like metal, plastic, wood.

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CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN

2.1 AE IOU CANVAS

Activities :

Activities are goal directed sets of actions paths towards things people want to

accomplish.

• Automatic working

• Quality analysis

• Fast processing

• Citrus quality detection

Environment:

Environments include the entire area where activities mentioned above take

place.

• Fruit inventory

• Cold storage

• market

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Interactions:

Interactions are between a person and someone or something else; they are

the building blocks of activities.

There are many types of conversations happening here like,

• farmers

• engineers

• technicians

Objects:

Objects are building blocks of the environment, key elements sometimes put

to complex or unintended uses.

We have following type of objects in Warehouse .

• Con veyr belt

• Control system

• Camera

• motor

Users:

Users are the people whose behaviors, preferences, and needs are being

observed.

• Students

• Engineer

• Teacher

• Worker

• Government

• Local public

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2.2 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS

2.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS

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2.3 IDEATION CANVAS

Ideat ion can vas focu ses t o gen erate solutions for t h e problems m entioned in t he

Em pathy can vas.

People:

We have considered Transporters, Workers, Manager, farmers, engineers for

the possible solution whose work can be reduced or can be done easily.

Activities:

We have taken following activities for the solution .

• Automatic working

• Quality analysis

• Fast processing

• Citrus quality detection

Situations/Context/Location:

These are the places where solution takes place.

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• Ship to destination

• Slot allotment

• Cold storage

• warehouse

Props/Possible Solutions:

These are the solutions presented for the above context.

• Fast process

• Management with raspberry pi

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CHAPTER 3 : IMPLEMENTATION

• The program is dumped into the Raspberry Pi 0W Board.

• Initially the f ruits coming f rom the f ield will be arranged on a conveyer belt so

that camera could capture the image perf ectly.

• The proposed system starts the process by capturing the f ruit image. This

captured image will be compared with the ref erence image which is initially

given to the system and it compares the shape, color and size of the f ruit and

with the combination of these three f eatures the results are very prom ising.

• Captured image is segmented using edge detection algorithms in order to f ind

the def ected f ruit.

• Freshness percentage f or dif ferent f ruits are also identif ied and displayed

through LCD display .

• The result displayed here is the perf ormance of Digital Image Processing.

• So considering the height and width i.e the two main parameters a limited

perc entage of f reshness is updated.

• If the f ruit won ’t be enough f resh then the flapper will remove the rotten f ruit

f rom the conveyer and this way the f rui ts will be separated.

• So these are the various characteristics considered for the detection of the

quality of f ruits.

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CHAPTER 4 : SUMMARY

4.1 Expect ed Ou tcome of t h e project:

The proposed a rchitecture will be a ble to perf orm a rea l -tim e cla ssif ica tion of f ruits a cquired in high

resolution im a ges. The im plem enta t ion will be va lida ted on a Ra spberry Pi kit tha t provides com pact

design. I m plem enting this project on Ra spberry Pi yields f a ster result which will be usef ul f or the f a rm ers

to decide upon the right price depending on qua ntity a nd a lso f or APMC to select g ood qua lity.

4. 2 Advantages

? It increases accuracy and ef ficiency of f ruit quality detection technique.

? It reduces laboriou s work.

? We uses raspberry Pi to give compact design.

? We use raspberry Pi to give accurate and f aster result.

? Easy to control machine.

? It gives ef f icient output

4. 3 Future scope

• Calculation of percentage of rottenness

• Calculation of Durability of f ruits

• Can be extended to any fruit system

4. 4 Features of project

• Process of f ruit separation becomes f aster

• Low overall cost

• Less labour work needed

• Pollution due to waste can be controlled .

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4.5 Applications of the project:

• Usef ul in costing the quality of citrus at Agriculture Produce Market Committee

(APMC).

• Provide right price to the f armers

• Quality grading is usef ul in export of citrus were high quality citrus are of more

importance.

4.6 Conclusion:

• The proposed architecture will be able to perf orm a real -time classification of f ruits

acquired in high resolution images. The implementation is validated on a Raspberry

Pi kit that provides compact design. Implementing this project on Raspberry Pi yields

f ast er result which will be usef ul f or the f armers to decide upon the right price

depending on quantity and also f or APMC to select good quality

About the author

This academic paper is crafted by Mia. She is a nursing student studying at the University of New Hampshire. All the content of this sample reflects her knowledge and personal opinion on PROJECT REPORT 2019 and can be used only as a source of ideas for writing.

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