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Words: 1895, Paragraphs: 76, Pages: 7

Paper type: Project , Subject: Gdp

Categories: Gdp


Amey Darange’ Ojas Navle’ Prof.M.B.Sonawane”

‘B.E. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Maharashtra Institute of Technology (MIT)

“Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Maharashtra Institute of Technology (MIT)

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The LOBST is a linear scheduling method that allows the operations such that each activity continuously and efficiently performed in each consecutive unit. Line Of Balance Scheduling Technique is a significant technique that plays important role in repetitive construction project. Lack of awareness of proper method and techniques increases cost and project completion time. It becomes very important to adopt proper methodology while doing the housing project for low income group. This paper aims to evaluate the real application of line of balance in low income housing scheme. Case study of low-income housing project by MHADA at Talegaon- dabhade. Also supports the method developed in the paper. The findings point out significant controlling benefits of LOB is comparing with GANNT CHART Method in the project and addresses limitations showing the efficient use of LOB. VICO CONTROL software is used to schedule the project by line of balance technique. It is observed that this method increases line efficiency and minimizes smoothness index.

Keywords: Repetitive Scheduling Method (RSM), Line Of Balance (LOB)



In 2006-07, this sector contributed to 4.5 percent of the country’s gross domestic product and comprised approximately 7 percent of the total urban work force. The ‘Task Force on Affordable Housing’ estimates that investment in this sector for alleviating urban housing shortage could potentially raise the rate of growth of GDP by at least 1 – 1.5 percent 42.8 million persons or 15 per cent of total urban population of India lives in slums (2001 Census) Over time the number of slums has decreased with a corresponding increase in slum population leading to densification of the existing slums, although the percentage of slum population has declined marginally over the last decade. The percentage of poor in metro cities has come down from about 18 to 12 over the last decade. The decadal growth rate within the variety of households has been modest at 38 per cent only during eighties and nineties, as compared to 54 per cent during seventies. Inequity in housing: Higher the expenditure class lower is the household size and larger is the number of rooms available Congestion factor is acute at the lower expenditure classes 95 per cent of the shortage is in the EWS and LIG category. Urban housing shortage is prominent across the economically weaker sections (EWS) and low-income groups (LIG) which together constitute over 95 percent of the total housing shortage. The shortage amongst the middle-income groups (MIG) and higher than is calculable at 4.38 percent.

Growing concentration of individuals in urban areas has resulted in an rise in the variety of people living in slums and squatter settlements. Skyrocketing cost of land and property in urban areas have elicited the poor and therefore the weaker sections of the society to occupy the marginal lands typified by poor housing stock, congestion and obsolescence. It is apparent that substantial housing shortage looms in Urban India and a large gap exists between the demand and supply of housing, both in terms of quantity and quality.

1.2 Problem Statement

Compare Line Efficiency and Smoothness Index with actual project duration and planned duration using Line of Balance technique.

1.3 Objectives

To study and implement the LINE OF BALANCE method.

Study of VICO CONTROL software and its implementation for scheduling of project.

Determining non-utilized zones with help of VICO CONTROL software.

To compare planned activities and its actual implementation with planned line balancing.

To estimate amount of delay in the project.


[1] “Effect of learning on line-of-balance scheduling.” Studied about the line of balance technique for years to plan the long-term of high-rise residential buildings focusing only in the repetitive pavements. Thus, the pavements without repetitive areas and services (e.g. underground floors, leisure areas, guardhouse and mezzanine) had the long-term plan neglected, causing turbulence in project final delivery. These areas were planned only in medium and short term plans, which proved to be not enough to plan the workflows and the crews.

[2]“New Methodology to Integrate CPM and Line of Balance” Identified how line of balance can be taken not just as a straightforward graphical device to depict site programming in long, medium and short terms but also as an exact graphical tool to represent time, buffers transparency, integrated planning of long, medium and short term, minimization of production and transfer batches, PDCA, production levelling, inventory minimizing, pull production and parallel operations, among others.

[3] “A genetic algorithm-based method for scheduling repetitive construction projects” Studied an automated method based on GA for scheduling repetitive construction projects with several objectives such as the project duration, the project cost, or both of them. The proposed method extends the previous work done in the area of scheduling linear repetitive projects by allowing linear and nonlinear (discrete) cost of the project activities. While previous methods addressed the problem of balancing cost of delays with cost of discontinuities, the paper here develops a non-linear function of a combined performance index based on deviation from the minimum cost and minimum duration. In this aspect the duration of each activity becomes a decision variable that depends on the size of the crew employed in each activity, which stays constant through all project units. The proposed method will help the project manager to select the reasonable crew formation options (or alternative resource options) to optimize the project duration and project cost in repetitive construction projects.

[4] “Integer based formulation for the simple assembly line balancing problem with multiple identical tasks “Assembly lines, especially those with welding procedures, can present several tasks with the same properties. These tasks may be treated as tasks with replicas, simplifying the problem. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming model is given for the easy Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Multiple Identical Tasks (or Repeated Tasks). Integer variables were accustomed outline the amount of identical tasks performed in each station. Three instances impressed in real assembly lines and custom made benchmark issues with continual tasks are used to compare the formulations. Using a universal solver, the integer formulation.


Case study of MHADA project located at Talegaon dabhade is taken. In this they planned/scheduled the project by using grannt chart method. Scheduled project is analyzed by finding line efficiency and smoothness index. Project rescheduled by line of balance method by using VICO control software and flowlines are plotted.

3.1 Data Collection

The below figure shows the planned Gantt chart which was proposed by the authority but its failure of implementation leading to delay in the construction project work. The planning of total 26 activities was made by using Gantt.The following figure shows the duration ,start date and end date of the activities.

Fig3.1: Planned Gantt chart

Fig 3.2: Planned Durations

Fig3.3: Actual Gantt Chart

Fig 3.4: Actual Durations

The above figure shows the actual duration Gantt chart which is prepared by us in Microsoft Excel.The above figure indicates the actual duration of the activities while the following figure shows the duration ,start date and end date of the activities.It shows that the completion of project took 542 days which is 46 days further than the planned duration.


4.1 Analysis of data planned by Grannt Chart Method

Fig 4.1.1: Precedence Relation and Duration of Activities

The above figure shows that total time duration is 542 days for 37 units. For 1-unit total task time accounts for 89.82 days. The total task time for each unit is calculated by dividing the total duration of each activity by number of units (37) and adding the duration required for each activity for 1 unit. This total accounts for 89.82 which is sum of task times for per unit production. It is essential to calculate the minimum number of work stations required for the production.

Determination of cycle time:

Cycle time (ct) = total time available

desired output

= 542


= 14.64 days

Determination of minimum number of work stations:

Minimum number of = (total task time for unit production)

Work stations (cycle time)

= 89.82


= 7 stations (Number of stations to be rounded off)

The below figure shows the use of longest candidate rule which is based on the precedence diagram. The idle time is calculated from the formula given below:

Idle time (total unproductive time for all stations) = {nc–?t} [min]where,n = number of stations

Determination of line efficiency:

Line efficiency = sum of task times for each unit x100

number of workstations x cycle time

thus, line efficiency is 87.26%

Calculation of smoothness index :

Smoothness index =si={(smax – sj)2}0.5

= 5.72

Fig : 4.1.2 Longest Path Rule Before Scheduling

4.2 Rescheduling of project by Line Of Balance Method

Applying 5days buffer to clashing activities so that intersection of flow lines can be avoided. By keeping the productivity rate in days/unit for each activity

Fig 4.2.1: Lob Graph For Planning Via Giving Buffers To The Original

Fig 4.2.2 : Duration After Providing Buffer

We found out that duration for completion of project have been increased to 595 days though the activities are not clashing and well planned.

Now, our main objective is that, to decrease the duration for completion of overall project, we have to increase a productivity rate of each activity so that the duration required for completion of that activity will automatically decreases and hence the overall project duration can be reduced.

LOB graph for planning via increasing the rate of productivity of each activity by decreasing the duration required to complete one unit in each activity and assuming desired rate for activities

Fig 4.2.3: Lob Graph Of Final Planned Productivity Rate

Fig 4.2.4: Planned Duration Using Line Of Balance

Determination of cycle time:

Cycle time (ct) = total time available

desired output

= 11.94 days

Determination of minimum number of work stations:

Minimum number of = (total task time forunit production)

Work stations (cycle time)

= 7 stations (number of stations to be rounded off)

Fig 4.2.5: Longest Candidate Rule after Lob

Determination Of Line Efficiency:

Line Efficiency = Sum Of Task Times For Each Unit X100

Number Of Workstations X Cycle Time

= 90.1 %

Thus,Line Efficiency Is 90.1%

Calculation Of Smoothness Index :

Smoothness Index = Si= {(Smax – Sj)2}0.5

= 4.3

Thus, Smoothness Index Is 4.3


Fig 5.1: Result Of Productivity Rate Before And After Scheduling

The above table shows the actual quantities of various activities and actual duration required for completion of each of the activity. The result in above shows how the production rate is to be carried out for efficient project implementation.

Fig 5.2: Summary Of Line Efficiency And Smoothness Index


we can found out what productivity rate should be taken for completion of each activity in that planned duration. The above table shows the production rates that is needed to be adjusted for getting parallel flow lines so that there is no clashing of activities.

Since the activities are crashed to scale back the duration of the project, but the cost of the project will increase since the resources have to increase for the project to be completed in stipulated time. Therefore total value of the project can increase by some quantity. The study is limited to the projects where activities are repeated in linear method or non-linear method

By using VICO CONTROL software it is possible to schedule the project by line of balance technique. The actual duration was 542 days and after scheduling with line of balance technique it is possible to complete the project in 442 days which is less than the actual duration taken to complete the project.The project can be worked out before 100 days of actual duration required thus line of balance method is quite efficient.

About the author

This academic paper is crafted by Mia. She is a nursing student studying at the University of New Hampshire. All the content of this sample reflects her knowledge and personal opinion on PLANNING AND SCHEDULING OF LOWINCOME HOUSING SCHEME PROJECT BY LINE and can be used only as a source of ideas for writing.

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