(Electrical Engineering Department)
PROGRAM : BE (ELECTRICAL ENGINEEERING)
ORGANIZATION : PAKISTAN INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE
DURATION : JULY 22ND, 2019 AUGUST 20TH, 2019
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc18602913 h 31.1AVIONICS OVERHAUL PAGEREF _Toc18602914 h 41.2 BASE MAINTENENCE PAGEREF _Toc18602915 h 42.FUNCTIONS OF DEPARTMENTS PAGEREF _Toc18602916 h 52.1 AVIONICS OVERHAUL PAGEREF _Toc18602917 h 52.
1.1 INSTRUMENTATION SHOP PAGEREF _Toc18602918 h 52.1.2 ELECTRICAL SHOP PAGEREF _Toc18602919 h 62.1.3RADIO SHOP PAGEREF _Toc18602920 h 72.2BASE MAINTENANCE PAGEREF _Toc18602921 h 82.2.1ISFAHANI HANGER (WIDE BODY) PAGEREF _Toc18602922 h 82.2.2COMPONENT OVERHAUL PAGEREF _Toc18602923 h 82.3MY WORK PAGEREF _Toc18602924 h 103.Concepts of IoBM and Courses PAGEREF _Toc18602925 h 113.1DEPARTMENT: AVIONICS PAGEREF _Toc18602926 h 113.2DID YOU LEARN ANY NEW THEORY/ CONCEPTS? PAGEREF _Toc18602927 h 124.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc18602928 h 125.RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc18602929 h 136.PLAGIRISM PAGEREF _Toc18602930 h 13
INTRODUCTIONPakistan International Airline (PIA) is a national carrier of Pakistan.
It comprises of three hubs Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, Allama Iqbal International Airport in Lahore and New Islamabad International Airport in Islamabad. Out of these Jinnah International Airport in Karachi is the main hub of PIA while having Islamabad and Lahore airports as secondary hub. PIA provides its services in 44 destinations around the world in which 18 are domestic while 25 are international.
The airline was founded on 29th October 1946 as Orient Airways in Calcutta. After the partition a need of national airline rises and thus it was merged with Orient Airways and Pakistan International Airline Cooperation (PIAC) came into existence.
It commenced its first flight to London which holds the record of fastest flight (6 hours 43 minutes 51 seconds). Up till now PIA holds many more records.
Right now the airline has 32 planes in which 9 ATR, 11 A-320 and 12 Boeing-777.
ATR is the most recent kind of air ship drafted in PIA. It is designed in 2 class seating giving its client the most helpful approach to travel. A-320 is an eco-friendly flying machine and is the worlds most preferred limited body planes. It serves PIAs residential and local courses. Boeing-777 family involves the planes that have wide body, twin motor and provide long run. Currently PIA is serving goals in USA, Canada, UK and Europe through its Boeing777.
In PIA Engineering and maintenance division, there are different divisions present as they named as:
AVIONICS OVERHAUL It is one of the major divisions of PIA. Here the necessary parts of an aircraft came for testing and maintenance. It is further divided into three shops.
1.2 BASE MAINTENENCEAnother important division for Electrical Engineer is base maintenance. This is the major maintenance section of an aircraft. Here the complete aircraft came in for proper maintenance. Seats and all necessary parts get remove and aircraft goes in complete maintenance. Here the aircraft stay for several days. Base maintenance is further divided into two:
Designation: Aircraft Engineer and Internship In charge
FUNCTIONS OF DEPARTMENTSWe were assigned to departments by our Internship In charge. I was assigned to the Avionics department. The department function was to do the following:
2.1 AVIONICS OVERHAUL Avionics overhaul is basically an overhaul for the Electrical Engineers. In this overhaul we see the working of the parts of an aircraft. Avionics overhaul comprises different shops of PIA where all the necessary parts that require maintenance came and get proper tests before going on plane. We actually see the necessity of this department as the parts of any machinery can get defected and need proper repairing or the parts after sometimes need maintenance. In this regard this department provides the proper tools so that the plane can get proper parts at the right time in right condition and can get be ready to take off. Avionics overhaul is further divided into three shops. Each shop is responsible to look out for different types of parts.
2.1.1 INSTRUMENTATION SHOP In this shop we studied about:
AUTOPILOT SYSTEM: A system that guides an aircraft without assistance from pilot. We were briefed about the system they told us that in our early times autopilots were only able to maintain a constant heading but now they are more capable. They can control every part of the flight from take off to landing. These are integrated with the flight management system.
INSTRUMENATION LANDING SYSTEM: They told us about this system that it enables the air craft to land properly if the pilots are unable to see the runway. This system works by transmission of radio signals.
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYTEM: This navigates where you want to go and how to reach there.
INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM: We were briefed about the system by our supervisor that this system only supplies reference information (altitude, heading, and speed, acceleration).
2.1.2 ELECTRICAL SHOP In this shop we were briefed about:
BLACK BOX: Our supervisor told us that black box is a device that is installed at the tail of an aircraft. This is divided into two main boxes.
A cockpit voice recorder (CVR) is used to record the audio environment of the cockpit. It records all the conversation of the pilot and flight engineer if present.
A flight data recorder (FDR) is a box that carry all the flight data in the fly deck of an aircraft for the purpose of investigation
Initially the recording duration was of 30 minutes but now the duration has been extended because it has been found to be insufficient in many cases.
BATTERY SHOP: It is container which contains cells that converts chemical energy into electricity that is used as a source of power. They told us that in PIA we use alkaline batteries because if its efficiency and long run.
20 cells make one battery
Each cell is of 1.2v and provide 28v DC
In aircraft it is charged by constant voltage while in shop by constant current.
Sensors are attached to note temperature.
Battery is placed at tail of aircraft.
HF COMMUNICATION: A communication that is used for long distance and uses sky wave propagation. The power requirement is 100-200. Aircraft long range communication uses the HF band between 3-30 MHz
VHF COMMUNICATION: It is used for communication up to 50 miles. The power requirement is 18-20. It uses the band of 30-300 MHz
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER: Our supervisor told us that it is an independent battery power transmitter that activated with a jerk during a crash. It transmits a digital signal every 50 seconds with frequency of 406.025 MHz that goes up in a satellite where it processed and released to ground station (local user terminal). It gets decoded and search and rescue operation is notified by mission control centre. There are two types of emergency locator transmitter.
Impact type: It is installed into the plane and got activated with a jerk of 5G.
Survivor type: It is moveable and in case of any accident the crew of aircraft carries it and jump straight into water along with passenger. Once its wire touches the water the centre can locate where the accident had occurred and will send the rescue team.
WEATHER RADAR: It is used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion and estimate its type. It also forecast its future position and intensity. Modern weather radar is able to detect the motion of droplets.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER (ATC): It is a service that is provided by ground based controllers who directs the aircraft. It prevents aircraft from colliding, expedite the flow of traffic and provide other support to pilot whenever needed.
TRAFFIC COLLISION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TICAS): This is designed to reduce the mid air collision. It warns the pilot of the presence of other aircraft coming from forward, backward, up or down. It is based on secondary surveillance radar. When another aircraft coming from anywhere is at a distance of 40 nautical miles a hollow cyan color comes. If that aircraft comes at 6 nautical miles this hollow becomes filled and is a threat. At 1200 ft yellow color appears with a traffic alert warning. At 600ft an aircraft is at a distance of only 20-35 seconds and this time an accident may occur. Then a green arc comes and pilot have to fly there means 500ft up or down. This needs to happen in just 20 seconds. The one who first picks the decision and move to that arc is the master while the other one is the slave.
All these shops of avionics overhaul are clearly related to corporate objective as they provide the maintenance and fix the parts of an aircraft which are really important for an aircraft to fly.
BASE MAINTENANCE Another important division for Electrical Engineer is base maintenance. This is the major maintenance section of an aircraft. Here the complete aircraft came in for proper maintenance. Seats and all necessary parts get remove and aircraft goes in complete maintenance. Here the aircraft stay for several days. Base maintenance is further divided into two:
ISFAHANI HANGER (WIDE BODY) In this hanger we studied about:
PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL: Our supervisor told us that primary flight controls are of three types.
THE AILERONS CONTROL: These are mounted at back of an aircraft and move in opposite direction increasing lift on one wing while decreasing on another. This cause the plane to roll left or right.
THE RUDDER CONTORL: This is on the vertical tail fin. This provides the yaw movement to the plane. The pilot uses the rudder and ailerons together to turn the plane
THE ELEVATOR CONTROL: On the horizontal tail surface elevators are used for pitching. This tilts the nose of the plane up and down.
We also visited A-320. Our supervisor told us that this plane has 4 generators 2 for engines of 9 kVA each, one for APU, and one for emergency. It provides two things bleed air and generation. Its engine is label as CFM-56.
COMPONENT OVERHAUL In this we visited the cockpit of the plane and see various things such as:
EFU SYSTEM: It is a display present in every commercial plane and gives information about navigation, satellite control and weather.
CENTRE DISPLAY: This is planes display. For airbus it is called E-cam and for Boeing it is called I-CAF. Both these system works in same manner. Upper side for engine information and downward for status messages.
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT AND GUIDANCE COMPUTER: When pilot is ready with the flight he will set the coordinates for example GPS coordinates, route information, gross rate (how much weight, how many passengers).
AUDIO COMMUNICATION PANEL: Here we set the frequencies of ground and traffic control. Ground control frequency is 118.6.
NAVIGATION CONTROL PANEL: Here we set from which VHF signal we want to communicate.
SPEED BREAKS: When the plane is coming to the ground and the pilot want to reduce speed then he take help from these.
FLAPS CONTROL: Deploy flaps from here.
GEAR CONTROL LEVER: When we take off we pull it up to close the landing gear.
HEADING AND TRACK: Check how much degree plane is moving.
CONTROL PANELS: These are the panels of engine control, lightning, air-conditioning.
ENGINE FIRES: If engine caught fire these buttons were pressed that closes the engine and activate the extinguishers.
CIRCUIT BREAKERS: It breaks the circuit. This is done during maintenance.
CALL SYSTEM: From where the pilot can talk in cabin.
CONTROL STICK: This is used for maneuvering.
DISPLAY SCREEN: This display the outer area of cockpit. Outside the cockpit a camera is fitted and the pilots can see any movement outside the cockpit door through this display.
SQUAWK BUTTON: In case of hijacking pilot press this button and a signal is sent 7700 to control tower that means plane is hijacked.
THROTTLE: It controls the engine power. Pushing it increase the power while pulling decrease the power.
Base maintenance is also one of the main factor of corporate world because every machinery need proper servicing otherwise it may become scrap same is the case with an aircraft. Therefore base maintenance provides the servicing of an aircraft and helps it from not getting scrap.
I was not assigned with any sort of task over there instead they take us to their shops and maintenance hangar. In shops they made us see their all parts and give brief lectures about each and every part. In base maintenance they arrange a visit for us in A-320. They show us the aircraft completely from cockpit to cabin. In my whole internship period over there I learnt best things about an aircraft. In all these things I got the best knowledge of TICAS from radio shop. I learnt what actually can happen if there is a chance of mid air collision and how that can be reduced. I learnt that when any another aircraft is coming from any of the direction the other aircraft starts getting notification by secondary radar. When another aircraft coming from anywhere is at a distance of 40 nautical miles a hollow cyan color comes. If that aircraft comes at 6 nautical miles this hollow becomes filled and is a threat. At 1200 ft yellow color appears with a traffic alert warning. At 600ft an aircraft is at a distance of only 20-35 seconds and this time an accident may occur. Then a green arc comes and pilot have to fly there means 500ft up or down. This needs to happen in just 20 seconds. The one who first picks the decision and move to that arc is the master while the other one is the slave.
Further in base maintenance I got the complete knowledge of maneuvering of plane, cockpit and cabin. I see all the parts that finish the maneuvering of plane the elevators, rudder, ailerons, sensors, fuel tank, engine, passenger and service doors, lightning and many others. In cockpit they briefed us about every part in detail that helps me to get the best knowledge of it. I learnt that if any sort of maintenance is done during the flight that has to be written in the log book. There are three separate log books technical logbook that has all the technical maintenance things written done by flight engineer during the flight, cabin log book that is used if any sort of maintenance is done in cabin and engine log book is used if there is maintenance of those parts that cannot be done on flight instead are done in base.
Concepts of IoBM and Courses DEPARTMENT: AVIONICS
The concepts given by the university were widely used in my internship period.
Instrumentation and measurement is the course which deals with the instrument handling, knowing the defect in instrument, analyzing it, calculating the fault and then working in order to make it work again. So when I was over there I saw in each shop that how they are handling each instrument and all instruments have proper testers to calculate the defect. The knowledge that was given to me in instrumentation and measurement course was fully applicable over there. There the employees were doing the work in same way that was taught to us in our course. Also there was a complete separate shop named as instrumentation shop where I see the practical work of my course completely.
Signal and system is a course which deal with the signal processing technique and it was used during my internship period that how the machines communicate with each other. How the signal modulation, demodulation and trimming is done, how radar communicate with each other and about analogue and digital transmission.
Interpersonal Communication skill is a course that helps me throughout my internship period. It helps me enhance my interpersonal skills in a working environment and how to work in a team.
On the last day of my internship I was suppose to give an interview and this was taught to me in Business and Professional speech. The course taught me how to dress for an interview, how to talk and how to answer questions.
DID YOU LEARN ANY NEW THEORY/ CONCEPTS?I learnt a lot of new things. I was completely unaware of the aircrafts system and their communication. This internship provides a keen insight of how aviation industry work and how electronics is links with aviation. I learnt how different courses of electronics are as it is implemented in aircraft. I had a first time exposure of aircraft, its components and their working. I found answers too many questions related to Electronics that how the modulation is done, why it is important. How instruments are connected and are working, how much frequency is needed for various types of communication? I got the chance to closely observe the planes and know the engineering behind them.
ConclusionAll of my learning during this internship period is very helpful as now I am equipped with basic technical and engineering skills. I have seen the implementation of all those things that I have learnt theoretically too which led me believe that I had spent one of golden time of my life in PIA.
Many of the concepts applied were new to me like maintenance of an aircraft, its engine, cockpit, collision avoidance, communication of aircrafts in air and many other important parts.
RECOMMENDATIONSOverall my experience over there was really good. Just few things I think need more attention.
PIA should enhance the capacity of engineering department.
PIA should hire young faces, train them and motivate them.
They should increase the machinery of their shops.
Usage of modern technology should be their first priority.