REPORT ON HYDRAULIC FRACTURING IN NOVA SCOTIA
HYDRAULIC FRACURING- Hydraulic fracturing is a process of breaking down the hard materials and create a new fracture with in a rock formation by pumping large amount of water and other components at a high pressure. Cracking of hard object is already present in underground formation of rocks. Hydraulic fracture through wellborn generate a different paths of existing fractures methods and also generate a another cracking methods to develop gas and oil recovery.
Hydraulic fracturing methods have been addressed by a number of different countries as they develop approaches to this new technology, including Canada (NEB, 2009; CCA, 2014), the United Kingdom (The Royal Society, 2012), United Nations (Perduzzi & Harding, 2012), the United States (USEPA, 2013), and Australia (Cook et al, 2013).
in case of coal bed methane , the oil and gas industries utilize this technology to recover resources of oil and gas from the deep underground reservoirs.
( Adams and Rowe , 2013)
this process is used to increase the well productivity to get underground water for domestic, municipal and industry purposes. (Adams and Rowe, 2013)
geothermal energy in low permeable rocks , need to hydraulic fracturing of rock mass to allow the extraction of heat energy. (Adams and Rowe , 2013)
The merits of 10 year moratorium on hydraulic fracturing in nova scotia and impacts of this process is discussed below;
By analyze the opinions of public submissions to the panel , it was found that majority of the stakeholders are in favour of continuing ban on hydraulic fracturing in nova scotia.
The main concerns related to this project were water, community and infrastructure, economy, waste and clean-up, human health, climate change and other environmental issues like increased potential for earthquakes and habitat fragmentation. Now the benefits on ban is discussed below,
Economy: The major concern related with hydraulic fracturing was adverse affect on industries which are environmentally based , such as agriculture, forestry , fishing etc. A possibility also discussed by CCA (2014) who evidence that these conflicts pronounced in nova scotia given a rural population more than national average.
A shale gas well pad near rural homes in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, increasing risk to local groundwater, decreasing property valuation, and in likely conflict with other land-based industries such as farming, forestry and tourism. Photo courtesy of the Council of Canadian Academies.The numerous citizens also worried that hydraulic fracturing has adverse affect on environment and also it would affect property values especially in those areas where the industries are active. Hydraulic fracturing may indeed adversely affect property valuation and salability, given it makes land more difficult to plan, subdivide and use, and can create (actual or perceived) concerns over water quality that is a key driver of property value, especially in rural areas (Lipscomb et al., 2012). In a US study, many buyers would not buy homes near to hydraulic fracturing projects, and those that might would reduce their offers by 5-15% in strong real estate market, with losses increasing by another 10% in weaker markets (Thourpe et al., 2013).
JOBS ; Undoubtedly, industry may create many job opportunities and cash flow but on the negative side it also has adverse affect on environment, which can result out migration and problems in other type of developments and job job opportunities. As Nova Scotias provincial government claims ownership of hydrocarbons within the ground, royalty
payments would not flow directly to individuals as they do in the U.S. (Cherry, 2014; Jacquet, 2014), and this difference, combined with concern regarding overhyped job creation and economic underperformance of the industry (Mauro et al., 2013; Kinnaman, 2011), may contribute to a lack of perceived local opportunities and hence greater perception of risk amongst the public.
ENVIRONMENT ; Research from the eastern US Shoes that intensive hydraulic fracturing poses many threats to biodiversity including extirpation or extinction – especially for species with restricted geographic ranges that overlap with industrial activities largely due to degradation of water quality and fragmentation of forests (Gillen and Kiviat, 2012). In Nova Scotia, biodiversity considerations have been mapped across the province, indicating that approximately 60% of the region should be actively managed to conserve genes, species and ecosystems over time (Beazley et al., 2005). In areas with hydraulic fracturing, farmers are often concerned about pollution and its impacts on humans, animals and soil, and in some regions agriculturalists compete with industry for land and water resources (Russell, 2013). So moratorium should be continue according to review panel.
TOURISM ; As I discussed above , where the hydraulic fracturing industry is active and surrounding areas have more pollution and other health , environment and many more problems. So because these problems no one like to come in these areas and stay and areas like this are not able for tourism. Also tourism helps in economy of country, so no tourism means help in economy. So according to me ban on hydraulic fracturing is good and it will be continuing.
CLIMATE CHANGE ; Hdraulic fracturing also affect the climate because it exhaust many green house gases which are main culprit or play main role to alter the climate. Production and consumption of shale gas increase carbon dioxide and methane that contribute to climate change. After a well has been initially fractured, the flowback stage occurs with residual water and natural gas and carbon dioxide coming back to the surface, and how these emissions are handled is central to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions debate. Natural gas produces less CO2 than coal per unit of energy produced, given the efficiencies of single and combined cycle gas turbine power and, compared to coal fired power plants on an energy equivalency basis, can reduce emissions by 48% to 70% depending on technologies used (CCA, 2014). However, methane leakage across the entire supply chain (e.g. production, transport and storage) of natural gas known as fugitive emissions can reduce the greenhouse gas benefits of lower emissions at the consumption stage (Allen, 2014). This is of particular concern, because methane is a more potent greenhouse gas (GHG) than CO2, especially over shortly time frames: approximately 84 times more potent at the 20 year timescale compared to 28 times over a 100 year period (CCA, 2014).