I. The Balkans have had their borders changed so many times over the centuries that many of the present and emerging borders will continue to divide ethnic groups even as migration and warfare scatter many other ethnic groups throughout the region. Islamic terrorism in the Balkan was encouraged by the wars in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the US and allied forces attack on Yugoslavia. The Serbs to a great extent have accepted the post-war agreements but the Bosnian Muslim faction’s haven’t.
Mujahideens of all sorts, Jihad fighters, Bin Laden’s followers and similar mercenaries fought in Bosnia, on the side of the rebel army, trained in Bin Laden’s camps in Tropoja and Bajram Curi in northern Albania and made incursions in Kosovo to help the Kosovo Liberation Army. For Europe the challenge in Balkans has moved to dealing with unstructured groups of terrorist cells with members having dual nationalities. This makes travelling for them across the region easier and anti-terrorism operations difficult.
In particular, Islamic radicals are looking to create cells of so-called white al Qaeda, non-Arab members who can evade racial profiling used by police forces to watch for potential terrorists. Parts of the Balkans, stuck in lawless limbo after years of war in the 1990s, are ripe recruitment territory for Middle East radicals. Bosnia is still divided among Muslim, Croat and Serb population areas, even if nominally united under the 10-year-old Dayton peace agreement that ended ethnic warfare. II. Human rights abuses have continued unabated in the Persian Gulf region for over decades.
At times, the Western powers have turned a blind eye to these crimes against humanity. The Persian Gulf region comprises of Bahrain, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. None of these countries have had a long history of democratically elected government and hence human rights abuses against civilians opposing state rule has been common. Also, Iraq and Iran were caught in a bitter war for almost a decade. The war later culminated into an Iraq-Kuwait leading to International forces participating in what became known as the Gulf War.
The wars ensured that civilian human right abuses gave way to human right abuses of troops. The Iraq-Iran war is known for the extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq on Iranian soldiers. At the same time, Iraqi forces also supposed to have unleashed chemical weapons on its own civilians; the Kurdish rebels who were backed by Iranian forces. Another bone of contention in Persian Gulf has been the long standing Israel-Palestine dispute where the Persian Gulf countries univocally support Palestine and oppose Israel which is a strong ally of United States.
The United States meanwhile has also continued to support most of the Persian Gulf states. It worked closely with Iraq until the Gulf War to neutralize Iran. It has turned a blind eye to human right violations in Persian Gulf and rejected demands to put pressure on Israel to cede Palestine areas. The United States intervention in Persian Gulf beyond a certain point has been taken by many as an infringement of their rights. Hence the anger and hostilities towards the United States has turned into acts of terrorism.