Motivation Is the vehicle that Initiates, guides and sustains goal-oriented behaviors. It Is what causes us to take action, whether to grab some food to diminish hunger or enroll in college to earn a degree. The substance that lies beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional or cognitive in nature. Motivation is compounded into three areas, the first being things in which prompt the conduct, the second is the gold in the direction of which the conduct was directed, and lastly the motive for changes in the passion of the behavior.
Motivation is not something that can be seen or touched directly it is more of a hypothetical state: it is implicated by observable behavior. A study was done utilizing the use of two rats. The rats had a specially constructed cage, in which they pressed a lever to obtain food. They found that the rats did this without being promoted after a while because this behavior was learned. This study Illustrates a form of motivation within the rats. What motivated them was hunger, which presented the need for food.
In this case the desires to want food were the rats need. There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal.
Performable, one student might move effortlessly and smoothly thou much effort, while another student will study daily, engage in discussions and take advantage furthering their studies and their research opportunities outside of the classroom. Motivation is defined as the process that Initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation Is what causes us to act, whether It Is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological. Emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. C.
EXERCISE There are two types of self-esteem which have extraordinarily different significances, lobar self-esteem being more applicable to psychological well- being, and specific self-esteem being more applicable to behavior. Our self esteem echoes on how we feel, and what we have confidence in about ourselves. In the academic world self esteem can be “global” or “specific. ” Global self esteem refers to our general judgment of worth, whereas specific self esteem relates to precise areas of your life. For example, a person can have low self esteem in one area of life yet high self esteem in another.
Low self esteem could be categorized as feelings of low self worth and a lack of self-assurance. There may also be a lack of self-belief, possibly negative belief about our observation of self. I sometimes hear people with low self esteem say very negative things about themselves such as: “I’m needy… ” “l use people… ” “I’m stupid… ” “I’m selfish… ” If confronted, people will frequently defend their accounts by coming up with excuses and explanations for their comments and behavior.
They fight to uphold this instructive view of themselves and will possibly become angry at any proposal that they have any self worth. These same people when presented with a flattering mark are more likely to pay no attention to it or even dispute it . An the other hand, a person with low self esteem wouldn’t follow this pattern. On the surface they appear secure and may even give a sense of high self value. These people are sometimes described as egotistical although not always.
They are in essence either deliberately or involuntarily faking it. A person with low self esteem constantly lives in fear of being discovered. A great example of this is, my co-heart Miguel, states that he graduated High School at the age 16, yet is only returning to further his education owe at the age of 22. Self esteem for other people stands in a middle position generally the individual feels good about themselves however they may be defenseless to outside events. When things in life go wrong they will experience a plunge in self esteem.
The long term impact of that plunge depends on their resilience. The better our self esteem the more resilient we tend to be. It is suitable to be effected by crisis, trauma and disaster. Lack of reaction would suggest the person has a mental imbalance. We can however improve our resilience. ‘V. LEARNING ACTIVITIES C. EXERCISE Ill. Cognition’s balance explains how people tend to maintain consistency in patterns of liking and disliking are balanced, the interrelation or arrangements of parts in a complex entity are stable.
When they are imbalanced, these mutual or reciprocal relations are unstable and there is pressure to change in the direction that makes them balanced. Festering was a philologist who expanded on the cognitive dissonance theory. Dissonance and consonance are associated among cognitions which are, among opinions, beliefs, awareness of the environment, and awareness of one’s own actions and emotions. Two beliefs, or opinions, or objects of knowledge are dissonant with one another if they do not fit together, if they are conflicting, or if, considering only the specific two items, one does not trail the other.
For example, a person who is a cigarette smoker may believe that smoking is bad for their health has stance that is dissonant with the knowledge that he is continuing to smoke. He may have many other beliefs, views, or items of understanding that are consonant with maintaining to smoke but the dissonance nonetheless exists too. Dissonance creates discomfort and, likewise, there will stem pressures to diminish or eradicate the dissonance. Efforts to diminish dissonance represent the recognizable manifestations that dissonances exist. Such attempt may take some or all of three forms.
The person may try to adjust one or more of the views, beliefs, or behaviors associated with the dissonance; to obtain new information or beliefs that will raise the existing consonance and thus resulting in the total dissonance to be reduced; or decrease the importance of those cognitions that are in a dissonant relationship. Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an adjustment, change, or modification in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance. V. LEARNING ACTIVITY C. EXERCISE II. Extrinsic motivation transpires when we are motivated to execute a behavior or partake in an activity in order to receive a reward or evade a punishment. Examples of behaviors that are outcomes of extrinsic motivation include: Studying so you can attain a good grade Cleaning your room to evade being chastised by your parents Partaking in a Contending in a contest in hops to win a scholarship Within each of these examples, the behavior is motivated by a yearning to obtain a reward or avoid a negative result.
Intrinsic motivation involves partaking in a behavior because it is personally pleasing; in essence, performing an activity for your own sake as opposed to the longing for some external reward. Examples of behaviors that are the outcomes of intrinsic motivation include: Taking part in a sport cause you find the activity enjoyable Solving a word problem because you find the challenge fun and interesting Playing a game because you find it exhilarating In each of these scenarios, the individual’s behavior is motivated by an internal longing to take part in an activity for its own sake.
So, the crucial distinction between the two types of motivation is that extrinsic motivation occurs from outside of the individual while intrinsic motivation arises from within. V. POST-TEST Achievement refers to an individual’s aspiration for momentous accomplishment, asters of skills or high standards. Psychologist David McClellan studied motivation extensively and theorized that individuals have needs that influence their performance.
One of these needs is achievement which can be defined as an individual’s need to meet realistic goals, receive feedback and experience a sense of accomplishment. For example, workers who strive for achievement will work very well in corporations where they are given regular performance evaluations. They are eager and satisfied with their Jobs because goals are set, they are given constructive r instructive feedback on past behaviors and given some type of rewards if they performed well.
This personality trait is characterized by a lasting and steady concern with setting and meeting high standards of achievement. This need is inclined by a internal drive for action (intrinsic motivation), and the demands exerted by the hopes of others (extrinsic motivation). Measured with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), need for achievement encourages an individual to thrive in competition, and to surpass in activities vital to the individual. Need for achievement s correlated to the toil of tasks people choose to embark on.
Individuals with low need for achievement may elect very easy tasks, in order to reduce the risk of failure, or highly difficult tasks, such that a failure would not be embarrassing. Individuals with high need for achievement have a tendency to choose difficult tasks, feeling that they are stimulating, but within reach. Persons high in need for achievement are considered by a propensity to pursue challenges and have a high degree of independence. Their most filling reward is the acknowledgement of their achievements.