1st Essay Sample on Vietnam
Vietnam is the most controversial events to ever divide the US aside from the Civil War.Although throughout history the US is known to be very isolationalist, this time they took charge.As time passed and the threat of Communism spread to Vietnam, the US gradually became more and more involved between 1954 and 1975. In 1954, the US was in the process of shrugging off the Great Depression, WWII, and the Second Red Scare and suddenly another conflict presented itself.By May, Dien Bien Phu fell into the hands of Vietnam from the former local power of France.As a temporary arrangement, Vietnam was divided into a north (controlled by communist Ho Chi Minh) and a south (still controlled by France and anti-communists). In 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected into the office of the presidency.He was a steadfast believer in the containment policy and wanted to stop communism at the regional level, but without missiles.The Domino Effect must be stopped before all of South-East Asia falls.Soon into his presidency, he sent 16,000 military advisors to South-East Asia to train the South Vietnamese military to fight the North.His initial plan was to merely train the south to fight and keep US military troops out. By 1963, the situation worsens with the assassination of the South Viet.
President.Not long after, JFK himself is assassinated and Lyndon Johnson comes into office.Johnson had many issues (such as the Great Society) that he wanted to tackle at home and did not put full effort behind international or internal affairs. The turning point of the war occurred in August 1964 with the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked U.S. naval vessels in neutral waters.The Americans promptly launched retaliatory air strikes.
2nd Essay Sample on Vietnam
During the Cold War, the United States of America was determined to act as the superior nation in the world. They believed that every country was inferior to them in regards to military power, economic stability and moral beliefs. After the assassination of former President John F. Kennedy, the Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson took over in Washington.
He was pressured to follow through on the late President’s programs and policies on Vietnam which involved the demonstration of America’s strength and responsibility. It is believed that American intervention in Vietnam was caused by structural weakness in the National Security Council and not enough attention to long- range policy planning. In addition, Johnson’s inexperience and naivety regarding foreign policy and the positive belief of creating a perfect world. A main cause of American involvement was the weakness of the mechanism for determining the framework of foreign policy. The establishment of the National Security Council came about in 1947.
It was to bridge the gulf between considerations of foreign policy and considerations of the military force which was to conduct external relations.1 Apparently, the U.S.A. had had no central authority that linked the organizations of the Military Services and the State Department. As a result, the government decided that in order to be successful in international affairs the two groups had to basically work together. The NSC ensured detailed coordination of all major factors of U.S. foreign policy decisions.2 It was odd that both President Truman and Eisenhower had success with this organization and when Kennedy came to office he decided to change it.
He preferred to rely on small groups to be responsible for policy formation and execution therefore, he was more “comfortable…with a broad knowledge of foreign affairs and a strong distaste for being hemmed in by too much organization”.