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US History I, A. Brinkley’s The Unfinished Nation, chapter 11 through 15, 3rd examination scheduled for Tuesday Dec.8 for TR classes and Friday Dec. 11for MWF classes.

1. Prior to 1860, the center of economic power in the South
A. was in Charleston, South Carolina.
B. remained as it had been primarily within the upper South.
C. remained as it had been primarily within the lower South.
D. shifted from the lower South to the upper South.
E. shifted from the upper South to the lower South.
E

2. Rice and sugar production in the antebellum South
A. had short growing seasons.
B. were concentrated in a relatively small geographic area.
C. had difficulty sustaining profits for growers.
D. was in considerable decline by the 1850s.
E. threatened to overwhelm cotton production in the lower South.
b

3. Short-staple cotton
A. helped to keep the South a predominantly agricultural region.
B. was less coarse than long-staple cotton.
C. was easier to process than long-staple cotton.
D. was more susceptible to disease than long-staple cotton.
E. was only grown in the coastal regions of the upper South.
a

4. During the the first half of the nineteenth century, the “cotton kingdom”
A.was already losing ground to other staples, such as rice and tobacco.
B.saw wealthy planters outnumber small planters.
C.did not rely on large numbers of slaves imported directly from Africa.
D. was the dominant source of the income of the lower South.
E.still had not adopted the cotton gin, despite the time and resources it saved.
d

Between 1840 and 1860, the American South’s slave population
A. could not meet labor needs.
B. changed little.
C. moved from the upper South to the cotton states.
D. declined in overall numbers.
E. moved from the cotton states to the upper South.
C

By 1860, the textile manufacturing sector of the American South
A. was nonexistent.
B. had increased threefold in value over the previous twenty years.
C. had declined in value throughout the 1840s and 1850s.
D. was equal to one-third of the value of cotton exported that year.
E. had come to dominate the South’s economy.
B

The South failed to develop a large industrial economy due to all of the following factors EXCEPT
A. the humid climate.
B. little access to liquid capital.
C. the profitability of cotton.
D. the cultural values.
E. a shortage of labor.
E

8. In the late 1850s, many of the great landholders of the lower South were
A. still first-generation settlers.
B. part of a wealthy leisure class.
C. from longstanding aristocratic families.
D. rooted to one plantation for many generations.
E. former Old World aristocrats that emigrated from Europe.
A

9. Which of the following statements about the southern aristocratic ideal is FALSE?

A.Wealthy southern whites adopted an elaborate code of “chivalry.”
B.Dueling became a prominent facet of southern planter life.
C.Wealthy southern whites prided themselves on their egalitarianism.
D.Wealthy southern whites pretended to avoid such “coarse” occupations as trade and commerce.
E.Wealthy southern whites often gravitated toward the military.

C

10. Prior to 1860, affluent southern white women
A. had created the most significant challenge to slavery in the South.
B. occupied a significantly different role from their northern counterparts.
C. commonly held income-producing jobs.
D. typically played an important role in public activities.
E. centered their lives in the home.
E

11. Prior to 1860, southern women differed from northern women in that southern women
A. tended to have more formal education.
B. were expected to be more subordinate to men.
C. had fewer children.
D. generally had a lesser engagement in the economic life of the family.
E. were more likely to take a role in public activities.
B

12. Prior to 1860, southern white women
A. had about the same access to education as northern white women.
B. were not expected to engage in manual labor, whatever their social standing.
C. generally lived lives that were isolated from the wider world.
D. had a birth rate that was lower than the national average.
E. were more likely to see their children grow to adulthood than northern white women
C

3. A typical white southerner
A. grew cotton and other crops for market.
B. was a subsistence farmer.
C. was passionately antislavery.
D. depended on subsistence farming despite attaining a high level of education.
E. worked on a large plantation alongside slaves.
B

14. Southern white lower-class resentment of the aristocratic system was most likely to be found in
A. the cities.
B. river and ocean port towns.
C. the upper South.
D. the mountain regions.
E. the Deep South.
D

15. Southern whites who did not own slaves
A. rarely married into the families living on large slave plantations.
B. openly opposed the planter elite.
C. were forced to move west to maintain a livelihood.
D. generally opposed the institution of slavery.
E. were largely dependent on the plantation economy.
E

16. Perhaps the single strongest unifying factor of pre-Civil War southern whites was their
A. kinship relationships.
B. contempt of northern capitalism.
C. perception of white racial superiority.
D. fear of federal authority.
E. intense national pride.
C

17. Which of the following statements about the poorest class of white southerners is FALSE? A. They often felt affinity with slaves as members of another oppressed class.
B. They were known variously as “crackers” or “sand hillers.”
C. They supported themselves by foraging or hunting.
D. They suffered from pellagra, hookworm, and malaria.
E. They were forced to resort at times to eating clay.
A

18. In 1850, outside of the United States, slavery in the Western Hemisphere existed in
A.Colombia.
B.Brazil.
C.the Virgin Islands.
D.Haiti.
E.no other country.
B

19. Within The American South, the institution of slavery
A. isolated blacks and whites from each other.
B. created a unique bond between masters and slaves.
C. encouraged blacks to develop a society and culture of their own.
D. created a unique bond between masters and slaves, while isolating blacks and whites from each other and
encouraging blacks to develop a society and culture of their own.
E. None of these answers is correct.
D

20. The slave codes of the American South
A. defined anyone with a trace of African ancestry as black.
B. legalized slave marriages.
C. were rigidly enforced.
D. considered it a crime for an owner to kill a slave.
E. banned blacks from attending church.
A

21. In general, slaves had more privacy and a social realm of their own
A. on large plantations.
B. on small plantations.
C. as household workers as opposed to field workers.
D. in rural areas as opposed to urban areas.
E. in the western territories.
A

22. Most enslaved blacks lived
A. on small farms.
B. on medium- to large-size plantations.
C. in urban areas.
D. in rigidly controlled circumstances.
E. in Virginia and the Carolinas.
B

23. Which of the following statements regarding urban slavery is FALSE?
A. Some urban slaves were skilled trade workers.
B. Urban slaves were prohibited from having contact with free blacks.
C. Urban slaves were less supervised than rural slaves.
D. Urban slaves had little working competition from European immigrants. E. The line between slavery and freedom in cities was less distinct.
B

24. Prior to 1860, free blacks in the South
A. were concentrated in the Deep South.
B. were required by law to leave the South.
C. increased in number in the 1850s as laws encouraged owners to free “surplus” slaves.
D. occasionally attained wealth and prominence and owned slaves themselves.
E. avoided urban centers such as New Orleans or Natchez where they might attract attention.
D

5. In 1839, 53 Cuban slaves took control of the ship Amistad; after being captured by a United States Revenue Service ship, most of the slaves were
A. returned to Cuba under order of the United States Supreme Court.
B. enslaved in the United States.
C. returned to Africa with funding from American abolitionists.
D. allowed to enter the United States as free men, pursuant to a ruling of the United States Supreme Court.
E. killed upon capture.
C

26. One actual slave revolt in the nineteenth-century South was led by
A. Nat Turner.
B. Denmark Vesey.
C. Gabriel Prosser.
D. Frederick Douglass.
E. Harriet Tubman.
A

27. The name given to the effort by whites and blacks to help runaway slaves escape was
A. the Frederick Douglass road.
B. the underground railroad.
C. the Fugitive Slave Act.
D. Cumberland passage.
E. Second Middle Passage.
B

A runaway slave making a successful escape from the American South was
A. highly likely.
B. likely.
C. unlikely.
D. highly unlikely.
E. impossible.
D

29. Regarding religion, American slaves
A. were expected to worship in black churches separate from whites.
B. had mostly converted to Islam by the early nineteenth century.
C. were usually not allowed to attend a church at all.
D. shunned Christianity in favor of the polytheistic traditions of Africa.
E. often incorporated African features into their Christianity.
E

30. Ways in which slaves expressed elements of their African heritage included
A. singing songs and playing musical instruments such as the banjo.
B. keeping family diaries and other written personal records.
C. wearing clothing that incorporated traditional African designs or colors.
D. speaking in their native African languages when out of the presence of whites.
E. celebrating traditional African feasts and rites of passage, in defiance of white law.
A

31. In the American slave family,
A. most couples did not formally marry.
B. the women typically began bearing children later than white women.
C. premarital pregnancy was uncommon.
D. extended kinship networks were strong and important.
E. premarital cohabitation was frowned upon.
D

2. In the mid-nineteenth century, romanticism
A. was consistent with traditional Calvinist assumptions.
B. considered instincts to be sinful and necessary to repress.
C. had its origins in the American Midwest.
D. had its origins in the American Midwest and was consistent with traditional Calvinist assumptions.
E. None of these answers is correct.
E

33. In the mid-nineteenth century, the general European attitude toward American art and literature
A. was one of growing respect and admiration.
B. was that American artists had little to offer Europe.
C. included praise for American artists for defining a new set of national virtues.
D. included criticism of American artists for ignoring romanticism.
E. was that it had been hopelessly corrupted by the ideology of unfettered capitalism.
B

34. The Hudson River school of painters emphasized in their work the importance of
A. democratic ideals.
B. the yeoman farmer.
C. natural beauty.
D. realism.
E. the founders.
C

35. All of the following painters were associated with the Hudson River school EXCEPT
A. James Whistler.
B. Thomas Cole.
C. Frederic Church.
D. Albert Bierstadt.
E. Asher Durand.
A

36. All of the following people helped create a distinct American literature EXCEPT
A. Walt Whitman.
B. Herman Melville.
C. James Fenimore Cooper.
D. Edgar Allan Poe.
E. Sydney Smith.
E

37. Through novels such as The Last of the Mohicans, James Fenimore Cooper examined the significance of
A. America’s westward expansion.
B. the American free-enterprise system.
C. religious spiritualism in America.
D. racism in America.
E. slavery in the democratic mind.
A

38. Herman Melville’s most important literary work was
A. Leaves of Grass.
B. Moby Dick.
C. The Deerslayer.
D. “The Raven.”
E. Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
B

39. Edgar Allan Poe’s most famous poem, which established him as a major literary figure, was
A. “The Raven.”
B. “Moby Dick.”
C. “Tamerlane.”
D. “Walden.”
E. “Leaves of Grass.”
A

40. The tradition of American regional humor established by the southern literary realists found its most powerful
voice in the works of
A. William Gilmore Sims.
B. Johnson J. Hooper.
C. Joseph G. Baldwin.
D. Mark Twain.
E. Herman Melville.
D

41. Transcendentalists
A. rejected European intellectuals.
B. regarded reason to be the most important human faculty.
C. argued that emotional responses inhibited the internal development of individuals.
D. believed all individuals should develop their intellectualism.
E. argued for the liberating potential of “understanding.”
B

42. The transcendentalist writer Ralph Waldo Emerson
A. believed American thinkers should be allied with European intellectuals.
B. asserted that through nature, individuals could find personal fulfillment.
C. was a leading critic of the American political system.
D. asserted that organized religion served no useful purpose in society.
E. remained a deeply religious clergyman throughout his life.
B

3. The transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau
A. was more conventional in his thinking than Ralph Waldo Emerson.
B. felt every individual should balance society’s expectations with one’s own instincts.
C. argued that being part of society helped individuals to transcend their egotism.
D. established a college for transcendentalism at Walden Pond.
E. argued Americans had a moral right to disobey the laws of the United States.
E

44. The transcendentalist movement
A. anticipated the environmental protection movement of the twentieth century.
B. understood the interconnectedness of species.
C. made the first scientific studies on behalf of preserving the natural environment.
D. understood the interconnectedness of species and made the first scientific studies on behalf of preserving
the natural environment.
E. None of these answers is correct.
A

45. Who among the following was NOT a participant in American communal living?
A. Nathaniel Hawthorne
B. Walt Whitman
C. George Ripley
D. John Humphrey Noyes
E. Robert Owen
B

6. In redefining gender roles, the experimental 1840s Oneida Community
A. put women in charge of all major aspects of the community.
B. was a controversial experiment in “free love.”
C. demanded celibacy from all its participants.
D. carefully monitored sexual behavior to protect women.
E. put fathers in charge of child-rearing and taking care of the home.
D

47. Mormonism
A. believed in human perfectibility.
B. emphasized individual liberty.
C. was founded by Brigham Young.
D. began in the Midwest.
E. always rejected polygamy.
A

8. Nineteenth-century Protestant revivalists such as the New Light revivalists
A. sought to revive the ideals of Calvinism.
B. believed that no individual could control his or her personal salvation.
C. took the lead in the cause to end slavery.
D. formed a crusade against personal immorality.
E. believed temperance was detracting from other, loftier reform movements.
D

49. In the 1840s, the organized movement against drunkenness in the United States
A. linked alcohol to crime and poverty.
B. grew largely out of immigrant communities.
C. was actively opposed by a large majority of Americans.
D. remained a minor social movement.
E. spent much of its time and resources battling evangelical Protestants.
A

50. In the nineteenth century, cholera epidemics in the United States
A. were transmitted to humans by fleas living on rats.
B. led many cities to build water treatment facilities.
C. were diminished, as physicians gained a basic understanding of bacteria.
D. typically killed more than half of those who contracted the disease.
E. None of these answers is correct.
D

According to the nineteenth-century “science” of phrenology, what could be discerned from the shape of an
individual’s skull?
A. life expectancy
B. likelihood of succumbing to infectious diseases
C. future earning potential
D. chances of having children
E. character and intelligence
E

During he nineteenth century, the largest obstacle to improved medical care in America was the
A.absence of regulations in the medical profession. B.absence of basic knowledge about disease.
C.low social status of medical professionals. D.difficulty in medical experimentation.
E. apathy of the general population toward preventative health.
B

53. In the 1840s in the United States, an initial understanding of germ theory was developed by
A. Edward Jenner.
B. William Morton.
C. Oliver Wendell Holmes.
D. James Warren.
E. Ignaz Semmelweis.
C

54. Prior to 1860, public education in the United States
A. did not exist.
B. gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world.
C. was legally denied for all non-whites.
D. was funded by the federal government.
E. emphasized independence and creativity.
B

55. The nineteenth-century reformer Horace Mann believed that education should promote
A. capitalism.
B. democracy.
C. racial equality.
D. economic equality.
E. Christianity.
B

6. The Massachusetts reformer who built a national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill was
A. Susan B. Anthony.
B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
C. Lucretia Mott.
D. Angelina Grimké.
E. Dorothea Dix.
E

7. The nineteenth-century practice of placing American Indians on reservations was partially designed to
A. isolate and protect Indians from white society.
B. help “regenerate” the Indian.
C. allow Indians to develop to a point where they could assimilate into white society.
D. isolate and protect the Indians from white society, help “regenerate” them, and allow them to develop to a
point where they could assimilate into white society.
E. None of these answers is correct.
D

58. A catalyst for an American feminist movement was a London convention in 1840 that dealt with
A. woman suffrage.
B. prostitution.
C. abolition.
D. temperance.
E. prison reform.
C

59. Prior to the Civil War, the religious denomination most active in feminism was the
A. Baptists.
B. Quakers.
C. Presbyterians. D. Unitarians.
E. Methodists.
B

Which of the following nineteenth-century leaders is primarily known for her pioneering work in the American
feminist movement?
A. “Mother” Ann Lee
B. Harriet Tubman
C. Sojourner Truth
D. Rachel Eaton
E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
E

In the early nineteenth century, the American Colonization Society
A. was founded by white Virginians opposed to slavery.
B. called for an immediate end to slavery.
C. opposed the idea of compensation for owners who freed their slaves.
D. carried out a large-scale resettlement of freed slaves.
E. was strongly supported by American blacks.
A

The American Colonization Society helped to transport blacks from the United States to
A. the Caribbean.
B. Liberia.
C. Angola.
D. England.
E. Canada.
B

63. William Lloyd Garrison believed the abolitionist movement should
A. stress the damage that slavery did to blacks rather than to whites.
B. seek the gradual elimination of slavery.
C. demand freedom for slaves, but deny them citizenship.
D. organize slave rebellions throughout the American South.
E. join forces with the more established American Colonization Society.
A

64. Prior to the Civil War, free blacks in the North tended to be
A. deeply antagonistic to William Lloyd Garrison.
B. indifferent to slavery in the South.
C. anxious to leave the United States.
D. in favor of the “back to Africa” movements.
E. strongly opposed to southern slavery.
E

65. The black abolitionist who called for uncompromising opposition to and a violent overthrow of slavery in his 1829 An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World was
A. William Lloyd Garrison.
B. Frederick Douglass.
C. Elijah Lovejoy.
D. Benjamin Lundy.
E. David Walker.
E

FrederickDouglass
A. was born free but was sold into slavery as a youth.
B. wrote for William Lloyd Garrison’s abolitionist newspaper.
C. spent years lecturing in England against slavery.
D. was an ordained minister.
E. argued that blacks wanted only an end to slavery, and not full social equality.
C

67. In the 1840s, abolitionists in the United States constituted
A. a small percentage of the national population.
B. approximately one-quarter of the national population.
C. the majority of the population in the North.
D. the largest reform movement in the nation.
E. approximately one-third of the national population.
A

8. One leading abolitionist who was murdered for his activism was
A. William Lloyd Garrison.
B. Frederick Douglass.
C. Sojourner Truth.
D. Benjamin Lundy.
E. Elijah Lovejoy.
E

By 1830, texas
A. was an independent republic.
B. saw the United States unsuccessfully attempt to purchase it.
C. barred slavery within its borders.
D. had a population with more people from Mexico than from the United States.
E. still had no legal American settlements in its borders.
b

70. In the 1820s, most of the settlers from the United States who migrated to Texas were
A. white southerners and their slaves.
B. white northerners.
C. free blacks.
D. whites from the West.
E. recently-arrived European immigrants.
A

71. In the 1820s and 1830s, the government of Mexico
A. consistently opposed American immigration into Texas.
B. consistently favored American immigration into Texas.
C. remained noncommittal about American immigration into Texas.
D. moved from opposing to favoring American immigration into Texas.
E. moved from favoring to opposing American immigration into Texas.
E

72. In 1836, the Battle of the Alamo
A.saw the American garrison executed after it had surrendered.
B.saw the death of Davy Crockett.
C.began the Mexican War.
D.led Americans in Texas to proclaim their independence from Mexico.
E.was a surprising victory for American forces in Texas.
B

IN 1836, Texas did not immediately join the United States, because
A.Congress feared that giving statehood to Texas might lead to war with Mexico.
B.the American leadership in Texas delayed in applying for statehood.
C.President Andrew Jackson thought that action would add to sectional tensions. D.England had forged its own political ties to Texas.
E.Texas settlers overwhelmingly did not want to be part of the United States.
C

Before the early 1850s, Americans who traveled west on the overland trails were generally
A. relatively young people who traveled in family groups.
B. over the age of thirty.
C. from the eastern seaboard states.
D. wealthy.
E. domestic servants and prostitutes.
a

75. Which of the following towns served as a major departure point for migrants traveling west on the overland trails?
A. Independence, Missouri B. Cedar Rapids, Iowa
C. Ames, Iowa
D. St. Louis, Missouri
E. Kansas City, Missouri
a

76. The presidential election of 1844
A. was a contest between Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren.
B. was a contest between two solidly pro-expansionists.
C. was won by a Democrat.
D. saw a northerner win the presidency.
E. was primarily a referendum on the leadership of John Tyler.
c

in 1844, president James K polk supported the acquisition of
A.Oregon.
B.Texas.
C.Cuba.
D.Oregon and Texas.
E.Cuba and Texas.
D

78. As president, James K. Polk
A.declared war with Britain to resolve the Oregon dispute.
B.won congressional approval for the annexation of Texas.
C.convinced the British government to divide the Oregon territory at the 49th parallel.
D.declared war with Britain to resolve the Oregon dispute, and won congressional approval for the annexation of Texas.
E.None of these answers is correct.
C

IN 1845, the immediate cause of war with Mexico was
A.a border dispute.
B.tariffs.
C.Mexico’s debt to the United States.
D.the issue of slavery.
E.the Alamo.
A

80. The Mexican War resulted from
A. the United States provoking Mexico to fight.
B. Mexico provoking the United States to fight.
C. Texas citizens attacking Mexican forces.
D. Mexican forces attacking Americans in California.
E. Texas citizens staging an attack by Mexican forces.
A

81. During the Mexican War,
A. President Polk considered Zachary Taylor to be his closest ally in Mexico. B. President Polk personally plotted military strategy for the United States.
C. victory came more easily than President Polk had anticipated.
D. the actual fighting was confined to Texas and Mexico.
E. President Polk tried to placate Whigs by minimizing military offensives.
B

82. The key to victory for the United States in the Mexican War was
A. Zachary Taylor’s taking of Monterrey.
B. the Bear Flag Revolt in California.
C. Stephen Kearny’s capture of Santa Fe.
D. Winfield Scott’s seizure of Mexico City.
E. Nicholas Trist’s diplomatic maneuvering.
D

83. Under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States
A. officially acquired only Texas.
B. gave up rights to California (for a time) in exchange for New Mexico and Texas.
C. established an open border with Mexico.
D. established an American protectorate over Mexico.
E. agreed to pay millions to Mexico.
E

84. When President Polk received the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, he
A. readily accepted the treaty.
B. faced criticism for failing to acquire all of Mexico.
C. angrily claimed that Trist had violated his instructions.
D. made plans for a military occupation of Mexico City.
E. became concerned about the expansion of slavery into the new territories.
C

The Wilmot Proviso
A. banned all slavery west of the Mississippi River.
B. passed in the House and was signed into law.
C. overturned the Missouri Compromise.
D. was an appropriation to pay for peace with Mexico.
E. prohibited slavery in any land acquired from Mexico.
e

86. When it came to the issue of the extension of slavery, President James K. Polk favored extension of
A. the Missouri Compromise line.
B. popular sovereignty.
C. free soil.
D. abolitionism.
E. the Wilmot Proviso
a

7. In the California gold rush,
A. most of the participants were seasoned miners.
B. a majority of the participants found some quantities of gold.
C. upwards of 95 percent of the participants were white men.
D. few of the participants ended up staying in California.
E. Chinese immigrants who arrived were unable to find work.
c

88. As a result of the gold rush, by 1850 California
A. saw the social conditions of its Indian population improve.
B. had a large surplus of labor.
C. had a very diverse population.
D. had a population larger than any state in the Union.
E. became virulently antislavery.
c

in 1849,President Zachary Taylor favored admitting California
A. as a free state.
B.as a slave state.
C.with no determination on the issue of slavery.
D.as a territory.
E.as two separate states, one slave and one free.
A

The admission of California into the United States was a divisive national issue because
A. westerners in other territories believed they deserved statehood before California.
B. California’s entry would upset the nation’s numerical balance of free and slave states.
C. most Californians opposed entry into the United States.
D. California adopted a constitution that allowed slavery.
E. lawmakers believed California gold would upset the currency and cause inflation.
B

91. During the debate on the Compromise of 1850,
A. Daniel Webster managed to forge a successful compromise.
B. John C. Calhoun called for southern secession if California were admitted as a free state. C. Stephen A. Douglas stepped down as secretary of state.
D. Jefferson Davis resigned from the Senate.
E. President Zachary Taylor suddenly died.
E

92. The Compromise of 1850 allowed for the admission of California as a
A. slave state.
B. free state, along with a strengthened fugitive slave law.
C. slave state, along with an agreement to construct a transcontinental railroad.
D. free state, with the agreement that there would be no additional states added for ten years.
E. free state, along with Utah and New Mexico as slave states.
B

93. The passage of the Fugitive Slave Act
A. intensified the debate over slavery.
B. upset southerners as much as northerners.
C. was readily accepted by northerners in the spirit of compromise.
D. upset southerners as much as northerners, but was readily accepted by northerners in the spirit of
compromise.
E. None of these answers is correct.
A

4. In the election of 1852,
A. neither party endorsed the Compromise of 1850.
B. the Free-Soil Party gained strength.
C. the Democrats selected a war hero as their candidate.
D. the Whigs were united.
E. the Free-Soil Party endorsed the Compromise of 1850.
B

95. In the 1850s, in an effort to undercut the Fugitive Slave Act, some northern states
A. called for secession from the South.
B. proposed a national referendum on the slave issue.
C. passed laws preventing the deportation of fugitive slaves.
D. forbid fugitive slave hunters from traveling in their state.
E. began actively funding the underground railroad.
C

96. In the 1850s, the “Young America” movement
A. called for a national resolution of the slave controversy.
B. supported the expansion of American democracy throughout the world.
C. was promoted by Whigs.
D. called for a constitutional ban on slavery.
E. believed America should avoid the slavery controversy by limiting future expansion.
B

97. The 1854 Ostend Manifesto
A. enraged southern slave-owners.
B. was directed at limiting England’s influence in the Caribbean.
C. was part of an attempt by the United States to acquire Cuba.
D. saw several European powers denounce American slavery.
E. prohibited slavery in the Hawaiian Islands.
C

In the 1850s, the issue of slavery complicated the proposal to build a transcontinental railroad, as
A. it raised the question of whether or not slaves would be used as railroad labor.
B. non-slave-owning northerners and slave-owning southerners could not agree on a route.
C. British banks refused to help fund the project as long as slavery existed in the United States.
D. it raised the question of whether or not slaves would be used as railroad labor, and British banks refused
to help fund the projects as long as slavery existed in the U.S.
E. None of these answers is correct.
B

Which of the following statements regarding the Kansas Nebraska act is false?
A.it divided and destroyed the Whig Party.
B.It led to the creation of the Republican Party.
C.It created two new territories.
D.It explicitly repealed the Missouri Compromise.
E. It was sponsored by Henry Clay
E

The political party that came into being largely in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act was the
A. Republican Party.
B. Know-Nothings.
C. Populist Party.
D. Abolitionist Party.
E. Jayhawk Party.
A

.In the mid-1850s, the struggle over Kansas saw
A. President Franklin Pierce oppose pro-slavery settlers in the territory.
B. John Brown murder several pro-slavery settlers.
C. the Missouri legislature ban its own citizens from entering Kansas.
D. federal troops take military control of the region.
E. a large antislavery posse sack the pro-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas.
B

The 1856 beating of Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate
A. was in response to a pro-slavery speech he gave.
B. was a vicious assault carried out by a member of Congress.
C. was strongly condemned in the South.
D. resulted in Sumner’s death from his injuries weeks later.
E. All these answers are correct.
B

The free-soil ideology included
A. opposition to the expansion of slavery.
B. a call to end slavery in the United States as soon as possible.
C. the use of military force to suppress slavery.
D. the argument that slavery was tremendously harmful to American blacks.
E. an argument for black male suffrage.
A

Southern defenders of slavery made all of the following arguments EXCEPT that
A. southern slaves enjoyed better conditions than northern industrial workers.
B. blacks were inherently unfit to take care of themselves.
C. slavery allowed whites and blacks to live together peacefully.
D. black codes protected slaves from abuse.
E. the southern way of life was superior to any other in the world.
D

In The Pro-Slavery Argument (1837), John C. Calhoun stated that slavery was
A. likely to be adopted by non-slave states within fifty years.
B. a “necessary evil.”
C. a “positive good.”
D. likely to end in the United States within fifty years.
E. the “American way of life.”
C

106.The election of 1856 saw
A. no significant third party in the field.
B. the Whig Party make a strong comeback.
C. the Democrats elect a young and forceful pro-slavery leader.
D. former president Millard Fillmore in the running.
E. the Republicans run against the idea of internal improvements.
D

07.The Supreme Court held in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
A. that Scott must be freed under federal law.
B. slaves were property unless they moved to a free state.
C. states were not allowed to abolish slavery within their borders.
D. the freedom of a slave could not be purchased by a black person.
E. the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
E

The 1857 Lecompton (Kansas) constitution was
A. twice rejected by a majority of Kansas voters.
B. rejected, then approved by Kansas voters.
C. antislavery.
D. written by Stephen Douglas.
E. approved and later reaffirmed by Kansas voters.
a

n the 1858 Abraham Lincoln-Stephen Douglas debates,
A. Lincoln called for a full and immediate abolition of slavery.
B. Lincoln made his case so strongly that he was elected to the Senate.
C. the two men agreed that a civil war over slavery was inevitable.
D. Douglas asserted that slavery was legal but not immoral.
E. Lincoln argued slavery was a threat to the growth of free labor
E

During the 1858 Abraham Lincoln-Stephen Douglas debates, it became clear that Lincoln
A.believed slavery was morally wrong.
B.was not an abolitionist.
C. did not believe racial equality was feasible at the time.
D.believed slavery was morally wrong, but he was not an abolitionist and he did not believe racial equality was feasible at the time.
E. None of these answers is correct.
D

Following John Brown’s 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry, many southerners assumed
A. the raid was the isolated act of an antislavery fanatic.
B. the North was dominated by people intent on destroying the South.
C. northern politicians would use the raid as an excuse to further restrict slavery.
D. the abolitionist movement would shortly fall into disgrace.
E. his execution would put a stop to northern agitation over slavery once and for all.
B

.In the 1860 elections, the political party most deeply divided over slavery was the
A. Republican Party.
B. Whig Party.
C. Know-Nothing Party.
D. Constitutional Union Party.
E. Democratic Party.
E

113.The first state to secede from the Union in 1860 was
A. Alabama.
B. South Carolina.
C. Georgia.
D. Mississippi.
E. Virginia.
B

Fort Sumter surrendered on April 14, 1861, after
A. Confederate forces bombarded it.
B. President Lincoln chose to not resupply the fort.
C. southern soldiers occupied the fort.
D. the fort’s commander decided to join the Confederacy.
E. the Union commanding officer, Robert Anderson, was killed.
A

All of the following slave states remained in the Union EXCEPT
A. Kentucky. B. Arkansas. C. Maryland. D. Missouri. E. Delaware.
B

At the start of the Civil War,
A. the South had a massive reserve of cash.
B. the South had more combat-age males.
C. the South had more and better railroads.
D. the North was unified by a commitment to end slavery.
E. the North had a much more substantial economy.
E

Taxes enacted by the United States Congress to help finance the Civil War
A. were strongly supported by most citizens in the Union.
B. allowed the federal government to avoid incurring significant debt.
C. kept the sale of public bonds low.
D. included a new income tax.
E. were vetoed by President Lincoln.
D

118.During the Civil War, “greenbacks” issued by the federal government
A. steadily gained in value as the war progressed.
B. were backed by silver.
C. fluctuated in value depending on the fortunes of the northern armies.
D. were backed by gold.
E. were backed by gold and silver.
C

IN 1861,President Abraham Lincoln realized that volunteer state militias
A.would have to do the bulk of fighting for the Union.
B.could not wage an effective military campaign.
C.would provide all the military manpower the Union would require. D.could not be counted on to serve longer than three months.
E.would operate as a drag on the more efficient and experienced United States Army.
A

The Union’s national draft law
A. proved to be unnecessary in the war effort.
B. severely discouraged voluntary enlistment.
C. allowed no provisions for escaping service.
D. saw little in the way of opposition from the public.
E. resulted in murderous attacks in New York City against free blacks.
E

In his capacity as commander in chief, President Abraham Lincoln
A. argued it was essential that the laws of the Constitution be upheld during the war.
B. increased the size of the army without the approval of Congress.
C. quickly called on Congress to enact a naval blockade of the South.
D. moved cautiously in asserting his war powers.
E. waited for Congress to declare war before dispatching troops to the South.
B

122.In the North, the graphic photos of Civil War photographer Matthew Brady
A. contributed to widespread uprisings against the war.
B. were effective propaganda in support of the war.
C. were unpersuasive as tools of persuasion in favor of the war.
D. were less effective in gaining support for the war than propaganda used by the Confederates in the South.
E. contributed to massive enlistments among young men.
B

123.The Confiscation Act of 1861
A. saw the Confederate government claim the right to seize free blacks in the South.
B. gave Union troops the authority to seize Confederate property.
C. empowered banks in the Union to freeze the financial assets of all slaveholders.
D. declared that slaves used by Confederate states in the war effort were free.
E. abolished slavery in the District of Columbia and the western territories.
D

124.In the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham Lincoln declared freedom for slaves
A. in the parts of the Confederacy already under Union control.
B. in the slave states that had remained loyal to the Union.
C. that joined the Union military.
D. throughout all states that existed as part of the United States prior to the Civil War.
E. in the parts of the Confederacy still in rebellion.
E

125.The United States Sanitary Commission
A. was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
B. helped turn nursing into a female-dominated profession.
C. was welcomed by male doctors.
D. defied the traditional stereotype of women.
E. banned women from working in frontline field hospitals.
B

126.Politically, the Confederate constitution
A. was almost identical in many respects to the Constitution of the United States.
B. gave states the right to secede.
C. allowed states the right to abolish slavery.
D. gave the president and vice president four-year terms.
E. did not allow anti-secessionists to serve in the Confederate government.
A

7.The Confederacy financed its war effort primarily through
A. selling bonds.
B. printing money.
C. foreign loans.
D. an income tax.
E. seizure of northern assets.
B

128.Between 1861 and 1864, the cost of goods in the Confederacy rose
F. 200 percent.
G. 600 percent.
H. 1,000 percent.
I. 3,000 percent.
J. 9,000 percent.
J

IN THE SOUTH IN 1865,AS A A RESULT OF THE CIVIL WAR,
A.there were more women than men in most states.
B. large numbers of widowed southern women married Union soldiers. C.few women could find employment.
D.the traditional roles of women were reinforced and maintained.
E.women were granted the right to vote for their wartime service.
A

The most important Union military commander was
a. George McClellan.
b. Ulysses S. Grant.
c. Abraham Lincoln.
d. William Tecumseh Sherman.
e. George Meade.
C

President Abraham Lincoln believed the main objective of the Union armies was to
a. occupy Confederate territory.
b. free southern slaves.
c. destroy Confederate armies.
d. control Confederate ports.
e. capture Richmond.
C

132. General Ulysses S. Grant
a. did not agree with Abraham Lincoln’s general strategic objectives.
b. followed Winfield Scott as Lincoln’s military chief of staff.
c. believed the key to victory was to capture the Confederate capital.
d. was ultimately succeeded by Henry W. Halleck as chief of staff of the army.
e. thought the main Union effort should target enemy armies and resources.
E

133. As president, Jefferson Davis
a. deferred all major military strategy to Robert E. Lee.
b. created an effective central command system.
c. had virtually no knowledge at all of military tactics and strategy.
d. relied heavily on the advice of Braxton Bragg.
e. offered experienced military advice to his generals.
E

In the civil war, at lower levels of military command
A.northern and southern commanders had markedly different backgrounds.
B.amateur officers played important roles in both the Union and Confederate armies.
C.the professional officers on both sides were mostly Ivy League graduates.
D.amateur officers played important roles in both the Union and Confederate armies; and the professional officers on both sides were mostly Ivy League graduates.
E.None of these answers is correct.
B

135. In naval warfare during the Civil War,
a. the Union blockade of the South was largely ineffective.
b. the Confederacy managed to build a navy equal to that of the Union.
c. both the Union and Confederate militaries developed ironclads.
d. the Confederacy devastated Union fleets with ironclad warships.
e. the Confederacy managed to seize key Union ports such as Baltimore.
C

In the course of the civil war,
A.the ruling classes of England and France strongly opposed the Confederacy.
B.the English government consistently supported the Confederacy.
C.the French government formally recognized the Confederacy.
D. English textile workers thrown out of jobs came to resent and oppose the Union.
E popular support for the Union was strong in England.
e

In 1861, the so-called Trent affair
a. saw the capture of Union diplomats by the Confederate government.
b. created an international diplomatic crisis for Abraham Lincoln.
c. led England to form closer political ties with the Lincoln administration.
d. resulted in France recalling its ambassador from the United States.
e. was eventually resolved with an indirect apology by England.
B

During the Civil War, as a result of new technology in weapons,
a. infantry troops began to fight standing in line formations.
b. the Gatling gun became the primary combat weapon.
c. battlefields became more organized.
d. attention to defensive fortifications increased.
e. soldiers were forced to carry rudimentary gas masks.
D

139. Which of the following technologies was NOT a part of warfare during the Civil War?
a. hot-air balloons
b. repeating rifles
c. submarines
d. dynamite
e. torpedoes
D

During the Civil War, railroad transportation
a. encouraged smaller engagements with fewer troops.
b. acted to limit the mobility of armies.
c. forced commanders to organize their campaigns around topography.
d. both encouraged smaller engagements with fewer troops, and acted to limit the mobility of armies.
e. None of these answers is correct.
B

The U.S. Military Telegraph Corps was headed by Thomas Scott and what future tycoon?
a. John D. Rockefeller
b. Cornelius Vanderbilt
c. J. Pierpont Morgan
d. Jay Gould
e. Andrew Carnegie
E

In 1861, the First Battle of Manassas
a. saw a much larger Union force oppose Confederate troops.
b. was a victory for the Confederates.
c. ended in a stalemate.
d. was witnessed by President Lincoln.
e. proved a severe blow to Confederate morale.
B

The state that was admitted to the Union during the Civil War was
a. Iowa.
b. Minnesota.
c. Wisconsin.
d. West Virginia.
e. Nevada.
D

A major federal victory occurred in April 1862 when Union troops captured the city of
a. New Orleans.
b. Vicksburg.
c. Mobile.
d. Chattanooga.
e. Charleston.
A

By the end of 1862, Union forces
a. had made considerable progress in the West.
b. were having little success in the East.
c. had closed the mouth of the Mississippi to Confederate trade.
d. had both made considerable progress in the West, and closed the mouth of the Mississippi to Confederate
trade.
e. All these answers are correct.
E

146. The Peninsular campaign in 1862
a. saw General George McClellan plan an ambitious assault on Richmond.
b. was designed to circumvent Confederate defenses.
c. ultimately ended in a Union withdrawal back to northern Virginia.
d. was forced to set off with 30,000 less men than originally planned.
e. All these answers are correct.
E

. The Battle of Antietam in 1862
a. led President Abraham Lincoln to remove George McClellan from command.
b. was a significant Confederate victory.
c. saw Robert E. Lee field an army twice the size of the Union forces.
d. both saw Robert E. Lee field an army twice the size of the Union forces, and led President Abraham
Lincoln to remove George McClellan from command.
e. All these answers are correct.
A

The main reason the North made so little military progress in the first two years of the Civil War, despite all of its
advantages, was
a. the military stalemate.
b. the incompetency of Union generals.
c. thatitwasawarof attrition.
d. thatitwasawarof tactics.
e. thatitwasawarof military strategy.
C

The prominent commander who died in the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863 was
a. George McClellan.
b. Joseph Hooker.
c. Ambrose Burnside.
d. Thomas Jackson.
e. George Meade.
D

The Battle of Vicksburg in 1863
a. saw a quick Union victory.
b. allowed the North to split the Confederacy in two.
c. briefly revived the military hopes of the Confederacy.
d. was decided by a massive assault by Union troops.
e. put George McClellan back in good standing with President Lincoln.
B

1. As the Battle of Vicksburg was ending, another major battle was taking place in a. Shiloh.
b. Antietam.
c. Chickamauga. d. Atlanta.
e. Gettysburg.
E

The Battle of Gettysburg
a. represented the last time Confederate forces seriously threatened Union territory.
b. saw Union General George Meade lose nearly a third of his army.
c. saw Union General George Meade clearly be more aggressive than Robert E. Lee.
d. saw Robert E. Lee poised for victory after his attack on Cemetery Ridge.
e. was a Union victory, thanks to Meade having found a copy of Lee’s orders.
A

IN THE,Battle of Gettysburg, in order to reach dug-in Union forces, General George Pickett’s division had to cross an
A. an open field
B. a broad river.
C.a steep hill.
D.thick woods.
E. an abandoned town.
A

General Robert E. Lee first directly engaged General Ulysses S. Grant
a. at Gettysburg.
b. in the Wilderness campaign.
c. at Chickamauga.
d. at Vicksburg.
e. at Nashville.
B

In the inal days of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln
A.insisted that the Confederacy had no legal right to exist.
B.argued it best to readmit the Confederate states to the Union without condition.
C. called on the Confederacy to negotiate a peace treaty with the United States.
D.met with Jefferson Davis in Richmond, Virginia.
E. declared that the Confederate government must repudiate its constitution.
A

At the end of the Civil War, the number of slaves in the United States was
a. about 800,000.
b. about one million.
c. about two and a half million.
d. about three and a half million
e. almost six million.
D

In 1865, southern blacks defined “freedom” as
a. independence from white control.
b. acquiring the legal rights to live as did whites.
c. land reform.
d. independence from white control, and land reform.
e. All these answers are correct.
E

. In 1865, southern whites defined “freedom” as
a. the right to use federal assistance to recover from the Civil War.
b. controlling their future without northern interference.
c. the right of southern states to remain outside of the Union.
d. the removal of freed blacks from their states.
e. monetary compensation for lost slaves.
B

The Freedmen’s Bureau
a. distributed food to millions of former slaves.
b. pushed for voting rights for former male slaves.
c. gave forty acres of land and a mule to millions of former slaves.
d. was created to operate for only five years.
e. created millions of federal public works jobs for former slaves.
A

As Republicans planned for Reconstruction,
a. Conservatives sought many conditions to readmit the former Confederate states.
b. Radicals sought a range of punishments for white southerners.
c. President Lincoln suggested that no conditions be put on the former Confederate states.
d. no thought had been given to the task until the war had ended.
e. Moderates believed the South should be readmitted without any concessions on black rights.
B

In President Abraham Lincoln’s plan for the South, “10 percent” referred to the
a. area of land in each state that should be reserved for former slaves.
b. ratio of federal to state money to be spent in rebuilding the Southern economy.
c. ratio of federal troops to freed slaves in each Southern state.
d. percentage of freed slaves who must be given the vote before setting up a state government.
e. number of white voters required to take loyalty oaths before setting up a state government.
E

. The Wade-Davis Bill
a. essentially followed President Lincoln’s Reconstruction plans.
b. was criticized by Conservative Republicans for being too mild.
c. called for the disenfranchisement of leading Confederates.
d. denied reentry into the Union by former Confederate states for ten years.
e. quickly became the law of the land.
C

The assassination of President Abraham Lincoln
a. involved a larger conspiracy to kill other members of the administration.
b. saw John Wilkes Booth convicted of the murder of the president.
c. brought a Radical Republican to the presidency.
d. was intended to bring Andrew Johnson into the presidency.
e. had been planned at the highest levels of the Confederate government.
A

4. As president, Andrew Johnson
a. quickly sided with the Radical Republicans.
b. proposed delaying the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
c. long delayed in presenting his own plans for Reconstruction.
d. offered amnesty to Southerners who pledged their loyalty to the United States.
e. argued the South should be readmitted to the Union without conditions.
D

IN THE 1860’S, THE BLACK CODES WERE
A. holdovers from the antebellum era that were repealed by Southern state governments. B.passed by Congress to govern former Confederate states.
C. enacted by the Freedmen’s Bureau to give freed blacks voting rights.
D. vetoed by President Andrew Johnson.
E. designed to give whites control over freedmen.
E

The Fourteenth Amendment
a. ended slavery throughout the United States.
b. gave voting rights to all male Americans.
c. gave citizenship rights to all people born in the United States.
d. was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
e. was written in such a way as to appease the woman’s suffrage movement.
C

In 1867, congressional plans for Reconstruction
a. were rejected by every former Confederate state.
b. replaced federal military commanders in the South with civilian leaders.
c. granted forty acres of land to every adult male former slave.
d. required new state governments in the South to give voting rights to black males.
e. required that state legislatures ratify the Thirteenth Amendment.
D

. The Fifteenth Amendment dealt with the issue of
a. slavery.
b. citizenship.
c. cruel and unusual punishment.
d. income tax.
e. suffrage.
E

. As a result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in Ex parte Milligan, Radical Republicans
a. reduced the number of justices on the Court.
b. established military tribunals in additional Southern states.
c. proposed abolishing the Court.
d. tempered many of their Reconstruction plans.
e. ended military tribunals in favor of civil courts.
C

In 1868, President Andrew Johnson was impeached because he
a. violated the Tenure of Office Act.
b. offered political opposition to Radical Republicans.
c. dismissed Edwin Stanton from office.
d. both violated the Tenure of Office Act and dismissed Edwin Stanton from office.
e. All these answers are correct
E

At the conclusion of President Andrew Johnson’s impeachment trial,
a. a majority of Senators voted to acquit.
b. Johnson resigned from office just prior to the vote.
c. every Senate Republican voted to convict.
d. Johnson was convicted and then pardoned by the Senate.
e. Johnson was spared conviction by one vote.
E

During Reconstruction, the term scalawags referred to
a. Southern white Republicans.
b. free black Southerners.
c. Southerners who moved north.
d. white Southerners who still embraced their former affiliation with the Confederacy.
e. Northerners who moved south.
A

During Reconstruction, most “carpetbaggers” were
a. white Southerners who moved to the North.
b. freedmen who moved out of the South.
c. former confederates who moved to the West.
d. Northern white veterans who moved to the South.
e. Northern politicians who took offices in Southern states.
D

During Reconstruction, Southern African American officeholders
a. filled as many as five seats in the United States Senate.
b. were excluded from state constitutional conventions.
c. did not serve in the federal Congress or Senate.
d. rarely engaged in illegal political activities.
e. underrepresented the total number of blacks living in the South.
E

5. During Reconstruction, there was a dramatic improvement in Southern a. transportation.
b. education. c. industry.
d. banking.
e. agriculture.
B

During Reconstruction, the Southern school system
a. eventually reached 40 percent of all black children.
b. did not allow blacks to be teachers.
c. initially were not segregated.
d. only offered primary instruction.
e. barely reached any children of former slaves.
A

During Reconstruction, regarding land ownership in the South,
a. the Freedman’s Bureau distributed millions of acres of land to freedmen.
b. most plantations abandoned during the Civil War remained vacant.
c. ownership by both whites and blacks increased.
d. the federal government vigorously acted to confiscate land owned by former Confederates.
e. ownership by whites declined, while ownership by blacks increased.
E

Black sharecropping
A. represented a continuation of the pre-Civil War gang-labor system.
B. differed sharply from the tenant system.
C. usually led to economic independence.
D. was a very common occupation of former slaves.
E. involved close white supervision, which recalled the days of slavery.
D

During Reconstruction, per capita income for Southerners
a. rose for blacks.
b. rose for whites.
c. declined for whites.
d. rose for blacks and whites.
e. rose for blacks and declined for whites
E

. During Reconstruction, the black labor force worked
a. approximately the same number of hours as during slavery.
b. significantly fewer hours than had been the case during slavery.
c. more hours than had been the case during slavery.
d. significantly more hours than the white labor force.
e. significantly fewer hours than the white labor force.
B

After the Civil War, most poor rural Southerners relied on credit from
a. local banks.
b. the federal government.
c. Northern financial institutions.
d. country stores.
e. state governments.
D

In the south, the crop-lien system
A.encouraged the planting of cash crops.
B. nearly disappeared during Reconstruction.
C. led to crop diversification.
D. was generally imposed on blacks, but not on white farmers.
E. saw interest rates rise as high as 20 or 30 percent.
A

after the civi war, most southern black woman
A. did field work.
B. played a role in the family that was very different from that of white women.
C.engaged in income-producing activities.
D. did not hold a job outside the home.
E. still could not marry with any legal standing.
c

In 1868, Ulysses S. Grant
a. was nominated by both the Republican and Democratic parties.
b. won a huge victory.
c. entered the White House with no political experience.
d. relied on many of his former military advisors to join his administration.
e. ran against Republican Reconstruction policies.
C

The Panic of 1873
a. began after the Southern crop-lien system collapsed.
b. saw Republicans call on Grant to go off the gold standard.
c. saw President Grant favor putting more paper currency into circulation.
d. began after revelations of corruption in the Grant administration.
e. was the nation’s worst economic depression to that time.
E

During the Johnson administration, the United States acquired
a. Alaska.
b. Hawaii.
c. Guam.
d. the Virgin Islands.
e. Puerto Rico.
A

The most effective weapon used by Southern whites to undermine Reconstruction was
a. economic pressure.
b. preventing blacks from voting.
c. intimidation.
d. political action.
e. boycott.
A

Congressional passage of the Enforcement Acts in 1870-1871
a. was aimed at reducing white repression of blacks in the South.
b. was designed to support the Black Codes.
c. was vetoed by President Ulysses Grant.
d. gave legal protection to the Ku Klux Klan.
e. allowed white Southerners to maintain a police state.
A

The elections of 1876 saw
a. the Supreme Court decide the presidential election.
b. a Democrat become president for the first time since the Civil War.
c. the candidate with the most popular votes fail to get elected.
d. Ulysses Grant make an unsuccessful bid for an unprecedented third term.
e. the governor of New York become president.
C

Congressional Reconstruction might have been more effective if
a. the federal government had not involved itself with redistributing income.
b. the federal government had not passed the Enforcement Acts.
c. Radical Republicans had not put Jefferson Davis on trial for treason.
d. the Freedmen’s Bureau had been ended sooner.
e. the federal government had better enforced the laws designed to assist blacks.
E

After Reconstruction, political power under Southern “Redeemers”
A. was very often restricted and conservative.
B. typically relied on raising taxes for its funding.
C. increased state services for the poor.
D. ignored the interests of industrialists.
E. helped consolidate the “Solid South” for the Republican Party.
A

Advocates of the “New South”
a. opposed using Northern capital.
b. discouraged white women from working outside of the home.
c. promoted Southern industry and railroad development.
d. challenged the assumptions of white supremacy.
e. in fact advocated a return to the plantation system of the antebellum South.
C

IN THE SOUTH, DURING THE LAST QUARTER OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
A.The South’s share of national manufacturing doubled.
B. the South became more dependent on agriculture than ever.
C. per capita income fell sharply.
D. most industrial growth came from coal mining.
E. average income reached 80 percent of that in the North.
A

During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, Southern agriculture
a. saw a significant diversification of its crops.
b. saw a decline in absentee ownership of farmland.
c. regained the profitability it had prior to the Civil War.
d. saw a deceleration of the processes begun in the postwar years.
e. saw the great majority of farmers living under the tenant system.
E

Among his ideas, Booker T. Washington
a. rejected the ideology of the “New South creed.”
b. favored industrial over classical education.
c. called on the federal government to offer job training for blacks.
d. proposed an exodus of blacks from the South to the West.
e. argued that blacks spent too much time trying to impress the white middle class.
B

In his 1895 “Atlanta Compromise” speech, Booker T. Washington

A. called for political and civil rights for black Americans.
B. criticized the federal government for abandoning Southern blacks.
C. argued that blacks should honor their African forebears.
D. stated that blacks should give up in seeking equality with whites.
E. called for tacit acceptance of the emerging system of racial segregation.

E

The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that
a. communities could have schools for whites only if there were no schools for blacks.
b. the Fourteenth Amendment was unconstitutional.
c. racial segregation was legal if whites and blacks had equal “accommodations.”
d. private institutions were exempt from laws against racial discrimination.
e. segregation by race in education was inherently unconstitutional.
C

. In the 1890s, pressure in the South to restrict black voting rights came from

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A.poor white farmers.
B. wealthy southerners.
C. advocates of Jim Crow.
D. both poor white farmers and wealthy Southerners.
E. All these answers are correct.

E

Jim Crow laws
a. imposed a system of state-supported segregation.
b. attacked the problem of lynching.
c. led immediately to a dramatic black exodus from the South.
d. challenged white redeemer rule in the South.
e. did not apply to public parks, beaches, or picnic areas.
A

In the 1890s, the black journalist Ida B. Wells devoted her writing to attacking
A. the legality of segregation.
B. restrictions on black education.
C. the loss of black voting rights.
D. the crime of lynching.
E. the arguments of Booker T. Washington.
D

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