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Unwrapping the Gift-A Review Paper

Unwrapping the Gift-A Review

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Unwrapping the Gift

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Chapter 1

This chapter analyzes the great technological and structural advances the world and America in particular have undergone since ancient times. From Lewis and Clark’s exploration of Western U.S. and the challenges, they faced as they traveled around to the modern day technology that makes everything easier and faster. It evaluates the enormous strides man has made with the advancement of technology. It also highlights how technology poses new and even greater challenges to the society and social interaction. This chapter makes interesting observations on the way computers and general changes in technology have influenced both positively and negatively society, interactions and daily transactions. It also analyzes how different people have different views of technological change.

This chapter also cites some of the exemplary impacts of technological advancement. It summarizes some of the changes that have occurred because of technological advancement that we would not have previously enjoyed. Among the technologies cited, include cell phones their immense contributions to business, communication, and the downsides. Another significant technological change cited is social networking. The positive and social influences of social networking cites such as facebook are also highlighted in this section. Other significant technological milestones, themes of analysis and ethical issues that will form part of the rest of the book are summarized as the chapter ends.

Chapter 2

This chapter deals with the risks and principles related to privacy in matters regarding computers and technology. The author cites the new threats to privacy that result from improvements in technology. The chapter identifies several key aspects such as freedom from intrusion, integrity and confidentiality. This chapter identifies the benefits of privacy. It notes that complete privacy is impossible to achieve given the technology to which people are exposed. The capability of computer technology to allow the storage of large amounts of data and the subsequent vulnerability of computer databases are seen as the greatest threat to privacy. According to this chapter, there is a lot of risk that information being held in vast computer databases and websites can be accessed by unscrupulous individuals. This is especially true for people who store data in computers. This chapter also analyzes the threats to privacy made by individuals, the government, businesses and the rights of individuals as far as their private lives are concerned. The issues in this chapter are crucial in guarding privacy and identifying ways through which ones privacy can be violated.

Chapter 3

The third chapter analyzes the issues related to free expression especially with the advancement of computer technology. It is, in fact, an extensive examination of regulation, misuse of free speech and the influence on individuals’ expression ability. There is a wide approach to the issue of free speech regulation in the country. This chapter is an attempt to see how to transform regulations to cover the wide area of social networking and computer technologies. It analyzes what regulations consider as offensive and the impact of such on expression using computer technology.

This chapter, however, declines to explore the moral issues the information transferred in social computer aided communication. This is a good decision considering it is beyond the publications’ scope. These matters are analyzed through the descriptions given to them by regulatory bodies. The rest of the chapter analyzes how spam can constitute an abuse of free speech and ways to block spam messages. It also examines ways one can use to express their freedom of speech without violating that of another. In general, this chapter comprehensively examines how computers have revolutionized free speech issues. Computers have transformed how lawmakers view free speech issues and how individuals express their freedom on the web. This chapter enhances the understanding of these basic concepts.

Chapter 4

This chapter explores the implications of increased use of the computer on the protection of intellectual property. This issue features significantly in technological circles and audiences dealing with computer security. It contains an examination of copyrights, patents, and their importance in the protection of intellectual property. There are changes and advancements in copyright and patent technology that have incorporated the improvements in technology. Computers, for example, have made copyright protection difficult given the ease of information transfer. This chapter also provides a brief history on the development of protection and the challenges emerging because of digital communication. It provides an extensive and insightful exploration of copyrights and the ethics of copying copyrighted information.

One significant issue highlighted is the use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) software to protect intellectual property in the computer. It also mentions regulations targeting digital information protection such as The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). This law is a very crucial component of the intellectual property protection debate. The chapter also highlights some of the factors that need to be changed to cater for the protection of digital property. Important concepts such as the patenting of digital software and the identification of its importance form part of the rest of this chapter.

Chapter 5

Chapter five of this book focuses on the crimes made possible by computer technology. This chapter analyzes such crimes as hacking, theft of identity, credit card fraud and the laws governing the internet. Hacking is one of the most popular crimes committed by internet users every day. Hackers virtually make life in the internet difficult. This chapter addresses the challenges they pose to the effective use of computers as places for storing information. It analyzes the progress hacking has undergone over the years and its development into a criminal act. It also highlights the use of hacking as a political tool and its use for lobbying and research on internet security. Identity theft is one of the factors identified in the book as a prevalent internet crime. Their effect on internet users and government legislations and regulations to curb internet crime is discussed.

This chapter also identifies credit card fraud, and how the internet has made is possible for individuals to obtain crucial information on credit cards and illegally use them to purchase items. Lastly, this chapter examines the people responsible for a number of internet crimes and the influence they exert on other users. It also identifies the difficulti4es involved in regulating internet crimes. This chapter presents an extensive coverage of internet crime highlighting the key issues involved in combating them.

Chapter 6

This chapter addresses the changes that computer technology has brought upon the workplace. It examines its effects employment, communication and staff development and management. The book explains that computers have made the workplace more exploratory and captivating. The computer makes workers’ tasks simpler and adds more value to their product. In essence, this chapter acknowledges the positive impact computers have on the workplace. Among the important factors that this chapter has examined that play a critical role in the application of computers, in the workplace, is the perceived creation and destruction of employment associated with the use of computer technology.

The chapter examines the destruction of employment caused by the reduced need for workers brought about by introducing computers and the subsequent creation of more opportunities by computers. It also dispels the rumors that technology has led to lower earnings and cites other factors such as politics and the economy. Another factor that the chapter examines is the contribution of computer technology to workplace communication. It analyzes several new business processes that have emerged because of technology such as off-shoring, global businesses, outsourcing as well as working from remote areas. In addition to these factors, the chapter also identifies the challenges and disadvantages caused by these processes.

Chapter 7

This chapter concerns the evaluation and control of computer technology. It focuses on factors that involve analyzing the performance of computer technology and deciding on their appropriateness. The first aspect of computer evaluation involves deciding whether the information in the internet is credible. This is usually a very difficult task for internet users since there is a great deal of false information on the web. The author for instance cites Wikipedia as one of the unreliable information sites because of the editing freedom involved. The chapter also provides a systematic procedure that one can apply in validating information on the internet. This is especially important since everyone is vulnerable and the internet is increasingly becoming a popular source of information.

The computer evaluation models explained in the chapter are essential for both individuals and businesses wanting to access reliable information from the web. It examines the different ways these models can be validated and how one can make a smart decision on the kind of model to choose. The digital divide, a notion that explains the disparity in access to technology among different people and its transformation also forms part of the discussion in this chapter. It also assesses some of the views against the use of computer technology across different human factors. The last issue it addresses involves making the right decision on technological issues. The author leaves nothing to chance in this analysis.

Chapter 8

This chapter highlights some of the errors and failures most commonly identified with computer technologies. It is an identification of some of the salient errors and failures that computers all over the world are vulnerable. It is a fat that computers are error-prone and developing an entirely error-free programmed is virtually impossible. This chapter examines these shortcomings using examples from incidents that have been witnessed in the computer world. In addition to identifying these errors, the chapter also provides information valuable in identifying the kind of errors that are acceptable and those that are not.

Computers have different uses in different individuals thus categorizing errors according to different entities is vital in enhancing the understanding of these failures. Several case studies and reasons why these failures happen assist the reader and technology user in identifying the importance of verifying software and the negative impact of computer technology on an individual or business. This chapter also advances some advice on how to increase the reliability of computer technology to avert the crises caused by software and system malfunctions. In addition, it also analyzes the recurrent issue of whether to increase reliance on computers or man’s expertise. In another section the chapter, addresses regulations and laws regarding computer failures. The factors addressed in this chapter are critical in the understanding of errors and failures, in computer technology and how to rate them

Chapter 9

The last chapter of the book addresses the issue of ethics and the responsibility of computer professionals in providing secure and less error-prone to their customers. The issue of computer ethics in the advancement of computer technology is vital in ensuring safe professional practices. It also guides the use of computer technology by users and the relationship between the computer professional and their clients. These chapters also highlight some of the significant ethical issues that computer professionals have to take into consideration. It is necessary to note that computer professional must adhere to a special code of conduct in their proceedings. The codes guide these professionals in what they must do in the course of their practices. The computer profession is a wide field hence the different code as cited in the chapter. There is also an outline for analyzing specific ethics related scenarios provided in the chapter. It is an important platform in understanding how ethical issues affect the organization. The article provides several ethical cases that assist the audience in making several judgmental decisions as well as identifying several ethical aspects of computer technology. This chapter offers the audience an important insight into the ethical issues involved in the design and structure of computer programs, in institutions as well as at an individual level.

Summary

The video talks about the ethical risks of making choices. It states that there are two cases that justify actions that harm a few to protect the majority. It outlines the categorical and consequential reasons that guide such decisions. The video analyzes the decisions one makes and the reasoning behind them. According to the video, philosophy enslaves the mind and clouds judgments. It also examines the influence of people’s principles on the decisions they make. The video analyzes the Utilitarian moral theory and its effects on moral reasoning. It analyzes the issue of consequential moral reasoning highlighting some prominent examples such as the Queen Vs Dudley and Stephens and the moral reasoning behind the characters in that example. The video analyzes the two sides of the moral reasoning theories and the moral justification of the action taken and the victim’s rights the consequences notwithstanding. The film also analyzes the morality of cannibalism in view of the above case.

Question 1

Torturing a family member of a person who has planted a bomb somewhere within New York City, to compel the criminal to reveal the bomb’s location is quite right. In essence, and according to Utilitarianism, it is appropriate to reduce the amount of harm that might be caused by the bomb if it exploded in the next 24 hours. The choice to harm one person in order to save the lives of many more is a significant choice that has to be made. It is an important choice to make because whatever choice one makes it involves some harm. The choice that minimizes the harm caused is the best choice in this case. Therefore torturing the family member is the most beneficial choice.

Question 2

The choice to harm a small number of innocent people to save a larger number is a choice with which many people might not agree. The choice to murder a number of people is a decision to murder. Taking the lives of a number of people through choice is equivalent to murder. It goes against moral values to murder. There are, however, certain cases where it is permissible to murder for the greater good of the majority. The act of killing a few to save a larger number is justified by the necessity and the consequences. Thus, it is permissible in utilitarian thinking to take actions that will harm a few while protecting the majority from harm. The bottom line in this case is that the choice to harm a group for the sake of another is justified by the outcome of those actions.

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